# Ockham Alerting Service search results

Your search (art and science) matched 759 record(s). You can now save this link as an RSS feed, or you can email these search results.

1. Ecology Lesson Plans
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/ecol.html
• description - This webpage features lesson plans for studies related to ecology, and targets the K-12 audience. Examples include Pollution Solutions, which discusses the many factors that contribute to the pollution and destruction of water ecosystems, and Forest Food Webs, which teaches students how organisms in a temperate forest are dependent on one another for proper nutrition. Each lesson plan includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussions questions, and extended reading. Some include adaptations for older or younger audiences.
2. Art Images of Scientists (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)
• date - 2000-07-01
• creator - Roberta Johnson
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.windows.ucar.edu/art_and_music/people_art_archive.html
• description - This section of the Windows to the Universe website provides information and images about sculptures, paintings, drawings, and photographs of well-known scientists such as Archimedes, Aristotle, Copernicus, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Galileo, and Pythagoras. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging website that includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.
3. UCMP'S Tyrannosaurus Rex Exposition
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/trex/trexpo.html
• description - This site describes the skeleton of Tyrannosaurus rex at the University of California Museum of Paleontology and includes active links for more information. The first, Meet T. rex gives general information about the animal. The second link, Building T. rex, includes pictures of the actual construction of the skeleton. The third link contains children's art depicting various dinosaurs. The final link includes information on Tarbosaurus bataar, a close relative of T. rex.
4. Science Cabaret
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://bti.cornell.edu/scicab/
• description - This is the Science Cabaret Web site representing an event that occurs once a month at the Lost Dog Lounge in Ithaca, NY. Science Cabaret mixes science, art and audience participation in an exquisite cocktail. The event was inspired by the Cafe Scientifique movement which started in Europe in the late 1990s. Science Cabaret is sponsored by the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Reseach and is organized by local professors and graduate students from a wide range of scientific fields. The web site features links to articles about Science Cabaret offerings and links to more information about the events.
5. About the Bay: Bay Photos, Facts and Fun
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.chesapeakebay.net/info/kids/kids.cfm
• description - At this site, students can learn interesting Chesapeake Bay facts, send electronic greeting cards, see great bay photos, download desktop wallpaper for their computer, play games, and print coloring book pictures. Bay games include: a match game; sliding puzzles of sea urchins, blue crabs, or box turtles; word searches of fish and birds; and Fish Pieces, where students can help a striped bass who has fallen into pieces. In addition, there is information on the critter of the month and gyotaku, the Japanese art of fish painting. Other links lead to outside related sites concerning the bay.
6. ESA Kids
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.esa.int/esaKIDSen/index.html
• description - This is the kid's page of the European Space Agency (ESA). It contains an extensive selection of materials for younger students. The lab section contains activties, animations, and interactive maps. The fun section features games, an art gallery, quiz, coloring book, and downloads. The news section features articles on ESA's current activities. The site is available in a variety of languages.
7. Different understanding: science through the eyes of visual thinkers
• date - 2001-05-06
• creator - Sesko, S.C.; Marchant, M.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/641314-DvrvMr/webviewable/
• description - The objective of this emergent study was to follow the cognitive and creative processes demonstrated by five art student participants as they integrated a developing knowledge of big science, as practiced at the Department of Energys Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, into a personal and idiosyncratic visual, graphical, or multimedia product. The non-scientist participants involved in this process attended design classes sponsored by the Laboratory at the Art Center College of Design in California. The learning experience itself, and how the students arrived at their product, were the focus of the class and the research. The study was emergent in that we found no applicable literature on the use of art to portray a cognitive understanding of science. This lack of literature led us to the foundation literature on creativity and to the corpus of literature on public understanding of science. We believe that this study contributes to the literature on science education, art education, cognitive change, and public understanding of science. 20 refs., 11 figs.
8. IMAGE: Weekly Problem Archive
• date -
• creator - Sten Odenwald
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/weekly/weekly.html
• description - This is the Image for Magnetopause-to-Auroral Global Exploration (IMAGE) archive of weekly math, science, reading and art problems. New problems involving near-Earth space technology are emailed to participating teachers each week on Tuesday. The problems can be used in related lessons or as extra credit assignments. This web page is part of the outreach program of the IMAGE Satellite team to give teachers and students the latest information about aurora and the study of Earth's magnetic field, along with many programs that IMAGE has developed or participated in with NASA. A pdf document of extra credit problems is also available at this site.
9. Earthquake Research in the Satellite Age
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://earthbulletin.amnh.org/A/1/3/index.html
• description - This site explains why and how research is going forward on earthquake prediction. If we can understand earthquakes and figure out which areas are subject to seismic hazard, lives and property may be saved. A feature of this site is a supercomputer simulation that shows the pattern of location and intensity of Southern California earthquakes over a period of one thousand years. These simulations do not tell when or where earthquakes will happen but rather they demonstrate how the earthquakes behave and interact. In addition, this site has a detailed explanation of how the Global Positioning System (GPS) is being used to track the tectonic plates. As a result of the magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake that struck Southern California, a state-of-the-art earthquake monitoring system was installed. The centerpiece of this system is the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), an array of 250 Global Positioning System stations located throughout the region. SCIGN continually records the position of these GPS stations to monitor plate movement.
10. A Mystery of Space: Stars
• date - 1999
• creator - Josh Schwartzman
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://library.thinkquest.org/25763/index.htm
• description - This resource covers stars, the Sun, black holes, the Solar System, and cosmic phenomena. Users may choose between two different levels: one for kids 12 and under, and one for teachers and anyone over 13. The Galactic Glossary explains complicated space terms. There are six lesson plans, each of which encourage the Internet style of learning, and feature numerous hands-on activities. Three animated tutorials on supernovas, the life of a star, and the sun, offer students a fun way to learn about stars. The Gallery contains an art and picture post, a story and sighting post, a constellation myth post, and a constellation poll.
11. Earth's Waters: The Ocean Floor
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/earthswaters/
• description - This activity was designed to demonstrate the features of the ocean floor near a typical continent. It may be supported by the Ocean Floor segment of the video 'Earth's Waters,' but does not require it. As students complete this activity they will map the geography of the ocean floor, describe its topographic features, and compare the topography of the ocean floor to the topography of Earth above sea level. This activity has a list of objectives, a list of materials, detailed procedures, a vocabulary list, academic standards, and a three-point rubric to evaluate students' work during the lesson.
12. Earth's Changing Surface
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/earthssurface/
• description - This activity was designed to demonstrate how limestone caves are formed and are later decorated by speleothems. It may be supported by the Exploring Caves segment of the video 'Earth's Changing Surface,' but does not require it. As students complete this activity they will be able to explain how caves are formed, demonstrate how speleothems are formed, and describe the difference between stalactites and stalagmites. Provided are a list of objectives, a list of materials, detailed procedures, vocabulary, academic standards, and a three-point rubric to evaluate students' work during the lesson.
13. Turning the Tide on Trash: Marine Debris Curriculum
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.epa.gov/owow/OCPD/Marine/contents.html
• description - This curriculum provides instructional units on the issue of dumping waste into marine waters. Students will understand that debris dumped into the ocean and onto beaches has become more than an eysore and is having serious impacts on wildlife, the environment, and our economy. There are three units that cover characteristics and sources of debris, potential impacts, and information on developing solutions and spreading the word about this issue. It can be used as a stand-alone teaching tool, or individual activities may be used to supplement work in other subject areas. A glossary, list of additional resources, and a selection of clip art are also provided.
14. Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth
• date - 2000-03-01
• creator - Art Sussman
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.planetguide.net/
• description - This website complements the book "Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth" written by Dr. Art Sussman. The website includes animations, lesson plans and experiments that can be used in conjunction with the book. The number of items are continually being increased as a result of collaboration with K-12 teachers and field testing. It also includes the complete text of the first chapter which introduces systems thinking, Earth Systems Science, and the author's approach using three Earth Systems principles: 1) Earth is essentially a closed system for matter (Matter Cycles), 2) Earth is an open system for energy (Energy Flows), and 3) Earth is a networked system for life (Life Webs). Topics covered include systems thinking, the rock cycle, water cycle, carbon cycle, Earth's energy budget, greenhouse effect, biodiversity, ecosystems, extinction, ozone hole, loss of biodiversity, climate change, local environmental issues, conservation and renewable resources. The book and website are being used in middle school, high school, college, teacher preservice, and teacher inservice.
15. Difficulties of Turkish Science Gifted Teachers: Institutions of Science and Art Centers.
• date - 2005
• creator - Salih Ã‡epni
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=11344032&date=2005&volume=11&issue=1&spage=
• description - The purpose of this study is to determine the fundamental problems of science gifted teachers (SG/Ts) who teach Turkish gifted children (G/C) and compare it with the international milieu. Turkish G/C are taught in different educational contexts named â€œScience and Art Centersâ€� (SACs) in which better opportunities are presented for them. In this project, field observations were done at three of the SACs in Turkey - in Bayburt, Sinop, and Trabzon - and, semi-structured interviews were conducted with each of ten SG/Ts who work in these centers by one of the researchers. Data analysis showed that SG/Ts do not perceive their duties holistically and feel they need help with measurement and assessment techniques, modern learning theories, planning and implementation of a research project, questioning techniques and using laboratory-based methods for G/C. Moving from the research data, it is suggested that in service education courses, which include the above issues, should be organized for the SG/Ts and they should be encouraged to use an action research approach in teaching G/C in SACs.
16. Global Ocean Circulation
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.tsgc.utexas.edu/topex/ocean.html
• description - The Center for Space Research (CSR) and the Texas Space Grant Consortium are currently developing a comprehensive effort to disseminate meaningful data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite to the general population. This site explains how the satellite is able to monitor the changes in sea level and the ocean topography due to currents. Observations of ocean topography and knowledge of the Coriolis force permit scientists to map ocean currents using data from the satellite. The most recent El Ninos have been observed with unprecedented accuracy by this state of the art radar altimeter satellite.
17. Preserve a Snowflake
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/teacher/snowflake.htm
• description - In this activity, students capture snowflakes in a manner that preserves their shape. Afterwards, students can study the ice crystal shapes and then hang their snowflakes up as art. There is information about how snowflakes are formed and simple steps to conduct the activity.
18. Science/art - art/science: case studies of the development of a professional art product
• date - 2001-05-05
• creator - Sesko, S.C.; Marchant, M.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/493344-ZvAw0n/webviewable/
• description - Objective was to follow the cognitive and creative processes demonstrated by student research participants as they integrated a developing knowledge ofbig science, as practiced at LLNL, into a personal and idiosyncratic visual, graphical, or multimedia product. The participants, all non-scientists, involved in this process, attended a series of design classes, sponsored by LLNL at the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena CA. As a result of this study, we have become interested in the possibility of similar characteristics between scientists and artists. We have also become interested in the different processes that can be used to teach science to non-scientists, so that they are able to understand and portray scientific information.
19. Light Stick Chemistry: Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)
• date -
• creator - Michael DiSpezio
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.pbs.org/saf/1207/teaching/teaching3.htm
• description - This activity will offer students an introduction to chemiluminescence and bioluminescence, an opportunity to observe the effect of temperature on reaction, and an activity that integrates art and science. Students explore how the temperature of the chemicals that combine affects a chemiluminescent reaction. They will also learn that since solar radiation does not reach the ocean depths, the bottom of the deep ocean remains largely in complete darkness. However, certain animals in this extreme environment can generate bioluminescent light to communicate with each other and even to lure prey.
20. Water Pollution
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• description - This set of activities is designed to help students understand water pollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.
21. Northwest Weather Watch
• date -
• creator - Sue Palewicz
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www-k12.atmos.washington.edu/k12/modules/nw_wx_watch/index.html
• description - This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.
• date -
• creator - Lauret Savoy
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.beloit.edu/~SEPM/Time_and_Design/pattern_and_design.html
• description - This activity suggests that art is a fun way to encourage children to see the world around them and increase their visual awareness. Students observe natural objects like shells, rocks, minerals, and plants and notice that they have subtle and striking detail, regularity of pattern, texture, and shape. By exploring natural design, students will be encouraged to observe the natural world more closely and will begin to observe natural objects carefully and note intricate design and structure beyond surface form. In discussion, students will learn how patterns result from natural growth processes and land-shaping processes.
23. Pachamama: Our Earth, Our Future
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.unep.org/geo2000/pacha/contents.htm
• description - This section of the children's page of the United Nations Environmental Programme contains essays, poems, and art by young people from around the globe, with a focus on environmental preservation. In the 'Our Earth' section are works about pollution and problems with deforestation, biodiversity, and urbanization. The second section, 'Our Future', concentrates on what the future holds if no actions are taken. The final section is a call to action and is called 'What We Can Do'. There is also a list of contributors, a glossary, and a maze game that includes an interactive quiz. This material is also available as a book.
24. Sharpening Up The Science of Art' - An Interview with Anthony Freeman
• date - 2001-01-23
• creator - V. S. Ramachandran
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/408945.html
• description - Introduction Freeman: The article The Science of Art' by William Hirstein and yourself (Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1999) has proved one of the most stimulating ever published in JCS. Criticisms of it abound, so to focus your response I will put to you questions that summarize the chief points made by our formal commentators [see Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (6--7), 1999, and 7 (8--9), 2000] and also pick up other questions that are frequently asked about it. But first I should like to know what motivated you to write the paper --- and did you anticipate the reaction it would provoke? Ramachandran: We mainly did it for fun. Also we hoped the essay would serve to generate a useful dialogue between artists, neuroscientists, perceptual psychologists and art historians --- to bridge C.P. Snow's two cultures. The article was intended to be whimsical, provocative and slightly tongue-in-ch
25. Introduction to Spectroscopy
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/teachers/lessons/xray_spectra/background-spectroscopy.html
• description - Even though it is said to be a complex art, spectroscopy can be very useful in helping scientists understand how an object like a black hole, neutron star, or active galaxy is producing light, how fast it is moving, and even what elements it is made of. From spectral lines astronomers can determine not only the element, but the temperature and density of that element in the star. Emission lines can also tell us about the magnetic field of the star and how fast the material is moving, giving us information about stellar wind. The spectrum will give the information necessary to estimate the mass and size of the star system and the companion star. This site explains mechanisms by which an object like a star produces electromagnetic radiation, including continuum emission, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung, and compton scattering.
26. Two Sciences of Perception and Visual Art
• date - 2000-09-25
• creator - Erik Myin
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/411654.html
• description - Introduction to the Brussels Papers Two kinds of vision science are distinguished: a representational versus a nonrepresentational one. Seeing in the former is conceived of as creating an internal replica of the external world, while in the latter seeing is taken to be a process of active engagement with the environment. The potential of each theory for elucidating artistic creation and aesthetic appreciation is considered, necessarily involving some comments on visual consciousness. This discussion is intended as a background against which various themes of the papers light up. Representational Science of Vision In May 1999 a Cognitive Science Conference on Perception, Consciousness and Art' was organized at the Free University of Brussels (VUB). It consisted of two thematically overlapping parts, one on Perception and Consciousness' (see Myin (in press, b) and the other on Perception and Art'. The rationale for the conference was the enormous expansion i
27. Is the coast really toast? : a lesson about volcanoes, phase changes, and the art of estimation
• date - 2004
• creator - Julie Pett-Ridge
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://csip.cornell.edu/Curriculum_Resources/CSIP/Pett-Ridge/PettRidge.asp
• description - This activity mixes a suspenseful scene from a movie about a volcano with student formulated answers to open-ended questions about the validity of science. In the activity, students act as film consultants to determine if a massive lava flow could actually be stopped by water being sprayed onto it. Students apply their knowledge about heat to determine their answers. Links to student materials include a worksheet that presents known and unknown variables directly related to the film. An example of a known variable is the water flow rate from a fire truck, while an example of an unknown variable that students must figure out is the temperature of the water. In a pdf document, teachers can find additional information about a real-life attempt to slow the spread of lava from a volcano that erupted in Iceland. A Cornell Science Inquiry Partnerships Fellow created and piloted this activity. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
28. Searchopolis.com
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.searchopolis.com
• description - Searchopolis is the premiere education resource center for students, featuring a powerful filtered search engine, a directory of educational sites, reference tools, and other resources.
29. Philips 3T Intera Magnetic Resonance Imaging System and Upgrade of existing MRI equipment
• date - 2005-04-24
• creator - Evanochko, William T
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/834766-HLLgSg/webviewable/
• description - The objective of this proposal was twofold. First, upgrade existing MRI equipment, specifically a research 4.1T whole-body system. Second, purchase a clinical, state-of-the-art 3T MRI system tailored specifically to cardiovascular and neurological applications. This project was within the guidelines of ''Medical Applications and Measurement Science''. The goals were: [1] to develop beneficial applications of magnetic resonance imaging; [2] discover new applications of MR strategies for medical research; and [2] apply them for clinical diagnosis. Much of this proposal searched for breakthroughs in this noninvasive and nondestructive imaging technology. Finally, this proposal's activities focused on research in the basic science of chemistry, biochemistry, physics, and engineering as applied to bioengineering. The centerpiece of this grant was our 4.1T ultra-high field whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance system and the newly acquired state-of-the-art, heart and head dedicated 3T clinical MRI system. We have successfully upgraded the equipment for the 4.1T system so that it is now state-of-the-art with new gradient and radio frequency amplifiers. We also purchase a unique In Vivo EKG monitoring unit that will permit tracking clinical quality EKG signals while the patient is in a high field MR scanner. Important upgrades of a peripheral vascular coil and a state-of-the-art clinical workstation for processing complex heart images were implemented. The most recent acquisition was the purchase of a state-of-the-art Philips 3T Intera clinical MRI system. This system is unique in that the magnet is only 5 1/2 feet long compare to over 12 feet long magnet of our 4.1T MRI system. The 3T MRI system is fully functional and its use and applications are already greatly benefiting the UAB with 200-300 micron resolution brain images and diagnostic quality MR angiography of coronary arteries in less than 5 minutes.
30. KoriÅ¡Ä‡enje elektronskih izvora informacija u Biblioteci matice Srpske
• date - 2003-01-01
• creator - Klajn, Ivanka
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00001977/
• description - [Serbian abstract] Referalni centar (RC) Biblioteke Matice srpske (BMS) je u 2002. godini u moguÄ‡nosti da pruÅ¾a informacije iz sledeÄ‡ih baza podataka: 1. Science Ciation Index â€“ SCI (1945-2002) â€“ prirodne nauke, 2. Social Sciences Citation Index â€“ SSCI â€“ (1956-2002) â€“ druÅ¡tvene nauke i 3. Arts & Humanities Citation Index â€“ A&HCI (1975-1991, 2000-2002) â€“ umetnost i knjiÅ¾evnost. Bibliografske informacije se dobijaju od 1985. godine, ali su zapisi sa apstraktima radova na raspolaganju tek od 1992. godine. Ova tri Indeksa nauÄ�nih citata obuhvataju preko 8.400 vrhunskih, najcitiranijih Ä�asopisa u svetu. Mogu se pretraÅ¾ivati tematski i koristiti za ispitivanje citiranosti radova nauÄ�nika. Ove informacije dostupne su na kompakt diskovima, na Internetu (Web of Science) i u hostu DIALOG. BMS poseduje i veliki broj baza na kompakt diskovima (AGRIS, AGRIS/Caris, UNESCO Databases, FAO Documentation, INDEX Translationum, ProQuest Medical Library, itd.) DIALOG omoguÄ‡ava onlajn ulaz u milione dokumenata koji se nalaze u preko 450 baza podataka iz razliÄ�itih disciplina, a radi sa korisnicima non-stop. VeÄ‡ina informacija je do nivoa apstrakta mada postoje i baze sa punim tekstom. U toku 2002. godine BMS je dobila nekoliko baza sa punim tekstom na Internetu: eIFL, Idealibrary, ProQuest Medical Library, Link i Free Emerald. Nabavka primarnih dokumenata ide preko British Library Document Supply Centre,a porudÅ¾bina Ä�lanaka obavlja se elektronskim putem (ART â€“ Automated Request Transmission). Referalni centar Biblioteke Matice srpske pruÅ¾a usluge korisnicima Univerziteta u Novom Sadu, a saraÄ‘uje i sa mnogim korisnicima Å¡irom zemlje. [English abstract] The Referral center (RC) of the Matica Srpska Library (MSL) provides during 2002 information from the following databases: 1. Science Ciation Index â€“ SCI (1945-2002) â€“ for natural sciences, 2. Social Sciences Citation Index â€“ SSCI â€“ (1956-2002) â€“ for social sciences and 3. Arts & Humanities Citation Index â€“ A&HCI (1975-1991, 2000-2002) â€“ for art and literature. The bibliographic information is being obtained since 1985 but records with abstracts are available since 1992. The three science citation indexes cover over 8.400 prestigious and most cited world journals. They can be searched by subject and used for the examination of the researchers' impact factors. These information are accessible on CD-ROMs, Internet (Web of Science), and the DIALOG host. MSL owns many databases on CD-ROMs (AGRIS, AGRIS Caris, UNESCO Databases, FAO Doc
31. Why is the Sea Salty?
• date - 1998-01-01
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• description - This activity combines science and art to provide an understanding about why the sea is salty. Students will obseve how salt concentration increases in water and how the salt remains after the water evaporates. They will do a salt painting using water, salt, and food coloring to observe the evaporation process.
32. Call For Entries: Science & Engineering Visualization Challenge
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://content.nsdl.org/wbr/Issue.php?issue=70
• description - www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/events/sevcWhen the left brain collaborates with the right brain, science merges with art to enhance communication and understanding of research results- illustrating concepts, depicting phenomena, drawing conclusions. The National Science Foundation and Science, published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, invite you to participate in the annual Science and Engineering Visualization challenge. The competition recognizes scientists, engineers, visualization specialists and artists for producing or commissioning innovative work in visual communications. The entry Deadline is May 31, 2005. Awards Categories: Photos/Still Images, Illustration, Explanatory Graphics, Interactive Media, Non-interactive media. First place awards in each category will be published in the September 23, 2005 issue of Science and Science Online and displayed on the NSF web site.
33. Embark IEI Computer Science Research Achievement Award 2004 Tuesday 20th April 2004 Embark IEI Computer Science Research Achievement Award 2004
• date - 2004-06-11
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/644279.html
• description - The Institution of Engineers of Ireland is the largest professional body in Ireland with over 21,000 members. A vibrant, multidisciplinary body, IEI members come from all engineering disciplines across industry, public service, semi-state bodies and academic institutions. IEI actively promotes the art and science of engineering and represents the interests of the engineering profession. The Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering & Technology and The Institution of Engineers of Ireland expresses its appreciation to all participants in these awards and wishes their research endeavours every future success. IRCSET Tuesday, 20th April, 2004 2004 IRCSET The Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology operates under the auspices of the Department of Education and Science and is funded through the National Development Plan. Contents Patroklos G. Argyroudis 1 Tom Carchrae 3 Brian Carrig 4 Ray Carroll 5 Louise Connell 6 Conor Gildea 7 Thomas Keane 8 Shaun Mahony
34. From Whirlwinds to Whirligigs
• date - 2004-01-20T17:56:52Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.smm.org/sln/vollis/
• description - Learn how physics can help you make art with wind. Visit an outdoor gallery of wind-powered whirligigs, meet the artist, and browse links to all kinds of nice at-home activities on wind and motion.
35. Telling time
• date - 2002
• creator - Populizio Ivan
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=18242049&date=2002&volume=1&issue=2&spage=
• description - According to Einsteinâ€™s renowned declaration, for those who believe in physics â€“ or, more precisely, in its capability to offer a â€œscientificâ€� representation of the world â€“ the distinction between present, past and future is just â€œan illusion, though obstinateâ€�. If we consider an effective analogy by Mauro Dorato, we can state that those who agree with the famous German scientist will recognize in the present, past and future a relationship very similar to that between â€œhereâ€� and â€œsomewhere elseâ€� â€“ in other words, the present is just a located moment and has no privileged status. In other conceptual universes, some of which are explored by philosophy, or imagined by art, as well as in other scientific disciplines like biology, the need for a strong distinction between â€œwhat has happenedâ€�, â€œwhat will happenâ€� and â€œwhat is happeningâ€� seems to be unavoidable. At the macroscopic level of living beings there does not seem to be a way out of the â€œeternal presentâ€�, which cannot be escaped even by the desire of some well-developed mammals to understand reality or such an apparently primary experience as the â€œpassing of timeâ€�. Even the â€œtimelessâ€� description of reality offered by physics is immersed in time and changes with it. This paradox seems to contain the core of the irreducibility between two cultural constructions which we will be calling â€œthe time of the soulâ€� and â€œthe time of the worldâ€�, after Ricoeur. The main thesis of this essay is that there are two fundamentally different ways of facing the mystery of time, which have a precise relationship with the mentioned contrast between the subjective and the objective conception of time â€“ mental, qualitative and experienced in the first case; physical, quantitative and measurable in the second. Considering Ricoeurâ€™s research on time and stories, we can conclude that this dichotomy may give rise to another similarly radical difference between the two opposite options of inquiring and telling about the time. The first task has traditionally been dealt with by science and philosophy, the latter by art, in particular through the narrative imagination and the opportunity to create a story. To reach â€œobjectiveâ€� and verifiable knowledge, science and philosophy had to pay the price of denying,though not completely, time as experienced by people. Art, on the other hand, has been able to put into practice the opportunities offered by the unreality of the time told, thus offering a provisional solution â€“ poetic rather tha
36. Science into art: A study of the creative process
• date - 2001-05-05
• creator - Marchant, M.[Cosumnes River Coll., Folsom Lake Center, CA (United States)]; Sesko, S.C.[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/492012-v31t6u/webviewable/
• description - Objective was to examine the creative process, demonstrated by 5 student participants in a class at the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena CA, from the germ of the creative idea through the final creative product. The students, drawn from classes sponsored by LLNL, were assigned the problem of representingbig science, as practiced at LLNL, in a graphic, artistic, or multimedia product. As a result of this study, it was discovered that the process of creativity with these students was not linear in nature, nor did it strictly follow the traditional creativity 5-step schema of preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation, and elaboration. Of particular interest were several emergent themes of the creative process: spontaneous use of metaphor to describe the Laboratory; a general lack of interest inschool science or mathematics by the American art students; a well developed sense of conscience; and finally, the symbolism inherent in the repeated use of a single artistic element. This use of the circle revealed a continuity of thinking and design perhaps related to the idealistic bias mentioned above.
37. Concept Mapping: Soft Science or Hard Art?
• date -
• creator - William Trochim
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/research/epp2/epp2.htm
• description - In this paper the scientific side of concept mapping is viewed as "soft science" and the artistic one as "hard art" to imply that the process has some qualities of both, but probably does not fall exclusively within either's domain. In the spirit of hard art, a "gallery" of final concept maps from twenty projects is presented, partly to illustrate more examples of the process when used in a variety of subject areas and for different purposes, and partly for their aesthetic value alone. In the spirit of soft science, two major issues are considered. First, the evidence for the validity and reliability of concept mapping is introduced, along with some suggestions for further research which might be undertaken to examine those characteristics. Second, the role of concept mapping is discussed, with special emphasis on its use in a pattern matching framework. This document is intended for use by novice evaluators and professional evaluators in workshops and conferences.
38. Fractal Expressionism: Art About Science
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://content.nsdl.org/wbr/Issue.php?issue=69
• description - http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2005/0127artIntro.shtmlThe recent AAAS meeting in Washington D.C. packed almost everything about science into five short days, including art. A fractal is a geometric shape or curve that repeats itself irregularly, like a mountain range or a coastline. Columbian artist Mauricio ZÃ¡rate's paintings are often bright and dramatic, conveying a sense of dynamic growth and evolution. He classifies himself a "fractal expressionist," after the term coined by physicist Richard Taylor at the University of Oregon in Eugene. He explores the boundary between science, mathematics and art, appealing to the viewer's senses, emotions and intellect at once. "Evolutiva" featuring roughly 30 photographs and paintings will be on display through the end of April in the atrium and gallery at AAAS, 1200 New York Ave. NW in Washington.
39. Cost-Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa.
• date - 2005
• creator - Beck
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=15491277&date=2005&volume=3&issue=1&spage=e4
• description - BACKGROUND: Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Use and cost of services for 265 HIV-infected adults without AIDS (World Health Organization [WHO] stage 1, 2, or 3) and 27 with AIDS (WHO stage 4) receiving HAART between 1995 and 2000 in Cape Town were compared with HIV-infected controls matched for baseline WHO stage, CD4 count, age, and socioeconomic status, who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART; No-ART group). Costs of service provision (January 2004 prices, US$1 = 7.6 Rand) included local unit costs, and two scenarios for HAART prices for WHO recommended first-line regimens: scenario 1 used current South African public-sector ART drug prices of$730 per patient-year (PPY), whereas scenario 2 was based on the anticipated public-sector price for locally manufactured drug of $181 PPY. All analyses are presented in terms of patients without AIDS and patients with AIDS. For patients without AIDS, the mean number of inpatient days PPY was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-1.19) for the HAART group versus 3.73 (95% CI: 3.55-3.97) for the No-ART group, and 8.71 (95% CI: 8.40-9.03) versus 4.35 (95% CI: 4.12-5.61), respectively, for mean number of outpatient visits PPY. Average service provision PPY was$950 for the No-ART group versus $1,342 and$793 PPY for the HAART group for scenario 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG) was $1,622 for scenario 1 and$675 for scenario 2. For patients with AIDS, mean inpatients days PPY was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.63-2.52) for the HAART versus 15.36 (95% CI: 13.97-16.85) for the No-ART group. Mean outpatient visits PPY was 7.62 (95% CI: 6.81-8.49) compared with 6.60 (95% CI: 5.69-7.62) respectively. Average service provision PPY was $3,520 for the No-ART group versus$1,513 and $964 for the HAART group for scenario 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the incremental cost per LYG was cost saving for both scenarios. In a sensitivity analysis based on the lower (25%) and upper (75%) interquartile range survival percentiles, the incremental cost per LYG ranged from$1,557 to $1,772 for the group without AIDS and from cost saving to$111 for patients with AIDS. <br>CONCLUSION: HAART is a cost-effective intervention in South Africa, and cost saving when HAART prices are further reduced. Our
40. Clouds
• date - 1998-01-01
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• description - This lesson combines science, English and art to teach the students information about clouds and to encourage abstract thinking through writing and painting. Students will first read and discuss the information about clouds. Next, they will choose a type of cloud and write a composition about it. Then they do a painting of their cloud and attach their composition.
41. Windows to the Universe
• date - 1995-09-01
• creator - Roberta Johnson
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.windows.ucar.edu/
• description - Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration, and the human experience. Some of the main resource areas of the site are Our Planet, Our Solar System, The Universe, Myths, Art, Books and Films, Space Missions, People, Headline Universe, Cool Stuff, Data, Geology, Life, and Ask a Scientist. Each topic links to numerous facts, figures, and related sites. There are beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level. Multiple search engines allow the user to browse by keyword, by educational standards, and the Ask a Scientist archives. Special sections are reserved for kids, with games and fun activities, and teacher's resources, such as a workbook and lesson plans. Updates to Windows to the Universe occur on a regular basis, so resource users are invited to revisit the site regularly to see the resources grow and change.
42. Science and Technology Review December 2000
• date - 2003-02-03
• creator - de Pruneda, J.H.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/791645-8q843j/native/
• description - This issue contains the following articles: (1) ''Computational Know-How Advances Materials Science''. (2) ''Following Materials over Time and Space'' Large-scale simulations, performed over an enormous range of length and time scales, enable researchers to advance their understanding of material behavior. (3) ''The Art of Systems Science'' Systems scientists practice the multidisciplinary art of gathering information and constructing the systems models needed for informed decision making. (4) ''A Solution for Carbon Dioxide Overload''. (5) ''Preparing for Strong Earthquakes''.
43. Evolution of representation of the hands in plastic arts
• date - 2002
• creator - Sardenberg Trajano
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-78522002000300003
• description - The interaction between art and science was high during the Renaissance and it declined later to return significantly in the 20th century, mainly with the use of identification techniques, dating of art works and the development of new materials. The relationship between plastic arts and hand surgery is intense and artistic reproductions of hands are frequent in the illustration of scientific texts. With the objective of understanding the role of the hand in plastic arts, reproductions of works of art (sculptures and paintings) representative of several periods or styles in the history of art were analyzed emphasizing the study of the hands. Anatomical details, relationship with other structures of the human body, role in the composition and symbolic aspects of the hands were studied in historical and artistic contexts of art works in the Paleolithic period (pre-history) until the 20th century. The representation of the hands in plastic arts is directly related to the style or period of the work and to the individual ability of interpretation and execution by the artist.
44. Gifted science education in Turkey: Gifted teachers' selection, perspectives and needs
• date - 2003
• creator - Mehmet KÃœÃ‡ÃœK
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.ied.edu.hk/apfslt/v4_issue2/gokdere/index.htm
• description - The purpose of this study was to explore the fundamental problems that Turkish gifted science teachers encounter in the process of teaching gifted students. Three Science Art Centers (SACs) were visited and, semi structured interviews were conducted with all science teachers, (total fourteen). SACs are specifically for the education of gifted students in Turkey. It was found that on the whole, gifted science teachers perceive what their duties are. However there is a need for help with measurement and assessment techniques, updates on modern learning theories, the planning and implementation of research projects, questioning techniques and the use of laboratory approaches. It is suggested that in-service courses, which include the above topics, should be organized for the gifted science teachers, and the use of action research projects should be encouraged.
45. Planetariums / Amateur Astronomy
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.sciencefriday.com/pages/2002/Nov/hour1_112202.html
• description - This 47 minute radio broadcast discusses new planetarium shows and backyard astronomy. Planetariums are increasingly going digital, replacing those quaint sky tours of our elementary school field trips with slick productions that blend art and science into fantastic tours of the universe. The radio broadcast explains how to look at the real night sky and how amateur astronomers are contributing to the science. The show also gives some tips on buying telescopes.
46. Reintermediation in the Republic of Science: Moving from IP to IC
• date - 2003-01-01
• creator - Uhlir, Paul F.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00000817/
• description - Public research is largely an open, communitarian, and cooperative system. It is founded on freedom of inquiry, sharing of data, and full disclosure of results by scientists whose motivations are rooted primarily in intellectual curiosity, the desire to influence the thinking of others about the natural world, peer recognition for their achievements, and promotion of the public interest. Although this normative and value structure of public science predated the revolution in digitally networked technologies, it makes it ideally suited to experiment with and exploit those new technological capabilities, which themselves facilitate open, distributed, and cooperative uses of information. It is no coincidence, therefore, that the emergence and early institutionalization of many new paradigms of virtual knowledge-based communities and related information activities have occurred in public science. Examples include open journals, open archives, federated data management networks, community-based open peer review, collaboratories for virtual experiments, and virtual observatories, among others. Taken together, these emerging capabilities represent aspects of a broader trend toward both formal and informal peer production of information in a highly distributed, volunteer, and open environment. Such activities are based on principles that may be more accurately characterized as intellectual commons, rather than intellectual property, and that reflect the communitarian ethos of the republic of science. This presentation will describe several new models of information production, management, and dissemination in public science, and analyze some of the key factors and conditions for their success. The textual version of this presentation at the Conference "Open Access to Scientific and Technical Information: State of the Art and Future Trends" (Paris, 23-24 January 2003) was published with the title 'Re-intermediation in the Republic of Science: Moving from intellectual property to intellectual commons' in "Information Services and Use", vol. 23 (2003), issue 2-3, p. 63-66.
47. Once in a Blue Moon
• date - 1998-01-01
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• description - In this lesson, students will demonstrate an understanding of the moon's features by creating an art or writing project about it. They will learn the concept of a "Blue Moon", which occurs in months with two full moons. They will also understand that the moon is smaller than the Earth, has no light of its own, has no air or water, and has a dusty brown surface marked with craters.
48. Advances in welding science and technology
• date - 2001-05-03
• creator - David, S.A.; Babu, S.S.; Vitek, J.M.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/203418-w6rxoB/webviewable/
• description - Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based design of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes. In the last several decades, welding has evolved as an interdisciplinary activity requiring synthesis of knowledge from various disciplines and incorporating the most advanced tools of various basic applied sciences. A series of international conferences and other publications have covered the issues, current trends and directions in welding science and technology. In the last few decades, major progress has been made in (i) understanding physical processes in welding, (ii) characterization of microstructure and properties, and (iii) intelligent control and automation of welding. This paper describes some of these developments.
49. Environmental Kids Club
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.epa.gov/kids/index.htm
• description - The purpose of this Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website is for children to learn more about the environment and the ways they can help to protect it. Information on air, water, garbage, recycling, plants and animals, and Superfund are presented in an easy to understand and interactive format. There is an art room to make pictures, a game room with interactive games related to environmental topics, and a science room explaining how science works in our environment every day.
50. Challenger Center
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.challenger.org/
• description - The Challenger Center was founded by family members of the Challenger 51-L crew to continue the crew's educational mission to use students' natural enthusiasm for space to create innovative learning experiences. Teacher and community resources are available in the form of clip art, student activities, teacher workshops, electronic fieldtrips, and classroom programs pertaining to comets, Mars, the Moon, shuttles, the solar system, the international space station, and general space science.
51. Water on the Web
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://waterontheweb.org/index.html
• description - Water on the Web (WOW) offers unique opportunities for high school and first year college students to learn basic science through hands-on science activities, in the lab and in the field, and by working with state-of-the-art technologies. The primary goal of this site is to train students to understand and solve real-world environmental problems. Each lesson plan provides general direction for guiding students through the directed study and the inquiry approach. Students can also search the site for activity ideas based on the unit they are studying. Investigations and labs in this site cover water-related topics, such as: limnology, lake ecology, turbidity, water quality, pH, life, conductivity, geographic information systems (GIS), and the Minnesota lakes, which host Remote Underwater Sampling Stations (RUSS).
52. Essays of an Information Scientist, Vol:9, p.48, 1986
• date - 1999-10-01
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/515653.html
• description - Contents, #7, p.3-9, February 17, 1986 EUGENE GARFIELD INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION 3501 MARKET ST,PHILADELPHIA, PA 19104 Further Reflections on the Poetry-Science Connection Nmber 7 Most Current Contents (CC ) read- ers are absorbed in their own particular areas of research. I suspect that many of them, despite their willing immersion in their work, wish they had more time to consider and enjoy the philosophical and aesthetic aspects of science. In light of this, I am not surprised to learn that my essays on the connections between science and art are appreciated. When I discussed poetry and science,] mentioning such poets as Virgil, Shakespeare, and Walt Whitman, the response was remarkable. Readers also found it ex- citing to learn that many living scientists are accomplished poets. Indeed, after the essay was published, many readers wrote to me, sharing further examples of the poetry-science connection. I vowed that a follow-up discussion was definitely in order. My
53. Advances in welding science - a perspective
• date - 2005-06-23
• creator - David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]; Babu, S.S.; DebRoy, T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10118078-2po0XA/webviewable/
• description - The ultimate goal of welding technology is to improve the joint integrity and increase productivity. Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based tailoring of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes.
54. Leonardo
55. The state of the nursing science in Spain
• date - 2002
• creator - CamaÃ±o Puig RamÃ³n
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-11692002000200014
• description - This article is giving a historical perspective of the nursing science in Spain, comparing it with the situation of the science, and nursing science at international level. The author gave a very clear description of the state of the art, and the nursing outcome shared by Spanish authors with the rest of nursing scientific community, arriving to the conclusion that Spanish nursing is at the beginning of a process where, negative factors can be clearly identified and, potential measures to improve relatively easily nursing science can be taken in the short term.
56. Los Angeles River Tour
• date -
• creator - Kurt Ballash
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.lalc.k12.ca.us/target/units/river/tour/index.html
• description - This is a virtual tour of the Los Angeles River. Designed with the spirit of exploration, users are able to digitally navigate the river from the headwaters in the San Fernando Valley to the mouth of river in Long Beach, over 50 miles away. This is a descriptive tour, showing samples of the sights, plants, animals, architecture, and history along the way. There are twelve stopping points along the tour: Headwaters, First Channel, Convergence, Sepulveda Basin, Verdugo Wash, Los Feliz, Frogtown, Arroyo Seco fork, 4th Street Bridge, Rio Hondo fork, Lower river, and mouth of the river in Long Beach. At any point along the journey, it is possible to back up, or continue down the river. Additional links provide in depth information about the plants, animals, microorganisms, water quality, human impact, history, and art on the L.A. River.
57. Institutional plan FY 2004 - FY 2008.
• date - 2005-03-13
• creator - Beggs, S. D.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/823335-mMPuWx/native/
• description - Argonne's mission is to serve DOE and national security by advancing the frontiers of knowledge, by creating and operating forefront scientific user facilities, and by providing innovative and effective approaches and solutions to energy, environmental, and security challenges to national and global well-being, in the near and long term, as a contributing member of the DOE laboratory system. We contribute significantly to DOE's mission in science, energy resources, environmental stewardship, and national security, with lead roles in the areas of science, operation of scientific facilities, and energy. In accomplishing our mission, we partner with DOE, other federal laboratories and agencies, the academic community, and the private sector. Argonne is pursuing ten visionary strategic goals to deliver extraordinary science and technology with significant value to the nation: (1) Develop the technologies and infrastructure needed to produce, store, and distribute hydrogen fuel. (2) Close the nuclear fuel cycle, reducing the cost of nuclear waste disposal by billions of dollars and disposing of weapons-grade plutonium and actinides. (3) Develop advanced nuclear power technologies that are safe, economical, proliferation-resistant, and environmentally sustainable. (4) Plan, design, construct, and operate the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) and make fundamental discoveries in nuclear physics and astrophysics. (5) Construct and operate the Center for Nanoscale Materials and create innovative materials with valuable commercial properties. (6) Lead the Genomes to Life team that focuses on protein production and related proteomics; implement computational biology to build fundamental understanding of living systems. (7) Realize the full potential of scientific simulation to solve mission-related problems, through leading-edge research on systems architecture and software, parallel programming and numerical tools, distributed computing, and computational science applications. (8) Establish a new associate laboratory directorate in national security to deliver technologies and analyses for the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, and the U.S. intelligence community. (9) Make major contributions to environmental research, taking full advantage of our state-of-the-art facilities and tools. (10) Optimize the operation of our national user facilities to perform research in fundamental science and other areas.
58. Summative Evaluation. Teacher's Domain: Physical Science. A Web Site Containing a Digital Library/Repository of Contextualized Teaching and Learning Resources
• date - 2004-09-01
• creator - Johnson, Art
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/697/
• description - This abstract is an excerpt from the Executive Summary of the Report: "The general goals for this summative evaluation study are twofold. One goal is to inform our understanding about the impact that use of project support materials (e.g., lesson plans) has on teaching. Consequently, research efforts were made to assess teachersâ€™ use of the site and changes in their instructional strategies, if any, as the result of having the project support materials available for lesson planning and instruction. A second goal is to determine the impact of the Teachersâ€™ Domain: Physical Science features and resource material on student learning of science as described in the National Science Education Standards in the areas of physical science content and process. Toward these ends, both descriptive and explanatory findings are reported. The researcher looked for patterns in the quantitative and qualitative data to explain the effective and ineffective aspects of the Web site. Credibility of findings were established through triangulation of methods. Communication between the evaluator and project staff took place at the outset of research in order to review developments and agree upon specific evaluation issues." The comprehensive evaluation is 111 (88 numbered) pages long and besides a summary of results also contains respondents actual comments.
59. DOE Office of Science Funded Basic Research at NREL that Impacts Photovoltaic Technologies
• date - 2006-01-09
• creator - Deb, S. K.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/860940-igGgcj/
• description - The DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, supports a number of basic research projects in materials, chemicals, and biosciences at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that impact several renewable energy technologies, including photovoltaics (PV). The goal of the Material Sciences projects is to study the structural, optical, electrical, and defect properties of semiconductors and related materials using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Specific projects involving PV include: ordering in III-V semiconductors, isoelectronic co-doping, doping bottlenecks in semiconductors, solid-state theory, and computational science. The goal of the Chemical Sciences projects is to advance the fundamental understanding of the relevant science involving materials, photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, nanoscale chemistry, and catalysis that support solar photochemical conversion technologies. Specific projects relating to PV include: dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, semiconductor nanostructures, and molecular semiconductors. This presentation will give an overview of some of the major accomplishments of these projects.
60. Visual Data Exploration and Analysis - Report on the Visualization Breakout Session of the SCaLeS Workshop
• date - 2003-10-13
• creator - Bethel, E. Wes; Frank, Randy; Fulcomer, Sam; Hansen, Chuck; Joy, Ken; Kohl, Jim; Middleton, Don
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/815467-YPbDt5/native/
• description - Scientific visualization is the transformation of abstract information into images, and it plays an integral role in the scientific process by facilitating insight into observed or simulated phenomena. Visualization as a discipline spans many research areas from computer science, cognitive psychology and even art. Yet the most successful visualization applications are created when close synergistic interactions with domain scientists are part of the algorithmic design and implementation process, leading to visual representations with clear scientific meaning. Visualization is used to explore, to debug, to gain understanding, and as an analysis tool. Visualization is literally everywhere--images are present in this report, on television, on the web, in books and magazines--the common theme is the ability to present information visually that is rapidly assimilated by human observers, and transformed into understanding or insight. As an indispensable part a modern science laboratory, visualization is akin to the biologist's microscope or the electrical engineer's oscilloscope. Whereas the microscope is limited to small specimens or use of optics to focus light, the power of scientific visualization is virtually limitless: visualization provides the means to examine data that can be at galactic or atomic scales, or at any size in between. Unlike the traditional scientific tools for visual inspection, visualization offers the means to ''see the unseeable.'' Trends in demographics or changes in levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} as a function of greenhouse gas emissions are familiar examples of such unseeable phenomena. Over time, visualization techniques evolve in response to scientific need. Each scientific discipline has its ''own language,'' verbal and visual, used for communication. The visual language for depicting electrical circuits is much different than the visual language for depicting theoretical molecules or trends in the stock market. There is no ''one visualization too'' that can serve as a panacea for all science disciplines. Instead, visualization researchers work hand in hand with domain scientists as part of the scientific research process to define, create, adapt and refine software that ''speaks the visual language'' of each scientific domain.
61. Hierarchical Clustering with ART Neural Networks
• date - 1994-05-27
• creator - G. Bartfai
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/29007.html
• description - This paper introduces the concept of a modular neural network structure, which is capable of clustering input patterns through unsupervised learning, and representing a self-consistent hierarchy of clusters at several levels of specificity. In particular, we use the ART neural network as a building block, and name our architecture SMART (for Self-consistent Modular ART). We also show some experimental results for "proof-of-concept" using the ARTMAP network, that can be seen as an implementation of a two-level SMART network. Publishing Information This paper is to appear in Proceedings of IEEE World Conference on Computational Intelligence, 1994 (WCCI'94), Orlando, Florida. Author Information Guszti Bartfai is with the Department of Computer Science, and his e-mail address is guszti@comp.vuw.ac.nz 1 Introduction The ability to learn about the environment without a teacher has long been considered an important characteristic of intelligent systems. Unsupervised learning can be fo...
62. Report on the workshop for potential users of the Argonne Linear Free-Electron Laser Facility (ALFF).
• date - 2004-05-31
• creator - Kim, K. J.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/823333-T29eSP/native/
• description - On October 30-31, 2003 over 60 scientists gathered at ANL to discuss potential science that could be done with a fully operational user facility dedicated to delivering widely tunable, short pulse, high peak power vacuum ultraviolet light. The charge given to the workshop by J. Murray Gibson, ANL Associate Lab Director for the Advanced Photon Source, included the following two points: (1) What are the scientifically important experiments that can only be done with the proposed ALFF facility? (2) Are the combined ALFF characteristics of pulse energy, tunability, pulse length, and coherence sufficiently unique to justify establishing a user facility at this time? To fulfill this two-point charge, special emphasis was placed by the workshop committee on two goals. First, scientists were invited who work in areas where the lack of powerful, tunable VUV is a limitation to speak about their current research and to speculate on the science that would be uniquely possible with the ALFF. Second, while many of the same scientists have expertise in using lasers and other VUV sources, it was considered crucial to invite scientists explicitly working on the development of tabletop VUV systems. In addition to addressing the second charge question, the purpose of inviting people with expertise in VUV source development was to raise awareness of the state of the art in tabletop VUV and soft x-ray sources, and to provide a discussion on potential combinations of FEL and tabletop sources (for example, in seeding and pump-probe arrangements). This report briefly summarizes the talks presented at this workshop and highlights some of the user needs that this facility can fulfill. The full presentations may be accessed online at www.aps.anl.gov/conferences/ALFFworkshop. The workshop was organized around four working groups to focus the discussions among scientists with similar backgrounds. These groups were: Atomic, Molecular, Optical (AMO) and Chemical Physics;. Cosmochemistry and Geochemistry; Materials Science; and Biology and Environmental Science. A plenary session included a background talk on the LEUTL followed by a lecture from one scientist in each of these areas. The background, presented by Steve Milton, delineated the existing FEL capabilities as well as the nature of the proposed upgrade, specifically the interleaving operations that will allow for a large number of user beam hours, similar to the level that the APS storage ring users now enjoy. A higher repetition
63. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico
• date - 2004-10-04
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/823495-1KyDOH/native/
• description - In 1999, the United States government announced the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) that included a proposal directed at doubling the nation's investment in nanotechnology to ensure the United States' competitive position in the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. As part of the NNI, the National Science and Technology Council Interagency Working Group on Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (IWGN) concluded that research centers would permit activities that cannot be accomplished in the traditional mode of small groups or single investigators or with the current research infrastructure. The IWGN recognized the importance of establishing research centers with major Department of Energy (DOE) specialized and user facilities. Consequently, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) plans to support the NNI, in part, through the establishment of an integrated national program of Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRC) affiliated with major facilities at DOE's national laboratories. Specific objectives of the NSRCs are to accomplish the following: (1) Advance the fundamental understanding and control of materials at the nanoscale regime; (2) Provide an environment to support research of a scope, complexity, and disciplinary breadth not possible under traditional investigator or small group efforts; (3) Provide the foundation for the development of nanotechnologies important to the DOE; (4) Provide state-of-the-art equipment to in-house laboratory, university, and industry researchers and optimize the use of national user facilities for materials characterization employing electrons, photons, and neutrons; (5) Provide a formal mechanism for both short- and long-term collaborations and partnerships among DOE laboratory, academic, and industrial researchers; and (6) Provide training for graduate students and postdoctoral associates in interdisciplinary nanoscale science, engineering, and technology research.
64. Laser Science and Technology Program Annual Report-2002 NIF Programs Directorate
• date - 2004-06-14
• creator - Hackel, L; Chen, H L
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15007479-Xw52cr/native/
• description - The Laser Science and Technology (LS&T) Program's mission is to develop advanced lasers, optics, materials technologies, and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the nation and the Laboratory. A top, near-term priority is to provide technical support in the deployment and upgrade of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our other program activities synergistically develop technologies that are consistent with the goals of the NIF Directorate and develop state-of-the-art capabilities. The primary objectives of LS&T activities in 2002 have been fourfold--(a) to support deployment of hardware and to enhance laser and optics performance for NIF, (b) to develop high-energy petawatt laser science and technology for the Department of Energy (DOE), (c) to develop advanced solid-state laser systems and optical components for the Department of Defense (DoD), and (d) to invent, develop, and deliver improved concepts and hardware for other government agencies and industry. LS&T activities during 2002 focused on seven major areas: (1) NIF Project-LS&T led major advances in the deployment of NIF Final Optics Assembly (FOA) and the development of 30.1 optics processing and treatment technologies to enhance NIF's operations and performance capabilities. (2) Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP)-LS&T personnel continued development of ultrashort-pulse lasers and high-power, large-aperture optics for applications in SSP, extreme-field science and national defense. To enhance the high-energy petawatt (HEPW) capability in NIF, LS&T continued development of advanced compressor-grating and front-end laser technologies utilizing optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). (3) High-energy-density physics and inertial fusion energy-LS&T continued development of kW- to MW-class, diode-pumped, solid-state laser (DPSSL). (4) Department of Defense (DoD)-LS&T continued development of a 100 kw-class solid-state heat-capacity laser (SSHCL) for missile defense. (5) Nuclear energy applications-LS&T continued to develop laser-shock peening technology to improve the service lifetime of metal nuclear waste containment canisters designed for DOES Yucca Mountain Project. (6) Materials processing-Under cooperative research and development agreements (CRADA) with U.S. industry, LS&T developed and delivered kW-class solid-state lasers for shock peening and hole drilling of metals. (7) Diffractive optics for space telescopes and petawatt lasers-LS&T
65. Science and Technology review: The search for mutagens from cooked foods
• date - 2001-05-03
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/91966-PcJlan/webviewable/
• description - This past year and a half has been one of the most unsettled periods in the history of the Livermore Laboratory. Our laboratory, like all federal laboratories, has felt the winds of change from Washington. Various committees are questioning the way in which the federal government supports scientific research and the appropriateness of certain to programs. Science and Technology Review is one of the principal mechanisms by which we inform and educate a broad readership about our research programs and accomplishments. Much of the Laboratorys research is at the cutting edge of science and technology, making it particularly challenging to describe state-of-the-art accomplishments and their significance in widely understood terms. Our goal is that the articles presented here represent the full range of projects at Livermore and convey the challenge and excitement of working at the frontiers of science and technology.
66. Soil Genesis and Geomorphology
• date -
• creator - Art Bettis
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.uiowa.edu/~c012136/index.html
• description - This website houses the syllabus and reading list for an intermediate soil science class. The class objective is for students to gain a basic understanding of soil forming processes and relationships among soils and other Earth systems. By the end of the course, students should be able to undertake basic field description of soils, interpret the environmental history recorded in soil profiles, and acquire/gain an appreciation for the role of soils in the environment. Resource users will enjoy an extensive bibliography and a set of useful web links.
67. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Therapy Interruption in Chronic HIV-1 Infection
• date - 2004
• creator - Montaner Luis J
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=15491277&date=2004&volume=1&issue=3&spage=
• description - <sec id="st1"> <title>Background</title> <p>Approaches to limiting exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs are an active area of HIV therapy research. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a randomized, open-label, single-center study of the immune, viral, and safety outcomes of structured therapy interruptions (TIs) in patients with chronically suppressed HIV-1 infection as compared to equal follow-up of patients on continuous therapy and including a final therapy interruption in both arms.</p> <sec id="st2"> <title>Methods and Findings</title> <p>Forty-two chronically HIV-infected patients on suppressive ART with CD4 counts higher than 400 were randomized 1:1 to either (1) three successive fixed TIs of 2, 4, and 6 wk, with intervening resumption of therapy with resuppression for 4 wk before subsequent interruption, or (2) 40 wk of continuous therapy, with a final open-ended TI in both treatment groups. Main outcome was analysis of the time to viral rebound (>5,000 copies/ml) during the open-ended TI. Secondary outcomes included study-defined safety criteria, viral resistance, therapy failure, and retention of immune reconstitution.</p> <p>There was no difference between the groups in time to viral rebound during the open-ended TI (continuous therapy/single TI, median [interquartile range] = 4 [<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="pmed-0010064-b01">1</xref>-<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="pmed-0010064-b08">8</xref>] wk, <italic>n</italic> = 21; repeated TI, median [interquartile range] = 5 [<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="pmed-0010064-b04">4</xref>-<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="pmed-0010064-b08">8</xref>] wk, <italic>n</italic> = 21; <italic>p</italic> = 0.36). No differences in study-related adverse events, viral set point at 12 or 20 wk of open-ended interruption, viral resistance or therapy failure, retention of CD4 T cell numbers on ART, or retention of lymphoproliferative recall antigen responses were noted between groups. Importantly, resistance detected shortly after initial viremia following the open-ended TI did not result in a lack of resuppression to less than 50 copies/ml after reinitiation of the same drug regimen.</p> <sec id="st3"> <title>Conclusion</title> <p>Cycles of 2- to 6-wk time-fixed TIs in patients with suppressed HIV infection failed to confer a clinically significant benefit with regard to viral suppression off ART. Also, secondary analysis showed no difference between the two strategies in terms of safety, retention of immune reconstitution
68. Earthquake Prediction: Art or Science?
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.pulseplanet.com/archive/Jul04/3228.html
• description - In this two-minute sound segment, a NASA physicist discusses earthquake prediction. She explains that earthquakes are a consequence of complex nonlinear physics in the Earth, and as such, it is difficult to make a prediction with any certainty. She cites the one successful story about an earthquake in China which was predicted by intense observation of many different phenomena occurring in a certain region near a fault, including levels of water in wells changing rapidly and even such things as animal behavior. She adds that shortly thereafter there was another very devastating earthquake that occurred, killing hundreds of thousands of people, and this one was not predicted. So, this method, while it did have one success, is also fraught with peril. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.
69. Voyage of Discovery for Middle and High School Earth Science Teachers
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://content.nsdl.org/wbr/Issue.php?issue=47
• description - February 2004 -- A two-week summer workshop at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California is open to middle and high school teachers who teach Earth science. Teachers with prior experience or interest in the NSDL are encouraged to apply. Support includes a stipend for travel and living allowances. Enable your students to design their own personal voyages of discovery. We will concentrate on the ideas of plate tectonics, using real shipboard data and state-of-the-art global Earth science models. Beginning with the discovery of magnetic seafloor spreading stripes, we will explore the scientific inquiry process of hypothesis and testing. Throughout the workshop, you will be immersed in the researcher's view of the world, as you work side-by-side in daily sessions with a group of researchers and advanced graduate students. Working in a digital library context of national and state standards, scientific concepts, and a rich collection of supporting data and materials, teachers will build learning experiences for classroom use. The deadline for registration is March 1. The workshop dates are 11-24 July 2004. For further details and to register, please browse http://www.earthref.org/ --Stephen Miller (PI), Hubert Staudigel, John Helly, Brian Schottlaender, Catherine Johnson, UCSD, and Margaret Helly, Bay County School District, Lynn Haven FL. NSDL award "Mobilizing Enduring NSDL Resources in Plate Tectonics Research for Earth Science Education"
70. 1995 Federal Research and Development Program in Materials Science and Technology
• date - 2003-05-05
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/771259-EXpAPR/native/
• description - The Nation's economic prosperity and military security depend heavily on development and commercialization of advanced materials. Materials are a key facet of many technologies, providing the key ingredient for entire industries and tens of millions of jobs. With foreign competition in many areas of technology growing, improvements in materials and associated processes are needed now more than ever, both to create the new products and jobs of the future and to ensure that U.S. industry and military forces can compete and win in the international arena. The Federal Government has invested in materials research and development (R&D) for nearly a century, helping to lay the foundation for many of the best commercial products and military components used today. But while the United States has led the world in the science and development of advanced materials, it often has lagged in commercializing them. This long-standing hurdle must be overcome now if the nation is to maintain its leadership in materials R&D and the many technologies that depend on it. The Administration therefore seeks to foster commercialization of state-of-the-art materials for both commercial and military use, as a means of promoting US industrial competitiveness as well as the procurement of advanced military and space systems and other products at affordable costs. The Federal R&D effort in Fiscal Year 1994 for materials science and technology is an estimated2123.7 million. It includes the ongoing R&D base that support the missions of nine Federal departments and agencies, increased strategic investment to overcome obstacles to commercialization of advanced materials technologies, interagency cooperation in R&D areas of mutual benefit to leverage assets and eliminate duplicative work, cost-shared research with industrial and academic partners in critical precompetitive technology areas, and international cooperation on selected R&D topics with assured benefits for the United States. The materials R&D program also supports the Administration's specific technological objectives, emphasizing development of affordable, high-performance commercial and military aircraft; ultra-fuel-efficient, low-emissions automobiles that are also safe and comfortable; powerful yet inexpensive electronic systems; environmentally safe products and processes; and a durable building and transportation infrastructure. 71. BETTER ASSESSMENT SCIENCE INTEGRATING POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCES (BASINS) • date - 2002-12-10T18:30:50Z • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=7016 • description - Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) is a computer-based system for environmental analysis developed by EPA in response to a growing demand for integrative watershed- and water-quality-based assessments. Developed for use by EPA, state, tribal, and local agencies, BASINS facilitates the examination of environmental information, provides an integrated watershed assessment and modeling framework, and supports the analysis of point and nonpoint source management alternatives. A specific use of BASINS has been to assist in the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). BASINS integrates a geographic information system (GIS), national watershed data, and state-of-the-art environmental assessment and modeling tools into one package. The software makes it possible to quickly assess large amounts of point and nonpoint source data in a format that is easy to understand. Users can assess water quality at selected stream sites or throughout an entire watershed for nutrients, pathogens, pesticides, toxics, and sediments. Because BASINS integrates environmental data with analytical tools and modeling programs, it can support the development of cost-effective approaches to environmental protection. (EPA Water Program Information Systems Compendium FY 1998) 72. Between light and eye: Goethe's science of color and the polar phenomenology of nature • date - 2005-11-14 • creator - Kentsis, Alex • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0511130 • description - In his interviews with Eckermann in the 1820s, Goethe referred to his Theory of Colors as his greatest and ultimate achievement. Its reception following publication in 1810 and subsequent reviews throughout the history of physical science did not reflect this self-assessment. Even Hermann von Helmholtz, who in part modeled his scientific work after Goethe's, initially thought that Goethe's poetic genius prevented him from understanding physical science. Why did Goethe champion his Farbenlehre so ardently even years after it was dismissed by almost everyone else? In answering this question, this essay will attempt to add to the existing scholarship by considering Goethe's Theory of Colors in the context of his natural philosophy, and generalizing the variety of objectifications of the concepts invoked by his color theory and their relationships to Goethe's epistemology and Newton's mechanics. In this fashion, I attempt to show that the reason for Goethe's self-assessment of his Theory of Colors is less enigmatic than appears from its examination solely as a work of physics. Rather, Zur Farbenlehre was the clearest expression of Goethe's most universal archetype-- polarity of opposites-- which bridged Goethe's conflicts with Kant's and Spinoza's epistemologies, and in an over-reaching way served as a cosmology underlying Goethe's art and his science. 73. The Dinosaur Database • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.dinodatabase.com/index.asp • description - This database contains detailed information on hundreds of dinosaurs and dinosaur related topics. It features a dinosaur dictionary, dinosaur clip art and flex-art, and links to lesson plans and dinosaur experiments for teachers. 74. Character Animation 75. Particle Systems 76. A parallel, volume-tracking algorithm for unstructured meshes • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Mosso, S.J.; Swartz, B.K.; Kothe, D.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]; Ferrell, R.C. [Cambridge Power Computing Associates, MA (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/383638-6KKYIn/webviewable/ • description - Many diverse areas of industry benefit from the use of volume of fluid methods to predict the movement of materials. Casting is a common method of part fabrication. The accurate prediction of the casting process is pivotal to industry. Mold design and casting is currently considered an art by industry. It typically involves many trial mold designs, and the rejection of defective parts is costly. Failure of cast parts, because residual stresses reduce the parts strength, can be catastrophic. Cast parts should have precise geometric details that reduce or eliminate the need for machining after casting. Volume of fluid codes will help designers predict how the molten metal fills a mold and where ay trapped voids remain. Prediction of defects due to thermal contraction or expansion will eliminate defective, trial mold designs and speed the parts to market with fewer rejections. Increasing the predictability and therefore the accuracy of the casting process will reduce the art that is involved in mold design and parts casting. Here, recent enhancements to multidimensional volume-tracking algorithms are presented. Illustrations in two dimensions are given. The improvements include new, local algorithms for interface normal constructions and a new full remapping algorithm for time integration. These methods are used on structured and unstructured grids. 77. RISKY BUSINESS (BOOK REVIEW) • date - 2004-04-16T21:00:35Z • creator - D.M. DeMarini • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=49722 • description - The article reviews the book 'Risk Quantitation and Regulatory Policy,' D. G. Hoel, R. A. Merrill, and F. P. Perera (eds), published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York. The book is another volume in the continuing series of Banbury Conferences devoted to the in-depth exploration of a single topic. This particular book (Volume 19) provides an outstanding summary of the state of the art/science of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The authors explore the underlying assumptions and techniques of QRA and point out where the science ends and the art begins. 78. Teacher Zone... Image Gallery 79. An integrated model for optimizing weld quality • date - 2001-05-03 • creator - Zacharia, T.; Radhakrishnan, B.[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]; Paul, A.J.; Cheng, C.[Concurrent Technologies Corp., Johnstown, PA (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/87854-n9kwWl/webviewable/ • description - Welding has evolved in the last few decades from almost an empirical art to an activity embodying the most advanced tools of, various basic and applied sciences. Significant progress has been made in understanding the welding process and welded materials. The improved knowledge base has been useful in automation and process control. In view of the large number of variables involved, creating an adequately large database to understand and control the welding process is expensive and time consuming, if not impractical. A recourse is to simulate welding processes through a set of mathematical equations representing the essential physical processes of welding. Results obtained from the phenomenological models depend crucially on the quality of the physical relations in the models and the trustworthiness of input data. In this paper, recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds are summarized. State of the art mathematical models, advances in computational techniques, emerging high performance computers, and experimental validation techniques have provided significant insight into the fundamental factors that control the development of the weldment. Current status and scientific issues in heat and fluid flow in welds, heat source metal interaction, and solidification microstructure are assessed. Future research areas of major importance for understanding the fundamental phenomena in weld behavior are identified. 80. Post Production Techniques in Computer Animation • date - 01-20-07 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - oai:www.ilumina-dlib.org:548-nsdl_dc • description - A discussion of post production techniques in computer animation. Included are sections on compositing and the complex blending of different shots to produce a final animation. This section includes html pages, images, and a video. 81. Shrinking World, Expanding Net Conference • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://content.nsdl.org/wbr/Issue.php?issue=22 • description - September 2002-- http://www.cpsr.orgDesign of information and communications technology is art as well as science. The combination of art, science, and technology yields systems and devices with economic and political implications. To be held on Saturday, October 5, 2002 from 8:30 a.m. - 6:30 p.m. in the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Cambridge, MA. 82. Software-based Empirical Extraction of • date - 2004-01-16 • creator - Manish Prasad • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/659381.html • description - of the Thesis Software-based Empirical Extraction of Hardware Energy Models by Manish Prasad Master of Science in Computer Science Stony Brook University 2003 A compelling goal of portable computing is to make PCs as light as possible while adding enhanced features in the form of substantial processing power, storage and wireless networking capabilities in order to run demanding applications like multimedia. On the other hand battery technology hasn't improved significantly, which implies that lighter batteries mean lesser capacity. This demands that battery power be managed critically, which has resulted in the recent thrust in energy-aware computing research in the OS community as well as implementation of power saving mechanisms on state-of-the-art portables. However, there are various factors which impede power management research and hamper the effectiveness of power saving mechanisms. Firstly, energy measurement is hard and cumbersome as it requires special experimental setup comprising externally connected multimeters. This makes it very difficult to evaluate any proposed power management strategy across multiple platforms outside a laboratory setting. Since effectiveness of power management strategies vary largely with underlying platform energy consumption characteristics, it is essential to evaluate any such strategy across multiple platforms. Furthermore, large scale deployment of power saving schemes in production class OSes for state-of-the-art portables warrants a mechanism to incorporate the knowledge of underlying hardware energy models into such schemes. Due to substantial differences in power consumption of processors and I/O devices from different vendors, a cardinal requirement to achieve the above said goal is the ability to learn underlyin... 83. Artificial Life in Computer Graphics • date - 01-20-07 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - oai:www.ilumina-dlib.org:547-nsdl_dc • description - A discussion of the use of artificial life techniques in computer animation. It includes sections on the flocking algorithms of Reynolds, the simulation of the motion of snakes and worms, and the simulation of the behaviors and motion of fish. This section includes html pages, images, and several videos. 84. Computer Animation in Mathematics, science, and Art • date - 1995-05-25 • creator - Nelson Max • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/512289.html • description - this paper, with indications of the fi1ms shown at the conference, and where they can be obtained 85. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells • date - 2001-05-03 • creator - Armstrong, T.; Stevenson, J. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/167194-0NP9BX/webviewable/ • description - The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. 86. Trends in robotics: A summary of the Department of Energys critical technology roadmap • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Eicker, P.J. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/663239-yrMVOQ/webviewable/ • description - Technology roadmaps serve as pathways to the future. They call attention to future needs for research and development; provide a structure for organizing technology forecasts and programs; and help communicate technological needs and expectations among end users and the research and development (R and D) community. Critical Technology roadmaps, of which the Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM) Roadmap is one example, focus on enabling or cross-cutting technologies that address the needs of multiple US Department of Energy (DOE) offices. Critical Technology roadmaps must be responsive to mission needs of the offices; must clearly indicate how the science and technology can improve DOE capabilities; and must describe an aggressive vision for the future of the technology itself. The RIM Roadmap defines a DOE research and development path for the period beginning today, and continuing through the year 2020. Its purpose is to identify, select and develop objectives that will satisfy near- and long-term challenges posed by DOEs mission objectives. If implemented, this roadmap will support DOEs mission needs while simultaneously advancing the state-of-the-art of RIM. For the purposes of this document, RIM refers to systems composed of machines, sensors, computers and software that deliver processes to DOE operations. The RIM Roadmap describes how such systems will revolutionize DOE processes, most notably manufacturing, hazardous and remote operations, and monitoring and surveillance. The advances in DOE operations and RIM discussed in this document will be possible due to the developments in many other areas of science and technology, including computing, communication, electronics and micro-engineering. Modern software engineering techniques will permit the implementation of inherently safe RIM systems that will depend heavily on software. 87. Learn NSDL Magazine: A Living Science Magazine for Educators • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://content.nsdl.org/wbr/Issue.php?issue=62 • description - October 2004 -- NSDL has evolved, as Len Simutis, Executive Director, Eisenhower National Clearinghouse, said in a recent presentation, from being separate projects to being an institution. The institution will have significant responsibility for the welfare and support of teaching and learning, and for how people all over the world accomplish the mysterious goal of knowing things.The prototype for Learn NSDL magazine will launch at the NSDL Annual Meeting to find out whether the NSDL community agrees that the moment has arrived when its energies, activities, and ideas demand a voice.Several months ago, Carol Minton Morris, Elly Cramer, and Bill Arms drafted a proposal called "The Magazine Metaphor Expanded: A Community-Based Online NSDL Exhibits Magazine System and Editorial Process for Development, Aggregation, Evaluation, Syndication, and Distribution of NSDL News, Information, and Resources." Despite its elephantine title, that draft contained several good recommendations, and Learn NSDL is one of them.Brad Edmondson, former Editor-In-Chief of American Demographics magazine and co-founder of ePodunk.com, was drafted to edit the prototype edition. Brad proposed a quarterly format and some ideas for both individual stories and continuing departments. Brad agreed to take on this project and create a prototype, to see what the NSDL community thinks.The vision is for Learn NSDL is that it will be a living science magazine for educators with dynamic links into library resources as a good way to reach the larger communities of science, technology, engineering, and math education. Marty Blume, editor-in-chief of the American Physical Society, has written that electronic publishing is, "an experimental art." Your opinions on this particular experiment will be welcome. Stay tuned. 88. Chemical vapor deposition sciences • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/584941-JBzKNA/webviewable/ • description - Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandias capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes. 89. Quantifying the Thermal Behavior of Slags (TRP 9903) • date - 2005-08-21 • creator - Alan W. Cramb • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/840954-t2Utds/native/ • description - Successful operation of a continuous caster is based upon control of heat transfer in the mold. The mold slag is a key component in the success of continuous casting; however, the phenomena that occur in the gap between the shell and the mold are largely unknown as until recently there have been no techniques that allowed visualization and quantification of the solidification behavior of liquid slags. This has lead to slag design being an empirical science or art. Recently a new experimental technique, called Double Hot Thermocouple Technique (DHTT), was developed at Carnegie Mellon University that allowed the solidification behavior of a slag to be observed and quantified under conditions that simulate the thermal conditions that occur in steelmaking environments. This technique allows ladle, tundish and mold slags to be characterized under extreme conditions including those found between the mold wall and the growing shell of a continuous caster. Thus, a program is initiated, under this grant, to quantify and describe the phenomena that occur during the solidification of a slag in a steel mill environment. This will allow slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise. The project deliverables were as follows: (1) The further development of a tool that will have broad use in the quantification of slag melting and solidification behavior; and (2) The development of a set of meaningful design criteria for slag application in steel mill environments. The project was broken down into a number of objectives: (a) Develop a systematic understanding of the effect of cooling rate on slag solidification; (b) Develop a systematic understanding on the effect of slag chemistry changes on slag solidification behavior; (c) Develop a method to characterize slag melting; (d) Develop an understanding of the role of the environment on slag solidification and melting; (e) Develop the ability to understand slag solidification under the conditions that occur in a continuous caster; (f) Develop an ability to predict the solidification behavior of slags; and (g) Develop the criteria for optimization of slags in steelmaking environments where they are under thermal gradients. 90. BIOGLYPHS: A Living Collaboration with Bioluminescent Organisms • date - • creator - MSU-Bozeman School of Art • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.erc.montana.edu/Bioglyphs/ • description - BIOGLYPHS is an art and science collaboration initiated by members of the Center for Biofilm Engineering and the Montana State University School of Art. This website features two BIOGLYPHS exhibitions of living bioluminescent paintings that were created by teams of student and staff artists, scientists and engineers in 2002. The site includes a gallery of BIOGLYPH paintings, information about collaborators, comments from the guest book, and links to media coverage and related web pages. 91. Term Recognition and Classification in Biological Science Journal Articles • date - 2000-09-11 • creator - Robert Gaizauskas,George Demetriou,Kevin Humphreys • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/391610.html • description - In this paper we describe the application of automatic terminology recognition and classification techniques for two bioinformatics projects: extraction of information about enzymes and metabolic pathways and extraction of information about protein structure, in both cases from scientific journal papers. The techniques we use were adapted from already available Information Extraction (IE) technology that was developed for name recognition tasks defined in the US Message Understanding Conferences (MUC). Preliminary evaluation results of the terminological identification components of our systems are quite encouraging and compare favourably with the state-of-the-art results in the MUC competitions. Further, this technology is quite generic and may be readily adapted to other subdomains in biological and medical science. Indeed, we are optimistic that the same methods will be applicable to term identification tasks in any technical domain. 1 Introduction With the explosive growth of bio... 92. Formal Logic and Self-Expression • date - 1995-03-10 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/521872.html • description - I do know enough to recognize and put my professional reputation at stake, that something big is going on here. Unfortunately, the requirements for a full appreciation are backgrounds in mathematical logic, natural sciences, and computer science, as well as aesthetic training and sensitivity. Thus the audience who can apprehend, and perhaps be impressed by, these arguments is necessarily small. Will itfiy? Again, time will tell. If I continue to suffer occasional visual inspiration, I may help bring it to maturity as an art form. I am certainly counting on others to help, and hopefully to soon create works that will make my own appear crude and preliminary. Fortunately I am not alone in my views or my efforts. To quote Judson Rosebush [12]: In practice, proceduralist computer art is among the most contemporar products of our culture, and will increasingly be appreciated as a major art movement by this and future generations. If Mr. Rosebush and I are correct, we may be witnessin 93. Supporting large-scale computational science • date - 2001-06-19 • creator - Musick, R • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/8429-1VmO4T/native/ • description - A study has been carried out to determine the feasibility of using commercial database management systems (DBMSs) to support large-scale computational science. Conventional wisdom in the past has been that DBMSs are too slow for such data. Several events over the past few years have muddied the clarity of this mindset: 1. 2. 3. 4. Several commercial DBMS systems have demonstrated storage and ad-hoc quer access to Terabyte data sets. Several large-scale science teams, such as EOSDIS[NAS91], high energy physics[MM97] and human genome[Kin93] have adopted (or make frequent use of) commercial DBMS systems as the central part of their data management scheme. Several major DBMS vendors have introduced their first object-relational products (ORDBMSs), which have the potential to support large, array-oriented data. In some cases, performance is a moot issue. This is true in particular if the performance of legacy applications is not reduced while new, albeit slow, capabilities are added to the system. The basic assessment is still that DBMSs do not scale to large computational data. However, many of the reasons have changed, and there is an expiration date attached to that prognosis. This document expands on this conclusion, identifies the advantages and disadvantages of various commercial approaches, and describes the studies carried out in exploring this area. The document is meant to be brief, technical and informative, rather than a motivational pitch. The conclusions within are very likely to become outdated within the next 5-7 years, as market forces will have a significant impact on the state of the art in scientific data management over the next decade. 94. Annual Report for LDRD-04-FS-019 The Innermost Inner Core: Fact or Artifact? • date - 2005-05-07 • creator - Tkalcic, H; Flanagan, M P • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15011810-KWx5KJ/native/ • description - There is considerable debate in the Earth sciences over the composition, thermal history, and dynamics of Earth's inner core. The details of structural models are based on precious few seismological observations of PKP travel times, due to the uneven distribution of large earthquakes and recording stations around the globe. Using state-of-the-art signal-processing techniques to measure and compile a unique set of global travel time data of surface-reflected seismic waves that propagate through the center of Earth (PKPPKP waves), we propose to investigate the existence of the innermost inner core. We will carry out a systematic investigation to determine the configuration of inner core anisotropy, which is currently biased by a limited spatial sampling of the inner core by PKP waves. We expect to collect data set of waveforms and identify PKPPKP energy arrivals on existing seismological records in a systematic form. We expect to demonstrate whether or not the existence of the innermost inner core can be supported by seismological data and to provide major constraints on the amount of inner core anisotropy. This is a topic of very high interest in the earth science community and the results would be of great importance not only to seismologists but to other Earth scientists as well. This project enhances and extends a critical Laboratory core competency in seismology for national security, specifically for the Ground Based Nuclear Explosions Monitoring Program. This high-profile science project will also support LLNL's mission in basic science by leading to further significant contributions in deep Earth structure, physical properties and models of core evolution. The PI Hrvoje Tkalcic is chairing a special session on the inner core anisotropy at the Fall 2004 AGU meeting, and we will present our results at that session. In FY04, we started systematically downloading a large number of broadband seismic waveforms, available via the Internet from world-wide data centers. These waveforms satisfy our criteria regarding the epicentral distance, event depth and magnitude. We finished extracting all waveforms from global broadband and several regional and temporary networks. We collected data from large earthquakes and explosions. We were focusing on: (1) preparing and analyzing waveforms that satisfy our source-receiver criteria, from 1990 to present day and (2) observing clear PKPPKP arrivals and their precursors in both time and frequency domains. We were also a 95. The sharing of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor with other educational institutions • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/418382-y0U03n/webviewable/ • description - The Penn State Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) integrates the Breazeale Reactor and its affiliated laboratories and facilities on the University Park Campus. Penn State has the only nuclear reactor in Pennsylvania dedicated to research and education. Its faculty have pioneered industrial and research applications of radiation and radioisotopes. In addition, the center and its affiliated faculty have access to the multidisciplinary resources and expertise available within Penn State, one of the nations leading research universities. The goals of the Penn State Radiation Science and Engineering Center are to: incorporate radiation science and engineering services and facilities into a cohesive infrastructure; provide state-of-the-art academic instruction and laboratory experiences; provide facilities and assistance for academic research; provide technical, engineering, and other support services to RSEC users; generate new techniques, applications, and services for researchers in diverse disciplines; and serve the needs of academia and industry through RSEC services, faculty affiliations, and facilities that are not readily available elsewhere. 96. A Framework for Effective User Interface Design for Web-Based Electronic Commerce Applications • date - 2001 • creator - Justyna Burns • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://inform.nu/Articles/Vol4/v4n2p067-075.pdf • description - Efficient delivery of relevant product information is increasingly becoming the central basis of competition between firms. The interface design represents the central component for successful information delivery to consumers. However, interface design for web-based information systems is probably more an art than a science at this point in time. Much research is needed to understand properties of an effective interface for electronic commerce.<br> This paper develops a framework identifying the relationship between user factors, the role of the user interface and overall system success for web-based electronic commerce. The paper argues that web-based systems for electronic commerce have some similar properties to decision support systems (DSS) and adapts an established DSS framework to the electronic commerce domain. Based on a limited amount of research studying web browser interface design, the framework identifies areas of research needed and outlines possible relationships between consumer characteristics, interface design attributes and measures of overall system success. 97. MULTIMEDIA INTEGRATED MODELING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: INTRODUCTION TO A COLLABORATIVE FRAMEWORK • date - 2005-06-07T11:41:00Z • creator - S Kraemer • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=106706 • description - The EPA's Office of Research and Development is embarking on a long term project to develop a Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS). The system will have capabilities to represent the transport and fate of nutrients and chemical stressors over multiple scales. MIMS will be designed to improve the environmental management community's ability to evaluate the impact of air and water quality and watershed management practices on stream and estuarine conditions. The system will provide a computer-based problem solving environment for testing understanding of multimedia (atmosphere, land, water) environmental problems, such as the movement of chemicals through the hydrologic cycle, or the response of aquatic ecological systems to land-use change, with initial emphasis on the fish health endpoint. The design will attempt to combine the state-of-the-art in computer science, system design, and numerical analysis (i.e. object oriented analysis and design, parallel processing, advanced numerical libraries including analytic elements) with the latest advancements in process level science (process chemistry, hydrology, atmospheric and ecological science). The problem solving environment will embrace the watershed/airshed approach to environmental management, and build upon the latest technologies for environmental monitoring and geographic representation. The MIMS team will promote a common and open modeling framework for the university and government modeling communities, and be open to cooperative arrangements with private partners where appropriate. 98. NEW Learning Resources From the Exploratorium • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://content.nsdl.org/wbr/Issue.php?issue=95 • description - The Exploratorium, a hands-on museum of science, art, and human perception located in San Francisco, California has added an exciting new collection of exhibit-based teaching and learning resources to the National Science Digital Library. Digital learning resources have been selected from interactive museum exhibits, demonstrations, hands-on science activities, museum magazine articles, Exploratorium web sites, the Children's Education Outreach program, the Exploratorium Teacher Institute, and the Institute for Inquiry. Learn more about Exploratorium collections at the project website: http://www.exploratorium.edu/nsdl.Here is a sample of resources from the Exploratorium's Digital Library Learning Resources Collection for you to contemplate adding to classroom activities, or to try at home:Do a virtual cow's eye dissection:http://www.exploratorium.edu/learning_studio/cow_eye/[search at NSDL.org using key words: cow eye]Find out what you have in common with a kiwi fruit in the activity "Fruitful DNA extraction:" http://www.exploratorium.edu:80/ti/human_body/dna.html [search at NSDL.org using key words: kiwi extraction]Make an eddy current exhibit at home to demonstrate the changing magnetic field created by a falling magnet:http://www.exploratorium.edu:80/snacks/eddy_currents.html [search at NSDL.org using key words: eddy currents] Contact the Exploratorium staff at nsdl@exploratorium.edu for more information. 99. The Center for Image Processing in Education • date - 2003-10-10T18:16:47Z • creator - Executive Director Steven Moore • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.cipe.com/ • description - The Center for Image Processing in Education (CIPE) is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to develop and disseminate effective, innovative, tools that encourage and enhance learning in science, mathematics and technology education. CIPE offers professional development workshops on using state-of-the-art image processing techniques and geographic information systems (GIS) and publishes and distributes award-winning software products for the classroom. 100. Red espaÃ±ola de trabajos cientÃ­ficos : estudio de viabilidad de la implantaciÃ³n de una biblioteca digital y anÃ¡lisis de sus derechos de autor • date - 2002-01-01 • creator - Noverges DomÃ©nech, Natividad • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00003172/ • description - [Spanish abstract] Resultados del proyecto subvencionado por la SecretarÃ­a de Estado de Universidades al Departamento de DocumentaciÃ³n e Historia del Arte de la UPV. Su objetivo es establecer una red de colaboraciÃ³n entre los autores de trabajos cientÃ­ficos del Ã¡rea de documentaciÃ³n, a travÃ©s de la implantaciÃ³n de una herramienta informÃ¡tica, Eprints. Plantea la problemÃ¡tica de la comunicaciÃ³n cientÃ­fica en entornos electrÃ³nicos, partiendo de la premisa de que la universidad es fuente de conocimiento de calidad. Pero estamos en un sistema en el que aquÃ©l que produce informaciÃ³n, es tambiÃ©n quien la consume y la paga. Ahora bien, en entornos electrÃ³nicos ningÃºn editor deberÃ­a poder evitar las funciones de una universidad. Estudia la contribuciÃ³n de las bibliotecas digitales de autores a la cohesiÃ³n de las redes y comunidades cientÃ­ficas, pues gran parte los recursos humanos de la universidad espaÃ±ola se orientan a la investigaciÃ³n y su difusiÃ³n. [English abstract] This report is the result of a funded project of the Spanish Ministery of Education and Culture given in 2002 to the Department of Audiovisual Communication, Information Science and History of Art (Polytechnic University of Valencia-Spain). The aim of the project was stablish a thematic network between library and information science authors to develop a digital library: E-LIS (Eprints in Library and Information Science). The project discusses the scientific communication problem in electronic scenarios; and the contribution of the digital libraries to the network cohesion. 101. Computer Animation • date - 04-21-03 • creator - Dr Eric Patterson • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://dl.uncw.edu/digilib/Computer%20Science/graphics%20and%20visual%20computing/csc320_20041_patterson/ART-CSC-FST%20320%20Computer%20Animation.htm • description - CSC 320. (ART 320) (FST 320) Computer Animation (3) Prerequisite: CSC 220 (ART 220) (FST 220) or permission of instructor. Basic principles of animation using 3-D computer-generated animation and basic processes for animating synthetic objects through structured exercises. Principles of designing and producing 3-D computer-generated animation through the creation of advanced motion studies. Projects focus on developing higher-level skills in model building, animation and color, and lighting. 102. Neptune's Web: Oceanography Lesson Plans • date - 1997-05-22 • creator - Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://pao.cnmoc.navy.mil/Educate/Neptune/lesson/lesson.htm • description - This website houses numerous lesson plans for grades K-12 on the subject of oceanography. The homepage is divided into six different sections: Physical Education, Art, Social Studies, Science, Math, and Language Arts. Some of the topics covered are evaporation, heat flow, biological aspects, and pH levels in water. Activities are fun, entertaining, and offer a different perspective on learning. 103. River Network • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.rivernetwork.org/index.cfm • description - The River Network (RN) helps people monitor, protect and restore rivers and watersheds. RN is self-described as the nation's leader in supporting grassroots river and watershed conservation groups. Users can access information about the group's activities, including workshops and training, publications, special programs and grants available to watershed groups. A resource library allows users to search the site by topic. Categories include fundraising and organizational development, issues facing our rivers, publications, river conservation approaches, river quotes, facts, myths, prose, clip art, photos, and video. Users can also search by keyword. Other information includes issues facing rivers, monitoring and assessment, using the Clean Water Act, and conserving river lands. 104. Magnificent Ground Water Connection • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.epa.gov/region01/students/teacher/groundw.html • description - The Magnificent Ground Water Connection is a compilation of ground water-related activities for teaching and learning purposes. The teacher's activity guide is applicable to a wide range of subject matter and the ground water theme is integrated into stories, songs, math, social studies, art and writing. The topics include basic concepts of the water cycle, water distribution, treatment and stewardship. Other subjects include the water cycle and water conservation, New England's ground water resources, ground water contamination and protection. Sections are also available for wetlands, ground water, marine debris, waster, air quality, acid rain, and energy. Users can also access an on-line lending library for educational materials and videos. 105. Computer Science Issues in Baduk • date - 2003-10-10 • creator - Jan Ramon,Jan Struyf • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/634809.html • description - this paper we discuss current issues in computer science and its application to Baduk. We present an overview of the current state of the art in a number of baduk-related domains and applications. Next, we present some suggestions for improvement. In particular we discuss Internet go, including the distribution of baduk information on the net and servers such as Dashn and KGS, training software such as Life and Death, Junsuk(joseki) and related tools and playing programs. We discuss these topics from the viewpoints of both the user and the area of artificial intelligence 106. Line of Sight: A process for transferring science from the laboratory to the market place • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - LINTON,JONATHAN; WALSH,STEVEN; LOMBANA,CESAR A.; HUNTER,WILLARD B.; ROMIG JR.,ALTON D. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/751196-tlcl3W/webviewable/ • description - Commercialization and transfer of technology from laboratories in academia, government, and industry has only met a fraction of its potential and is currently an art not a science. The line of sight approach developed and in use at Sandia National Laboratories, is used to better understand commercialization and transfer of technology. The line of sight process integrates technology description, the dual process model of innovation and the product introduction model. The model, that the line of sight is based OR is presented and the application of the model to both disruptive and sustaining technologies is illustrated. Work to date suggests that the differences between disruptive and sustaining technologies are critical to quantifying the level of risk and choosing the commercialization path. The applicability of the line of sight to both disruptive and sustaining technologies is key to the success of the model and approach. 107. Science and technology in the stockpile stewardship program, S & TR reprints • date - 2006-03-30 • creator - Storm, E • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/2497-sSKfcy/native/ • description - This document reports on these topics: Computer Simulations in Support of National Security; Enhanced Surveillance of Aging Weapons; A New Precision Cutting Tool: The Femtosecond Laser; Superlasers as a Tool of Stockpile Stewardship; Nova Laser Experiments and Stockpile Stewardship; Transforming Explosive Art into Science; Better Flash Radiography Using the FXR; Preserving Nuclear Weapons Information; Site 300Ã•s New Contained Firing Facility; The Linear Electric Motor: Instability at 1,000 gÃ•s; A Powerful New Tool to Detect Clandestine Nuclear Tests; High Explosives in Stockpile Surveillance Indicate Constancy; Addressing a Cold War Legacy with a New Way to Produce TATB; JumpinÃ• Jupiter! Metallic Hydrogen; Keeping the Nuclear Stockpile Safe, Secure, and Reliable; The Multibeam FabryÃ�Perot Velocimeter: Efficient Measurements of High Velocities; Theory and Modeling in Material Science; The Diamond Anvil Cell; Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometry; X-Ray Lasers and High-Density Plasma 108. Validation of analysis methods for assessing flawed piping subjected to dynamic loading • date - 2005-06-26 • creator - Olson, R.J.; Wolterman, R.L.; Wilkowski, G.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)]; Kot, C.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10176738-ONRpvU/native/ • description - Argonne National Laboratory and Battelle have jointly conducted a research program for the USNRC to evaluate the ability of current engineering analysis methods and one state-of-the-art analysis method to predict the behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked pipe system water-hammer experiment. The experimental data used in the evaluation were from the HDR Test Group E31 series conducted by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany. The incentive for this evaluation was that simplified engineering methods, as well as newer state-of-the-art fracture analysis methods, have been typically validated only with static experimental data. Hence, these dynamic experiments were of high interest. High-rate dynamic loading can be classified as either repeating, e.g., seismic, or nonrepeating, e.g., water hammer. Development of experimental data and validation of cracked pipe analyses under seismic loading (repeating dynamic loads) are being pursued separately within the NRCs International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. This report describes developmental and validation efforts to predict crack stability under water hammer loading, as well as comparisons using currently used analysis procedures. Current fracture analysis methods use the elastic stress analysis loads decoupled from the fracture mechanics analysis, while state-of-the-art methods employ nonlinear cracked-pipe time-history finite element analyses. The results showed that the current decoupled methods were conservative in their predictions, whereas the cracked pipe finite element analyses were more accurate, yet slightly conservative. The nonlinear time-history cracked-pipe finite element analyses conducted in this program were also attractive in that they were done on a small Apollo DN5500 workstation, whereas other cracked-pipe dynamic analyses conducted in Europe on the same experiments required the use of a CRAY2 supercomputer, and were less accurate. 109. A HYDROLOGIC-GEOPHYSICAL METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING FLOW AND TRANSPORT PROCESSES WITHIN THE VADOSE ZONE • date - 2002-12-10T18:31:02Z • creator - David Alumbaugh • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=19512 • description - Predictive models have often been employed to estimate fluid flow and contaminant transport rates within the vadose zone, that lies beneath many DOE hazardous waste sites. Unfortunately, these schemes have often failed to provide accurate results and have underestimated transport rates. Reasons for these inaccuracies include; 1) oversimplification of the earth model; 2) a misunderstanding of how formation heterogeneity at different scales affects flow and transport; 3) problems associated with the measurement of hydraulic properties and upscaling these measurements to the model scale; 4) a lack of understanding how man made structures such as unsealed wells and leaking tank farms affect flow and transport. We propose a mid-scale hydrologic test to analyze flow and transport within the vadose zone. This test will employ state of the art numerical and experimental tools that have, and are continuing to be developed under a previously funded EMSP proposal. The benefits to the DOE of this work include much better conceptual models of flow and transport mechanisms within natural heterogeneous and disturbed vadose zone deposits; a data base to compare predictive and performance assessment models describing unsaturated flow and transport; improvements on, and validations of, current state of the art hydrologic modeling schemes, and a validated experimental method that could be applied to other DOE sites to determine site specific flow and transport rates. The proposed experiment will be conducted at the Sandia/Tech Vadose Zone (STVZ) facility where an infiltration experiment is currently being conducted to characterize flow in unsaturated media. Subsurface hydrologic conditions are being monitored using hydrological sensors as well as the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and cross borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR) geophysical methods. As deployed these two methods are complimentary in that the ERT produces full 3D estimates of subsurface properties, while the XBGPR yields only 2D images but at a higher resolution than the ERT such that finer scale processes and heterogeneities can be detected and examined. Once this infiltration has reached steady state, a hybrid hydrologic/geophysical inverse technique (HHGIT) will be employed to produce 3D estimates of hydrologic parameter distribution at the site, as well as the error associated with those estimates. A state of the art numerical transport scheme will then be employed to simulate and design trans 110. Sinking City of Venice: Weighing the Solutions • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/venice/solutions.html • description - This article describes the issues of rising sea level, subsiding ground, and increasingly persistent flooding in the ancient city of Venice which are threatening treasured architecture and works of art. There is also a discussion of the risks, benefits, and expense of the proposed solution to the flooding, a massive set of gates intended to block the entrances to the Venetian lagoon. 111. Jenny and Carlos Get Out of the Rain • date - 2005-03-17 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://interactive2.usgs.gov/learningweb/pdf/explorecaves/Posterback.pdf • description - Younger students will enjoy this poster that tells the story of two children's visit to a cave. The poster discusses the animals that the children see, flowstone formations, and cave art. It also describes the various types of caves in the U.S. including their locations, describes some of the animals that may inhabit them, and provides safety tips for cave visitors. 112. Adsorbate vibrational modes enhancement of radiative heat transfer and van der Waals friction 113. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING • date - 2003-04-07 • creator - Hector Colonmer; Prabhu Ganesan; Nalini Subramanian; Dr. Bala Haran; Dr. Ralph E. White; Dr. Branko N. Popov • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/808855-OHkb3M/native/ • description - This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent this we deposited cobalt using an electroless deposition process. We also coated perovskite (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3}) in NiO thorough a sol-gel process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of Co and perovskites coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Co and perovskite coatings on the surface decrease the dissolution of Ni into the melt and thereby stabilize the cathode. Both, cobalt and provskites coated nickel oxide, show a higher polarization compared to that of nickel oxide, which could be due to the reduced surface area. Cobalt substituted lithium nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) and lithium cobalt oxide were also studied. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} was synthesized by solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} showed smaller dissolution of nickel than state of art nickel oxide cathode. The performance was comparable to that of nickel oxide. The corrosion of the current collector in the cathode side was also studied. The corrosion characteristics of both SS304 and SS304 coated with Co-Ni alloy were studied. This study confirms that surface modification of SS304 leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and better electronic conductivity at 650 C. A three phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode and the complete fuel cell. The homogeneous model is based on volume averaging of different variables in the three phases over a small volume element. This approach can be used to model porous electrodes as it represents the real system much better than the conventional agglomerate model. Using the homogeneous model the polarization characteristics of the MCFC cathode and fuel cell were studi 114. Exploring Mars: Oh Water, Where Art Thou? • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.ucls.uchicago.edu/students/projects/martiansuntimes/docs/inv8.html • description - In this lesson students explore the idea of water on Mars. Many active links allow the students to come to their own conclusions about water on Mars and explore how Earth might appear from space without water. Other links provide the students with the opinions of experts. This is the eighth in a series of interactive student lessons from the Martian Sun Times. 115. Eixos mobilizadores em quÃ­mica • date - 2003 • creator - Andrade Jailson B. de • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=01004042&date=2003&volume=26&issue=3&spage=445 • description - Over the last five years there have been significant changes in higher education in Brazil as well as in research funding. As a contribution to the development of Science and Technology, and aiming to portray Chemistry today in Brazil, in the context of last years elections for President, State Governors, National Congress and Legislative Chamber, the Directors and Consulting Council of the Brazilian Chemical Society, SBQ, initiated in 2002 a series of activities to produce a document entitled Mobilizing Axes in Chemistry. This discusses undergraduate and graduate teaching in Chemistry, a new model for research funding, and the overall state of the art, and future perspectives. Six mobilizing axes have been identified and discussed to date: 1. Training of highly qualified personnel; 2. Decentralization, and discouragement of institutional in-breeding; 3. Stimulation of entrepreneurship and interdisciplinarity; 4. A guaranteed budget for Science and Technology; 5. Proactive interaction of academics with economic activity; and 6. Removal of institutional bottle-necks of all sorts. The Brazilian Chemical Society hopes that the new administration will in the near future begin the task of improving the national education system and increase funding for Science and Technology. 116. Associations among Race/Ethnicity, ApoC-III Genotypes, and Lipids in HIV-1-Infected Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy. • date - 2006 • creator - Reilly • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030052 • description - BACKGROUND: Protease inhibitors (PIs) are associated with hypertriglyceridemia and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Identifying HIV-1-infected individuals who are at increased risk of PI-related dyslipidemia will facilitate therapeutic choices that maintain viral suppression while reducing risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) gene variants, which vary by race/ethnicity, have been associated with a lipid profile that resembles PI-induced dyslipidemia. However, the association of race/ethnicity, or candidate gene effects across race/ethnicity, with plasma lipid levels in HIV-1-infected individuals, has not been reported. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional analysis of race/ethnicity, apoC-III/apoA-I genotypes, and PI exposure on plasma lipids was performed in AIDS Clinical Trial Group studies (n = 626). Race/ethnicity was a highly significant predictor of plasma lipids in fully adjusted models. Furthermore, in stratified analyses, the effect of PI exposure appeared to differ across race/ethnicity. Black/non-Hispanic, compared with White/non-Hispanics and Hispanics, had lower plasma triglyceride (TG) levels overall, but the greatest increase in TG levels when exposed to PIs. In Hispanics, current PI antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure was associated with a significantly smaller increase in TGs among patients with variant alleles at apoC-III-482, -455, and Intron 1, or at a composite apoC-III genotype, compared with patients with the wild-type genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: In the first pharmacogenetic study of its kind in HIV-1 disease, we found race/ethnic-specific differences in plasma lipid levels on ART, as well as differences in the influence of the apoC-III gene on the development of PI-related hypertriglyceridemia. Given the multi-ethnic distribution of HIV-1 infection, our findings underscore the need for future studies of metabolic and cardiovascular complications of ART that specifically account for racial/ethnic heterogeneity, particularly when assessing candidate gene effects. 117. Art for Computer Graphicists (SIGGRAPH 98 Course 30 • date - 02-15-03 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.siggraph.org/education/materials/siggraph_conference_courses.htm • description - A SIGGRAPH Course that covers some of the fundamental principles of Art for people who are interested in computer graphics and visualization. It includes aspects of Art History, fundamentals of design and color composition and examples of logo design. 118. What is Wrong With the Oceans? Can Photography Help? • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/18/g912/doubiletwrong.html • description - In this lesson plan students will research environmental problems facing the oceans of the world and will think about how the art of photography can help solve these problems, using the photography by David Doubilet as an example. Students will list human activities in the ocean and the animal species that are threatened by these activities; research and answer questions about specific environmental problems occurring in the oceans; discuss the ways in which the photography by David Doubilet might contribute to ocean conservation; and plan their own expeditions to photograph threatened ocean ecosystems. 119. Teaching Digital Design to Computing Science • date - 2004-05-26 • creator - Jos E Nelson Amaral,Paul Berube,Paras Mehta,Jose Nelson Amaral • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/652363.html • description - How should digital design be taught to Computing Science students in a single onesemester course? This paper advocates the use of state of the art design tools and programmable devices and presents a series of laboratory exercises to help students learn digital logic. Each exercise introduces new concepts and produces the complete design of a standalone apparatus that is fun and interesting to use. These exercises lead to the most challenging capstone designs for a single semester course of which the authors are aware. Fast progress is made possible by providing students with pre-designed input/output modules. Student feedback demonstrates that the students approve this methodology. An extensive set of slides, support teaching material, and lab exercises are freely available for downloading. 120. The Planetary Society • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.planetary.org/home/ • description - This non-profit organization seeks to inspire the people of Earth through education, research, and public participation to explore other worlds and seek other life. Their website offers special sections on: taking political action in support of space exploration; the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI); near-earth objects, such as asteroids and comets; the Red Rover Goes to Mars (RRGTM) Project, which aims to connect students with Mars exploration; the Red Rover, Red Rover Project, where students build model Mars rovers out of LEGO kits; and much more. The Learning Center provides guides to the solar system and lunar and planetary missions, a student activities section, and a planetary art gallery. 121. A Space Library • date - • creator - David Seal • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://samadhi.jpl.nasa.gov/index.html • description - Space Library is a NASA/JPL/Caltech creation of space-related images and programs to help users visualize the Solar System and NASA space missions using computer graphics. It includes a Solar System simulator, which depicts the view from any planet or satellite; surface maps and an art gallery of solar system objects; digital spacecraft models for 3D animators; an asteroid tracker; and a paper on the fall of the Incas, related to archeological prospecting using remote sensing. 122. Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water. Version 2 • date - 2005-06-23 • creator - Dickson, A.G.; Goyet, C. [eds.] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10107773-BfTXAM/webviewable/ • description - The collection of extensive, reliable, oceanic carbon data is a key component of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). A portion of the US JGOFS oceanic carbon dioxide measurements will be made during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. A science team has been formed to plan and coordinate the various activities needed to produce high quality oceanic carbon dioxide measurements under this program. This handbook was prepared at the request of, and with the active participation of, that science team. The procedures have been agreed on by the members of the science team and describe well tested methods. They are intended to provide standard operating procedures, together with an appropriate quality control plan, for measurements made as part of this survey. These are not the only measurement techniques in use for the parameters of the oceanic carbon system; however, they do represent the current state-of-the-art for ship-board measurements. In the end, the editors hope that this handbook can serve widely as a clear and unambiguous guide to other investigators who are setting up to analyze the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water. 123. Soil Use and Management • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://soils.usda.gov/use/ • description - This site is part of the US Department of Agriculture's Natural Resource's Conservation Service, providing state-of-the-art soil survey technology, standards, data, and expertise. This site covers soil quality, hydric and urban soils, facts and figures for the United States, and a number of world, national and thematic maps. 124. Yellowstone Geographic: The Online Yellowstone Experience • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.yellowstonegeographic.com/flashsplash.html • description - This virtual journal explores the Greater Yellowstone region including Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. The site focuses on science, news, philosophy, and culture of the region including geology, archaeology, Native Americans, history, education, politics, art, photography, adventure travel, books, videos, feature articles and information about travel in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. They also explore the classic icons of Yellowstone including wolves, bison, elk, and geysers. The learning center provides some lesson plans and ideas for teachers who wish to use the National Parks as teaching tools. Links are provided for more details about Yellowstone and the surrounding areas. 125. Stellarium • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.stellarium.org/ • description - Stellarium is free (General Public License) software which renders realistic views of the sky in real time and in 3D. Users can depict the sky at their own locations, at various times, and add grids, constellation names, and constellation art. An interactive feature allows users to click on an object and access information about it in a pop-up window. 126. Proceedings of the First Hanford Separation Science Workshop • date - 2006-05-22 • creator - Not Available • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10171778-kLmlNu/ • description - The First Hanford Separation Science Workshop, sponsored by PNL had two main objectives: (1) assess the applicability of available separation methods for environmental restoration and for minimization, recovery, and recycle of mixed and radioactive mutes; and (2) identify research needs that must be addressed to create new or improved technologies. The information gathered at this workshop not only applies to Hanford but could be adapted to DOE facilities throughout the nation as well. These proceedings have been divided into three components: Background and Introduction to the Problem gives an overview of the history of the Site and the cleanup mission, including waste management operations, past disposal practices, current operations, and plans for the future. Also included in this section is a discussion of specific problems concerning the chemistry of the Hanford wastes. Separation Methodologies contains the papers given at the workshop by national experts in the field of separation science regarding the state-of-the-art of various methods and their applicability/adaptability to Hanford. Research Needs identifies further research areas developed in working group sessions. Individual papers are indexed separately. 127. EE-Link: Endangered Species • date - 1996 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.eelink.net/EndSpp/index.html • description - This site offers information on endangered species including state lists, international lists, maps, proposed species for listing, extinct species information, and laws and policies. An Education and Interactive Kids Stuff section offers access to a wide variety of on-line materials, activities, software, video and multimedia materials. 128. ICF Annual Report 1997 • date - 2001-10-16 • creator - Correll, D • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/14770-BQsaaU/native/ • description - The continuing objective of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is the demonstration of thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory and to support the nuclear weapons program in its use of ICF facilities. The underlying theme of all ICF activities as a science research and development program is the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Defense Programs (DP) science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). The mission of the US Inertial Fusion Program is twofold: (1) to address high-energy-density physics issues for the SSP and (2) to develop a laboratory microfusion capability for defense and energy applications. In pursuit of this mission, the ICF Program has developed a state-of-the-art capability to investigate high-energy-density physics in the laboratory. The near-term goals pursued by the ICF Program in support of its mission are demonstrating fusion ignition in the laboratory and expanding the Program's capabilities in high-energy-density science. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project is a cornerstone of this effort. 129. The Los Alamos, Sandia, and Livermore Laboratories: Integration and collaboration solving science and technology problems for the nation • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/463538-jL3UBe/webviewable/ • description - More than 40 years ago, three laboratories were established to take on scientific responsibility for the nations nuclear weapons - Los Alamos, Sandia, and Livermore. This triad of laboratories has provided the state-of-the-art science and technology to create Americas nuclear deterrent and to ensure that the weapons are safe, secure, and to ensure that the weapons are safe, secure, and reliable. These national security laboratories carried out their responsibilities through intense efforts involving almost every field of science, engineering, and technology. Today, they are recognized as three of the worlds premier research and development laboratories. This report sketches the history of the laboratories and their evolution to an integrated three-laboratory system. The characteristics that make them unique are described and some of the major contributions they have made over the years are highlighted. 130. Selective dissolution in copper-tin alloys: Formation of corrosion- resistant patina on ancient Chinese bronze mirrors • date - 2001-05-04 • creator - Taube, M.[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]; Davenport, A.J.[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]; King, A.H.[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering]; Chase, T. III[Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. (United States) Freer Gallery of Art, Dept. of Conservation and Scientific Research] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/274187-uPsMT9/webviewable/ • description - Many ancient Chinese bronze mirrors have survived with a patina that leaves the delicate relief surface decorations intact. The microstructure of these ancient mirrors is two-phase and consists of acicular{alpha}-phase (Cu-rich) regions encased in a{delta}-phase (Sn-rich) matrix. At the surface, there is evidence of selective dissolution of the ct phase; the cc-phase regions are replaced pseudomorphically by a mineral product with the{delta} phase remaining metallic. Electrochemical polarization has been used to drive the copper dealloying process in modem, cast bronze. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction was employed to compare the ancient samples with those that were prepared potentiostatically. Poorly crystallized tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) was found in the{alpha} replacement products of both sample types. The corrosion-resistance of the potentiostatically-treated bronze samples was tested by atmospheric exposure. Comparison with exposed, untreated samples indicated that the treatment was protective. 131. Laser Programs, the first 25 years, 1972-1997 • date - 2006-03-06 • creator - Campbell, E.M. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/16710-UOC0xx/native/ • description - Welcome to Laser Programs. I am pleased that you can share in the excitement of 25 years of history since we began as a small program of 125 people to our current status as a world premier laser and applied science research team of over 1700 members. It is fitting that this program, which was founded on the dream of developing inertial confinement fusion technology, should celebrate this anniversary the same year that the ground is broken for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Also at the same time, we are feeling the excitement of moving forward the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology toward private sector use and developing many alternate scientific applications and technologies derived from our core programs. It is through the hard work of many dedicated scientists, engineers, technicians, and administrative team members that we have been able to accomplish the remarkable internationally recognized achievements highlighted here. I hope this brochure will help you enjoy the opportunity to share in the celebration and pride of our scientific accomplishments; state-of-the-art facilities; and diligent, dedicated people that together make our Laser Programs and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the best in the world. 132. The Planetary Society: Explore • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://planetary.org/explore/ • description - This site offers a guide to the solar system, lunar and planetary missions, and programs to find your weight on other planets and on different moons. There are planetary and space-related activites, including the Red Rover Goes to Mars (RRGTM) Project, which aims to connect students with Mars exploration; and the Red Rover, Red Rover Project where students build model Mars rovers out of LEGO kits. There is also an art gallery and a section on scientists and engineers involved in space missions. 133. DESIGNING AN ARTIFICIAL BRAIN WITH 10,000 EVOLVED NEURAL NET MODULES Initial Thoughts • date - 2000-01-07 • creator - Hugo Garis,Sung-bae Cho,Michael Korkin,Arvin Agah,Science Yonsei • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/396081.html • description - This paper introduces some early thoughts of the authors on how to humanly design an artificial brain containing 10,000 evolved cellular automata-based neural network modules. 1. Introduction By the end of 1997, de Garis's lab, ATR, will have the technological capability of evolving neural net modules in less than a second, i.e. a complete run of a Genetic Algorithm (GA), with tens of thousands of cellular automata based neural circuit growths. Each growth is followed by a fitness evaluation of the system the grown circuit controls with its time dependent neural signaling. This approach uses new evolvable hardware (EHW, E-Hard) based on state-ofthe -art FPGAs (field programmable gate arrays), namely Xilinx's XC6264 chips. The electronic device using these chips, we call a "CBM" (i.e. CAM-Brain Machine [Korkin, de Garis et al 1997]). This machine will be built by the end of 1997. Simultaneously with the development of the CBM will be the development and construction of a kitten rob... 134. K-ANMI: A Mutual Information Based Clustering Algorithm for Categorical Data • date - 2005-11-02 • creator - He, Zengyou • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0511013 • description - Clustering categorical data is an integral part of data mining and has attracted much attention recently. In this paper, we present k-ANMI, a new efficient algorithm for clustering categorical data. The k-ANMI algorithm works in a way that is similar to the popular k-means algorithm, and the goodness of clustering in each step is evaluated using a mutual information based criterion (namely, Average Normalized Mutual Information-ANMI) borrowed from cluster ensemble. Experimental results on real datasets show that k-ANMI algorithm is competitive with those state-of-art categorical data clustering algorithms with respect to clustering accuracy. 135. Pbit and other list sorting algorithms • date - 2005-11-03 • creator - PÅ‚aneta, David S. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0511020 • description - Pbit, besides its simplicity, is definitely the fastest list sorting algorithm. It considerably surpasses all already known methods. Among many advantages, it is stable, linear and be made to run in place. I will compare Pbit with algorithm described by Donald E. Knuth in the third volume of ''The Art of Computer Programming'' and other (QuickerSort, MergeSort) list sorting algorithms. 136. The Signed Distance Function: A New Tool for Binary Classification • date - 2005-11-30 • creator - Boczko, Erik M. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0511105 • description - Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures 137. DEVELOPMENT OF RECOMMENDATIONS AND METHODS TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF SOIL VENTING PERFORMANCE AND CLOSURE: PUBLISHED REPORT • date - 2003-11-11T19:47:07Z • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=74386 • description - PUB REPORT NRMRL-ADA- 01304 DiGiulio*, D.C., and Varadhan, R. Development of Recommendations and Methods to Support Assessment of Soil Venting Performance and Closure. 2001. EPA/600/R-01/070. The purpose of this document is to improve the current "state of the art" and "state of the science" of soil venting application. A strategy is proposed for venting closure. A vadose zone paradigm is developed to dynamically link the performance of ground-water remediation to vadose zone remediation. A detailed andcomprehensive literature review is provided to form the foundation of an innovative method of design based on attainment of a critical pore-gas velocity in contaminated media. Research conducted to improve the science of venting application is summarized in the following areas: (1) linearization of the gas flow equation, (2) one-dimensional steady-state gas flow with slippage, (3) two-dimensional steady-state gas flow and permeability estimation in a domain open to the atmosphere, (4) two-dimensional steady-state gas flow and permeability estimation in a semi-confined domain, (5) two-dimensional transient gas flow and permeability estimation, (6) radius of influence versus critical pore-gas velocity based venting design, (7) modification of a gas extraction well to minimize water-table upwelling, (8) rate-limited vapor transport with diffusion modeling, (9) respiration testing, and (10) one-dimensional, analytical, vadose zone transport modeling to assess mass flux to and from the capillary fringe. 138. Energy conversion& storage program. 1994 annual report • date - 2001-05-04 • creator - Cairns, E.J. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/272533-wqhI2Q/webviewable/ • description - The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. 139. TAMPA BAY MODEL EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT • date - 2005-11-02T22:16:01Z • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=114553 • description - A long term goal of multimedia environmental management is to achieve sustainable ecological resources. Progress towards this goal rests on a foundation of science-based methods and data integrated into predictive multimedia, multi-stressor open architecture modeling systems. The strategic pathway aim is to progress from addressing one stressor at a time to a comprehensive multimedia assessment capability for current and projected ecosystem health. The multimedia tasks in AMD address a number of issues that arise in multimedia modeling with an emphasis on interactions among the atmosphere and multiple other environmental media. While the watershed is a fundamental unit of ecosystem analysis, due primarily to its containment of the hydrologic cycle and related stresses, the relevant atmospheric scale of modeling and analysis for linking to watersheds is regional/continental in scope, encompassing multiple States and/or watersheds. The interaction between the atmosphere and the underlying surface is increasingly being recognized as an important factor in multimedia issues. Targeted development, evaluation and application of state-of-the-art, multi-pollutant atmospheric models of nitrogen and mercury to multimedia issues help determine how to further improve the one-atmosphere models and support ongoing ecological assessments. Software tools are needed to support linkage of models across media and specialized multimedia data analysis applications. This multimedia work helps to bring the results of air pollution control, that primarily stem from addressing human health effects, into the management purview for addressing multimedia or ecosystem problems. The multimedia tasks support Goal 4 (Healthy Communities and Ecosystems) and its Long-Term Goals ECO-3, Restoration - develop scientifically defensible methods to protect ecosystem conditions, and HG-3, Transport and fate - understand the transport and fate of mercury from release to the receptor.<br><br>Targeted development and evaluation of state-of-the-art atmospheric models of nitrogen deposition is important and necessary to make the atmospheric modeling results as scientifically defensible as feasible, given the current state of knowledge, and as applicable as possible to multimedia management issues. The targeted development is accomplished in coordination with the AMD CMAQ development tasks. Application of these new models to select regions with particular management issues helps identify and define mul 140. Biblioteka Srpske akademije nauka i umetnosti • date - 2003-01-01 • creator - ZeÄ�eviÄ‡, Milka • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00002190/ • description - [Serbian abstract] U Ä�lanku koji je pred nama dat je kratak pregled razvoja i sadaÅ¡njeg stanja Biblioteke Srpske akademije nauka i umetnosti. PraÄ‡enje rasta fondova od osnivanja zavrÅ¡ava se konstatacijom problema koji obeleÅ¾avaju rad ove znaÄ�ajne ustanove. ReÅ¡avanje problema otvorilo bi perspektive ove i sliÄ�nih ustanova i dalo im pravo mesto koje treba da zauzmu u sistemu nauke, obrazovanja i opÅ¡te kulture. [English abstract] A short Overview of the development and present state of the Library of Serbian Academy of Science and Art is given in this Work. The Overlook of the growth of its Holdings, since its Foundation, is ending by a constatation of the Problems which are marking the work of this important Institution. The resolution of problems would open the perspectves of this and similar Institutions, and gave them their right place, that they have to occupy in the System of Science, Education and Universal Culture. 141. Agent-Oriented Software Engineering: The State of the Art • date - 2001-01-15 • creator - Michael Wooldridge,Paolo Ciancarini • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/396474.html • description - . Software engineers continually strive to develop tools and techniques to manage the complexity that is inherent in software systems. In this article, we argue that intelligent agents and multi-agent systems are just such tools. We begin by reviewing what is meant by the term "agent", and contrast agents with objects. We then go on to examine a number of prototype techniques proposed for engineering agent systems, including methodologies for agent-oriented analysis and design, formal specification and verification methods for agent systems, and techniques for implementing agent specifications. 1 Introduction Over the past three decades, software engineers have derived a progressively better understanding of the characteristics of complexity in software. It is now widely recognised that interaction is probably the most important single characteristic of complex software. Software architectures that contain many dynamically interacting components, each with their own thread of ... 142. Example-Based Machine Translation: An Adaptation-Guided Retrieval Approach • date - 1999-04-13 • creator - Departmentofcomputer Science,Brona Collins • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/396750.html • description - Example-Based Machine Translation Br#ona Collins Supervisor: P#adraig Cunningham Translation can be viewed as a problem-solving process where a source language text is transformed into its target language equivalent. A machine translation system, solving the problem from #rst-principles, requires more knowledge than has ever been successfully encoded in any system. An alternative approach is to reuse past translation experience encoded in a set of exemplars, or cases. A case which is similar to the input problem will be retrieved and a solution produced by adapting its target language component. This thesis advances the state of the art in example-based machine translation by proposing techniques for predicting the adaptation requirements of a retrieval episode. An Adaptation-Guided Retrieval policy increases the e#ciency of the retriever, which will now search for adaptable cases, and relieves the knowledge-acquisition bottleneck of the adaptation component. A #exible case-storage ... • date - 2002-07-26 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/530593.html • description - putational assembly of our collective knowledge into a cohesive picture of cellular and organism function. With such a comprehensive model, we will be able to explore new types of conservation between organisms and make great strides toward new therapeutics that function on well-characterized pathways. References 1. S. K. Kim et al., Science 293, 2087 (2001). 2. A. Hartemink et al., paper presented at the Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2000, Oahu, Hawaii, 4 to 9 January 2000. 3. D. Pe'er et al., paper presented at the 9th Conference on Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB), Copenhagen, Denmark, 21 to 25 July 2001. 4. H. McAdams, A. Arkin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 814 ( 1997 ). 5. A. J. Hartemink, thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (2001). VIEWPOINT Machine Learning for Science: State of the Art and Future Prospects Eric Mjolsness* and Dennis DeCoste Recent advances in machine learning methods, along with successful applications acr 143. Computer modeling of organic aerogels: Final report of 93-SR-062 • date - 2005-06-26 • creator - Chandler, E.A.; Calef, D.; Ladd, A.J.C. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10172303-Rtf8zw/native/ • description - Goal of the work was to develop computer models of organic aerogel structures, and to study transport process within these materials. During the course of the research understanding of the structure of all aerogels including acid and neutral-catalyzed silica aerogel was developed. The modeling of transport focused on fluid flow in aerogels. We successfully modified a novel state-of-the-art lattice Boltzmann code to simulate flow at low Knudsen number, and developed a simple molecular dynamics code for gas flow at extremely high Knudsen number (low density). These flow-modeling techniques can be used to study aerogel applications for technology transfer; in addition, these techniques can be used to study flow through other porous materials. 144. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 1749 • date - 2003-05-16 • creator - Patrice Bellot,Marc El-bze • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/636151.html • description - A classical information retrieval system ranks documents according to distances between texts and a user query. The answer list is often so long that users cannot examine all the documents retrieved whereas some relevant ones are badly ranked and thus never retrieved. To solve this problem, retrieved documents are automatically clustered. We describe an algorithm based on hierarchical and clustering methods. It classifies the set of documents retrieved by any IR-system. This method is evaluated over the TREC-7 corpora and queries. We show that it improves the results of the retrieval by providing users at least one high precision cluster. The impact of the number of clusters and the way to browse them to build a reordered list are examined. Over TREC corpora and queries, we show that the choice of the number of clusters according to the length of queries improves results compared with a prefixed number. 145. Informing Science InSITE - "Where Parallels Intersect" June 2003 Paper Accepted as a Regular Paper • date - 2003-05-23 • creator - Witold Abramowicz,Tomasz Kaczmarek,Marek Kowalkiewicz • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/636371.html • description - Nowadays, universities are challenged by changing students' requirements, demanding labor market and fast pace environment. The evolution of communication technology allows us to deal with these problems. Advances in e collaboration are crucial to modern learning process, as it prepares students to work in groups over tasks. In this article we propose comprehensive basis for e collaboration platform which has been developed during successful implementation of e collaboration solution in Department of Management Information Systems at The PoznanUniversity of Economics. The solution utilizes state-ofthe -art web portal technology and digital assets management system to provide consistent, common pla tform for system users to work, communicate, and share knowledge. As opposed to e learning solutions, which are designed to provide environment for distant learning, e collaboration aims at sup-porting groupwork, communication, and is rather task oriented. Therefore it is well suited for specific didactic processes in the Department. The implementation took place during two-week summer apprenticeship of 23 students in July 2002. 146. Parallel calculation of sensitivity derivatives for aircraft design using automatic differentiation • date - 2005-06-26 • creator - Bischof, C.H.; Knauff, T.L. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]; Green, L.L.; Haigler, K.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10174618-dwXclI/native/ • description - Realistic multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of advanced aircraft using state-of-the-art computers is an extremely challenging problem from both the physical modelling and computer science points of view. In order to produce an efficient aircraft design, many trade-offs must be made among the various physical design variables. Similarly, in order to produce an efficient design scheme, many trade-offs must be made among the various MDO implementation options. In this paper, we examine the effects of vectorization and coarse-grained parallelization on the SD calculation using a representative example taken from a transonic transport design problem. 147. Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells • date - 2005-06-26 • creator - Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10181035-mIwp45/native/ • description - The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. A second objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication methods for these materials whereby they can be processed in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions. This paper summarizes a comprehensive study that assessed the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on the stability of air-sinterable chromites and the sintering behavior of doped lanthanum manganites. 148. Development of coupled SCALE4.2/GTRAN2 computational capability for advanced MOX fueled assembly designs • date - 2001-05-03 • creator - Vujic, J.; Greenspan, E.; Slater, Postma, T.; Casher, G.; Soares, I.[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering]; Leal, L.[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/64142-JoQZvc/webviewable/ • description - An advanced assembly code system that can efficiently and accurately analyze various designs (current and advanced) proposed for plutonium disposition is being developed by{open_quotes}marrying{close_quotes} two existing state-of-the-art methodologies-GTRAN2 and SCALE 4.2. The resulting code system, GT-SCALE, posses several unique characteristics: exact 2D representation of a complete fuel assembly, while preserving the heterogeniety of each of its pin cells; flexibility in the energy group structure, the present upper limit being 218 groups; a comprehensive cross-section library and material data base; and accurate burnup calculations. The resulting GT-SCALE is expected to be very useful for a wide variety of applications, including the analysis of very heterogeneous UO{sub 2} fueled LWR fuel assemblies; of hexagonal shaped fuel assemblies as of the Russian LWRs; of fuel assemblies for HTGRs; as well as for the analysis of criticality safety and for calculation of the source term of spent fuel. 149. Atomic site-specific theory of H on{gamma}U surface • date - 2001-05-04 • creator - Gonis, A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/303920-vZaDuH/webviewable/ • description - This effort is a fundamental study of local chemical, electronic and physical behavior of metal and metal oxides as exposed to corrosive gases such as hydrogen and water vapor. The study benefits from state-of-art surface science experimental tools, such as scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopies (STM/AFM), photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry (MMBMS), to provide detailed knowledge of how, why and where a chemical reaction initiates and subsequently progresses with time, and theoretical/computational methods at the atomistic scale. The theoretical/computational component reported here consists of the first-principles calculation of the electronic structure of U surfaces exposed to H attack The calculations were designed to shed light on the energetic of various configurations of H interstitial impurities on the surface or in the substrate of U bcc metal. Predictions as to the preference of H to occupy surface or substrate interstitial positions can be made on the basis of the configuration with the lowest ground-state total energy. 150. Classification of behavior using unsupervised temporal neural networks • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Adair, K.L. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]; Argo, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/645492-l0L3q5/webviewable/ • description - Adding recurrent connections to unsupervised neural networks used for clustering creates a temporal neural network which clusters a sequence of inputs as they appear over time. The model presented combines the Jordan architecture with the unsupervised learning technique Adaptive Resonance Theory, Fuzzy ART. The combination yields a neural network capable of quickly clustering sequential pattern sequences as the sequences are generated. The applicability of the architecture is illustrated through a facility monitoring problem. 151. DOE accelerated strategic computing initiative: challenges and opportunities for predictive materials simulation capabilities • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Mailhiot, C. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/647019-KBXv7U/webviewable/ • description - In response to the unprecedented national security challenges derived from the end of nuclear testing, the Defense Programs of the Department of Energy has developed a long-term strategic plan based on a vigorous Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program. The main objective of the SBSS program is to ensure confidence in the performance, safety, and reliability of the stockpile on the basis of a fundamental science-based approach. A central element of this approach is the development of predictive, full-physics, full-scale computer simulation tools. As a critical component of the SBSS program, the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) was established to provide the required advances in computer platforms and to enable predictive, physics-based simulation technologies. Foremost among the key elements needed to develop predictive simulation capabilities, the development of improved physics-based materials models has been universally identified as one of the highest-priority, highest-leverage activity. We indicate some of the materials modeling issues of relevance to stockpile materials and illustrate how the ASCI program will enable the tools necessary to advance the state-of-the-art in the field of computational condensed matter and materials physics. 152. Experimental evidence of improved thermoelectric properties at 300K in Si/Ge superlattice structures • date - 2001-05-04 • creator - Venkatasubramanian, R.; Colpitts, T.; Watko, E.; Malta, D.[Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/319833-w5dXy0/webviewable/ • description - The authors have found that it may be possible to obtain significant enhancement in ZT at 300 K, over conventional bulk SiGe alloys, through the use of Si/Ge Superlattice (SL) structures. The Seebeck coefficient in Si/Ge SL structures was observed to increase rapidly with decreasing SL period with no loss of electrical conductivity. The carrier mobilities in Si/Ge SLs were higher than in a comparable thin-film Si/Ge alloy. The best power factor of the short-period Si/Ge SLs is 112.2{micro}W/K{sup 2} cm, over five-fold better than state-of-the-art n-type, bulk SiGe alloys. Approximately a two to four-fold reduction in thermal conductivity in short-period SL structures, compared to bulk SiGe alloy, was observed. The authors estimate at least a factor of five improvement over current state-of-the-art SiGe alloys, in several Si/Ge SL samples with periodicity of{approximately}45 to 75{angstrom}. The results of this study are promising, but tentative due to the possible effects of substrate and the developmental nature of the thermoelectric property measurements. 153. Some effects of metallic substrate composition on degradation of thermal barrier coatings • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Wright, I.G.; Pint, B.A.; Lee, W.Y.; Alexander, K.B.; Pruessner, K. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/663557-8YNHL5/webviewable/ • description - Comparisons have been made in laboratory isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests of the degradation of oxide scales grown on single crystal superalloy substrates and bond coating alloys intended for use in thermal barrier coatings systems. The influence of desulfurization of the superalloy and bond coating, of reactive element addition to the bond coating alloy, and of oxidation temperature on the spallation behavior of the alumina scales formed was assessed from oxidation kinetics and from SEM observations of the microstructure and composition of the oxide scales. Desulfurization of nickel-base superalloy (in the absence of a Y addition) resulted in an increase in the lifetime of a state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating applied to it compared to a Y-free, non-desulfurized version of the alloy. The lifetime of the same ceramic coating applied without a bond coating to a non-desulfurized model alloy that formed an ideal alumina scale was also found to be at least four times longer than on the Y-doped superalloy plus state-of-the-art bond coating combination. Some explanations are offered of the factors controlling the degradation of such coatings. 154. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES DURING MATCHES AND PROFILE OF ELITE PENCAK SILAT EXPONENTS • date - 2002 • creator - Kong Chuan Teh • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.jssm.org/vol1/n4/7/n4_7.htm • description - This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study describing the physiological responses during competitive matches and profile of elite exponents of an emerging martial art sport, pencak silat. Thirty exponents (21 males and 9 females) were involved in the study. Match responses (i.e. heart rate (HR) throughout match and capillary blood lactate concentration, [La], at pre-match and at the end of every round) were obtained during actual competitive duels. Elite silat exponents' physiological attributes were assessed via anthropometry, vertical jump, isometric grip strength, maximal oxygen uptake, and the Wingate 30 s anaerobic test of the upper and lower body, in the laboratory. The match response data showed that silat competitors' mean HR was > 84% of estimated HR maximum and levels of [La] ranged from 6.7 - 18.7 mMol-1 during matches. This suggests that competitive silat matches are characterised by high aerobic and anaerobic responses. In comparison to elite taekwondo and judo athletes' physiological characteristics, elite silat exponents have lower aerobic fitness and grip strength, but greater explosive leg power (vertical jump). Generally, they also possessed a similar anaerobic capability in the lower but markedly inferior anaerobic capability in the upper body 155. Massively parallel fast elliptic equation solver for three dimensional hydrodynamics and relativity • date - 2001-05-03 • creator - Sholl, P.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Mathews, G.J.[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]; Avila, J.H.[San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/34202-SlswYH/webviewable/ • description - Through the work proposed in this document we expect to advance the forefront of large scale computational efforts on massively parallel distributed-memory multiprocessors. We will develop tools for effective conversion to a parallel implementation of sequential numerical methods used to solve large systems of partial differential equations. The research supported by this work will involve conversion of a program which does state of the art modeling of multi-dimensional hydrodynamics, general relativity and particle transport in energetic astrophysical environments. The proposed parallel algorithm development, particularly the study and development of fast elliptic equation solvers, could significantly benefit this program and other applications involving solutions to systems of differential equations. We shall develop a data communication manager for distributed memory computers as an aid in program conversions to a parallel environment and implement it in the three dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics program discussed below; develop a concurrent system/concurrent subgrid multigrid method. Currently, five systems are approximated sequentially using multigrid successive overrelaxation. Results from an iteration cycle of one multigrid system are used in following multigrid systems iterations. We shall develop a multigrid algorithm for simultaneous computation of the sets of equations. In addition, we shall implement a method for concurrent processing of the subgrids in each of the multigrid computations. The conditions for convergence of the method will be examined. Well compare this technique to other parallel multigrid techniques, such as distributed data/sequential subgrids and the Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid of Frederickson and McBryan. We expect the results of these studies to offer insight and tools both for the selection of new algorithms as well as for conversion of existing large codes for massively parallel architectures. 156. ENTREVISTA A BRUNO LATOUR • date - 2005 • creator - TomÃ¡s SÃ¡nchez-Criado • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.plazamayor.net/antropologia/44nov/entrevistas/nov0501.asp • description - FilÃ³sofo, sociÃ³logo y antropÃ³logo, Bruno Latour es uno de los principales renovadores de los Estudios de la Ciencia (Science Studies). Tras realizar estudios de campo en Costa de Marfil, se trasladÃ³ a Estados Unidos para especializarse en el estudio de los cientÃ­ficos y los ingenieros en acciÃ³n. Desde los aÃ±os 80, iniciÃ³ junto a otros investigadores un enfoque etnogrÃ¡fico sobre esta temÃ¡tica. Actualmente es professeur en el Centre de Sociologie de l'Innovation de Paris. La presente entrevista tuvo lugar durante la presentaciÃ³n de la exposiciÃ³n 'Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy' (http://makingthingspublic.zkm.de/ ) en el ZKM de Karlsruhe (Alemania). Dicha exposiciÃ³n fue comisariada por Latour, junto a Peter Weibel, y es posterior a la que llevÃ³ por tÃ­tulo 'Iconoclash: Beyond Image Wars in Science, Religion and Art' sobre la iconoclasia y las guerras de imÃ¡genes en ciencia, arte y religiÃ³n, en la que desarrollaban una lÃ­nea de reflexiÃ³n acerca de la importancia de la mediaciÃ³n en estos tres dominios. Crucial para esta exposiciÃ³n es la idea de ding o thing, como un intento de recuperar la raÃ­z comÃºn en lenguas germÃ¡nicas para 'cosas' y 'parlamentos' (e.g. ThingstÃ¤tten), de devolver a las 'cosas', los objetosâ€¦ su estatuto de causas, en el sentido jurÃ­dico, de formaciones y agregaciones polÃ­ticas. La exposiciÃ³n representa para Bruno Latour una extensiÃ³n del argumento y el proyecto de 'epistemologÃ­a polÃ­tica' de su libro Politics of Nature. 157. Imaging vector fields using Line Integral Convolution • date - 2006-05-15 • creator - Cabral, B.; Leedom, L.C. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10185520-hIb0EP/ • description - Imaging vector fields has applications in science, art, image processing and special effects. An effective new approach is to use linear and curvilinear filtering techniques to locally blur textures along a vector field. This approach builds on several previous texture generation and filtering techniques. It is, however, unique because it is local, one-dimensional and independent of any predefined geometry or texture. The technique is general and capable of imaging arbitrary two- and three-dimensional vector fields. The local one-dimensional nature of the algorithm lends itself to highly parallel and efficient implementations. Furthermore, the curvilinear filter is capable of rendering detail on very intricate vector fields. Combining this technique with other rendering and image processing techniques -- like periodic motion filtering -- results in richly informative and striking images. The technique can also produce novel special effects. 158. W. Timothy Strayer Computer Science Report No. TR-91-34 December 6, • date - 1992-06-19 • creator - W. Timothy Strayer • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/30329.html • description - ARTS is a distributed real-time operating system designed to provide the user with a predictable, analyzable, and reliable service. The Xpress Transfer Protocol is a next-generation, high performance, high functionality transport layer protocol. We examine the role of the communication subsystem in providing a real-time system communication support. We use the ARTS system and XTP as a case study for understanding the needs of a distributed real-time system and how a transport layer protocol may be able to help meet those needs. Finally, we offer suggestions about how ARTS may be able to take advantage of features in XTP, and how XTP may be augmented to better serve a distributed real-time system such as ARTS. 1. Introduction The ARTS operating system ([TOKU89], [TOKU90]) is a distributed real-time operating system designed for the Advanced Real-Time Technology (ART) testbed at Carnegie-Mellon University. The goal of the ARTS system is to provide users with a predictable, analyzable, an... 159. Genetic Art 160. NASA - NASA Kids Club Home Page 161. Advanced reservoir management for independent oil and gas producers • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Sgro, A.G.; Kendall, R.P.; Kindel, J.M.; Webster, R.B.; Whitney, E.M. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/390641-WpMVCo/webviewable/ • description - There are more than fifty-two hundred oil and gas producers operating in the United States today. Many of these companies have instituted improved oil recovery programs in some form, but very few have had access to state-of-the-art modeling technologies routinely used by major producers to manage these projects. Since independent operators are playing an increasingly important role in the production of hydrocarbons in the United States, it is important to promote state-of-the-art management practices, including the planning and monitoring of improved oil recovery projects, within this community. This is one of the goals of the Strategic Technologies Council, a special interest group of independent oil and gas producers. Reservoir management technologies have the potential to increase oil recovery while simultaneously reducing production costs. These technologies were pioneered by major producers and are routinely used by them. Independent producers confront two problems adopting this approach: the high cost of acquiring these technologies and the high cost of using them even if they were available. Effective use of reservoir management tools requires, in general, the services of a professional (geoscientist or engineer) who is already familiar with the details of setting up, running, and interpreting computer models. 162. Audience Interactivity: A Case Study in Three Perspectives Including Remarks About a Future Production • date - 1997-05-12 • creator - Rob Fisher,Paul Vanouse,Roger Dannenberg,Jeff Christensen • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/30489.html • description - this paper and of the show suggest, embarking on research in the area of interactivity is serious technical and conceptual business. Adding to the mix the desire to communicate scientific information and making the final production entertaining as well would seemingly impose so many restrictions and parameters that one would have to think twice about trying to create art out of this stew. In fact, as our clear enthusiasm and motivation indicates, all of us who worked on "Journey..." can hardly wait to begin the R & D for the Brain Project, so fertile does this groundbreaking work appear. For what we are doing is producing a new artistic medium, with full knowledge that we have stepped into virtually unexplored territory, and that we are defining a new state of art/science in the process. 163. School of Computer Science • date - 2000-08-21 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/386649.html • description - We have developed an artificial neural network based gaze tracking system which can be customized to individual users. A three layer feed forward network, trained with standard error back propagation, is used to determine the position of a user's gaze from the appearance of the user's eye. Unlike other gaze trackers, which normally require the user to wear cumbersome headgear, or to use a chin rest to ensure head immobility, our system is entirely non-intrusive. Currently, the best intrusive gaze tracking systems are accurate to approximately 0.75 degrees. In our experiments, we have been able to achieve an accuracy of 1.5 degrees, while allowing head mobility. In its current implementation, our system works at 15 hz. In this paper we present an empirical analysis of the performance of a large number of artificial neural network architectures for this task. Suggestions for further explorations for neurally based gaze trackers are presented, and are related to other similar art... 164. Multidimensional reactor kinetics modeling • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Diamond, D.J. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/405746-d9zPIr/webviewable/ • description - There is general agreement that for many light water reactor transient calculations, it is-necessary to use a multidimensional neutron kinetics model coupled to a thermal-hydraulics model for satisfactory results. These calculations are needed for a variety of applications for licensing safety analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), operational support, and training. The latter three applications have always required best-estimate models, but in the past applications for licensing could be satisfied with relatively simple models. By using more sophisticated best-estimate models, the consequences of these calculations are better understood, and the potential for gaining relief from restrictive operating limits increases. Hence, for all of the aforementioned applications, it is important to have the ability to do best-estimate calculations with multidimensional neutron kinetics models. coupled to sophisticated thermal-hydraulic models. Specifically, this paper reviews the status of multidimensional neutron kinetics modeling which would be used in conjunction with thermal-hydraulic models to do core dynamics calculations, either coupled to a complete NSSS representation or in isolation. In addition, the paper makes recommendations as to what should be the state-of-the-art for the next ten years. The review is an update to a previous review of the status as of ten years ago. The general requirements for a core dynamics code and the modeling available for such a code, discussed in that review, are still applicable. The emphasis in the current review is on the neutron kinetics assuming that the necessary thermal-hydraulic capability exists. In addition to discussing the basic neutron kinetics, discussion is given of related modeling (other than thermal- hydraulics). The capabilities and limitations of current computer codes are presented to understand the state-of-the-art and to help clarify the future direction of model development in this area. 165. The art and science of magnet design: A Festschrift in honor of Klaus Halbach. Volume 1 • date - 2001-05-03 • creator - Cross, J.[ed.] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/41368-HovV02/webviewable/ • description - This is a collection of technical papers and personal remembrances written expressly for the Halbach Symposium and dedicated to Klaus Halbach. The topics presented offer a hint of the diversity of Klauss scientific career. Most of the papers deal with magnets for accelerators and accelerator facilities. Other topics covered are free electron lasers, Halbach array motor/generators, radiation and gas conduction heat transport across a dewar multilayer insulation system, and surface structural determination from Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database. 166. Continuous, Automated Manufacturing of String Ribbon Si PV Modules: Final Report, 21 May 1998 - 20 May 2001 • date - 2002-01-16 • creator - Hanoka, J. I. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/786354-xKB9vI/native/ • description - This report summarizes the work done under a three-year PVMaT Phase 5A2 program. The overall goal was to attain a continuous, highly automated, fully integrated PV production line. In crystal growth, advances were made that resulted in lower substrate costs, higher yields, and lower capital and labor costs. A new string material was developed and implemented. Following this development, better control of the edge meniscus was achieved. A completely new furnace design was accomplished, and this became the standard platform in our new factory. Automation included ribbon thickness control and laser cutting of String Ribbon strips. Characterization of Evergreen's String Ribbon silicon was done with extensive help from the NREL laboratories, and this work provided a foundation for higher efficiency cells in the future. Advances in cell manufacturing included the development of high-speed printing and drying methods for Evergreen's unique cell making method and the design and building of a completely automated cell line from the beginning of front-contact application to the final tabbing of the cells. A so-called no-etch process whereby substrates from crystal growth go directly into p-n junction formation and emerge from this sequence without needing to go in and out of plastic carriers for any wet-chemical processing was developed. Process development as well as automation were brought to bear on improvements in soldering technology and cell interconnection in general. Using state-of-the-art manufacturing science, the Fraunhofer USA Center for Manufacturing Innovation at Boston University facilitated layout and process flow for the operation of our new factory. Evergreen Solar's new factory began operations in the second quarter of 2001. A good measure of the significant impact of this PVMaT subcontract is that virtually all of the manufacturing developments stemming from this project have been incorporated in this new factory. 167. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Project summary. Volume 1 • date - 2006-01-23 • creator - Mirsky, S.M.; Hayes, J.E.; Miller, L.A. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/42512-c2n0hl/webviewable/ • description - This eight-volume report presents guidelines for performing verification and validation (V&V) on Artificial Intelligence (Al) systems with nuclear applications. The guidelines have much broader application than just expert systems; they are also applicable to object-oriented programming systems, rule-based systems, frame-based systems, model-based systems, neural nets, genetic algorithms, and conventional software systems. This is because many of the components of AI systems are implemented in conventional procedural programming languages, so there is no real distinction. The report examines the state of the art in verifying and validating expert systems. V&V methods traditionally applied to conventional software systems are evaluated for their applicability to expert systems. One hundred fifty-three conventional techniques are identified and evaluated. These methods are found to be useful for at least some of the components of expert systems, frame-based systems, and object-oriented systems. A taxonomy of 52 defect types and their delectability by the 153 methods is presented. With specific regard to expert systems, conventional V&V methods were found to apply well to all the components of the expert system with the exception of the knowledge base. The knowledge base requires extension of the existing methods. Several innovative static verification and validation methods for expert systems have been identified and are described here, including a method for checking the knowledge base {open_quotes}semantics{close_quotes} and a method for generating validation scenarios. Evaluation of some of these methods was performed both analytically and experimentally. A V&V methodology for expert systems is presented based on three factors: (1) a systems judged need for V&V (based in turn on its complexity and degree of required integrity); (2) the life-cycle phase; and (3) the system component being tested. 168. Computing & Information Sciences • date - 2006-05-22 • creator - Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Lewis, J.R. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10168837-vFtyrA/ • description - Computing is an integral part of the research being conducted by scientists in the Molecular Sciences Research Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The advanced computing infrastructure for the Computing and Information Sciences (C&IS) program of the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory will provide a state-of-the-art facility where scientific research can be performed to support US Department of Energy missions in environmental restoration and waste management, energy and environmental quality, and science and technology. The C&IS program is composed of five research and applied development facilities: High Performance Computing, Data Management and Archiving, Graphics and Visualization, Distributed Computing, Network Infrastructure, and Computer Instrumentation and Electronics. This report briefly describes the programs of these five facilities. 169. Gender & Science Digital Library at SWE Conference • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://content.nsdl.org/wbr/Issue.php?issue=23 • description - October 2002-- The Gender & Science Digital Library project will be presenting at the Society of Women Engineers (SWE) conference in Detroit, MI October 9-12 (http://www.swe.org). This yearÂ’s theme is Â“The Art of EngineeringÂ”. The GSDLÂ’s presentation will be part of the Â“Creative Web Applications and E-commerceÂ” series and will demonstrate how technology can be a powerful tool in developing a collection of good quality, gender-equitable STEM resources for both K-12 and higher education audiences. 170. Dynamic characterization and damage detection in the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande • date - 2005-06-26 • creator - Farrar, C.R.; Baker, W.E.; Bell, T.M.; Cone, K.M.; Darling, T.W.; Duffey, T.A.; Eklund, A.; Migliori, A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10158042-RXRczr/native/ • description - In the 1960s and 1970s over 2500 bridges were built in the U.S. with a design similar to those on Interstate 40 over the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico. These bridges were built without structural redundancy and typically have only two plate girders carrying the entire dead and live loads. Failure of either girder is assumed to produce catastrophic failure of the bridge, hence these bridges are referred to as fracture-critical bridges. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have provided funds to New Mexico State University (NMSU) through the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSH&TD) and The Alliance For Transportation Research (ATR) for evaluation and testing of the existing fracture critical bridges over the Rio Grande. Because the 1-40 bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed during the summer of 1993, the investigators were able to introduce simulated fatigue cracks, similar to those observed in the field, into the structure in order to test various damage identification methods and to observe the changes in load paths through the structure caused by the cracking. To support this research effort, NMSU contracted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform experimental modal analyses, and to develop experimentally verified numerical models of the bridge. Scientists from the LANLs Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group (P-10) applied state-of-the-art sensors and data acquisition software to the modal tests. Engineers from the LANLs Advanced Engineering Technology Group (MEE-13) conducted ambient and forced vibration tests to verify detailed and simplified finite element models of the bridge. Forced vibration testing was done in conjunction with engineers from Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) who provided and operated a hydraulic shaker. 171. Final report: Prototyping a combustion corridor • date - 2003-05-05 • creator - Rutland, Christopher J.; Leach, Joshua • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/771366-3cXAuQ/native/ • description - The Combustion Corridor is a concept in which researchers in combustion and thermal sciences have unimpeded access to large volumes of remote computational results. This will enable remote, collaborative analysis and visualization of state-of-the-art combustion science results. The Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison partnered with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and several other universities to build and test the first stages of a combustion corridor. The ERC served two important functions in this partnership. First, we work extensively with combustion simulations so we were able to provide real world research data sets for testing the Corridor concepts. Second, the ERC was part of an extension of the high bandwidth based DOE National Laboratory connections to universities. 172. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics • date - 2003-05-05 • creator - Schwartz, Brian • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/771360-VbOyd2/native/ • description - The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is illustrated with pictures of promising award winning high school students who, it is hoped, will be the leading researchers of physics in the decades ahead. Appropriately the last entries in the timeline are not achievements but open questions to be answered in the future. 173. Properties of doped Bi-based superconductors. Final technical report for the contract period June 1, 1997 to May 31, 2001 • date - 2003-10-27 • creator - Payne, James E. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/771351-hwKLci/native/ • description - This report summarizes the results of an extension of grant DE-FG05-93ER45493. The research goal was to have undergraduate students involved in a study of the effects of doping on the properties of BSCCO superconductors. Specifically the students investigated the effects in both bulk samples and in single crystals (whiskers). Of equal importance was the opportunity afforded minority students in a four-year institution to participate in state-of-the-art research and increase the number of students entering graduate school in science, engineering and mathematics. Over 75% of the undergraduates involved with the research enrolled in graduate school. The project in collaboration with Clemson University was able to identify and support an African American graduate student who will receive his doctorate in December of 2001. 174. Computational Software for Building Biochemical Reaction Network Models with Differential Equations • date - 2005-12-20 • creator - Allen, Nicholas Alexander • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-12122005-110907/ • description - The cell is a highly ordered and intricate machine within which a wide variety of chemical processes take place. The full scientific understanding of cellular physiology requires accurate mathematical models that depict the temporal dynamics of these chemical processes. Modelers build mathematical models of chemical processes primarily from systems of differential equations. Although developing new biological ideas is more of an art than a science, constructing a mathematical model from a biological idea is largely mechanical and automatable. <p> This dissertation describes the practices and processes that biological modelers use for modeling and simulation. Computational biologists struggle with existing tools for creating models of complex eukaryotic cells. This dissertation develops new processes for biological modeling that make model creation, verification, validation, and testing less of a struggle. This dissertation introduces computational software that automates parts of the biological modeling process, including model building, transformation, execution, analysis, and evaluation. User and methodological requirements heavily affect the suitability of software for biological modeling. This dissertation examines the modeling software in terms of these requirements. <p> Intelligent, automated model evaluation shows a tremendous potential to enable the rapid, repeatable, and cost-effective development of accurate models. This dissertation presents a case study that indicates that automated model evaluation can reduce the evaluation time for a budding yeast model from several hours to a few seconds, representing a more than 1000-fold improvement. Although constructing an automated model evaluation procedure requires considerable domain expertise and skill in modeling and simulation, applying an existing automated model evaluation procedure does not. With this automated model evaluation procedure, the computer can then search for and potentially discover models superior to those that the biological modelers developed previously. 175. Microstructure of Amorphous-Silicon-Based Solar Cell Materials by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering; Final Subcontract Report: 6 April 1994 - 30 June 1998 • date - 2003-06-23 • creator - Williamson, D.L. (Department of Physics: Colorado School of Mines) • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/14403-xWFOEF/webviewable/ • description - This report describes work performed to provide details of the microstructure in high-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon and related alloys for the nanometer size scale. The materials studied were prepared by current state-of-the-art deposition methods, as well as new and emerging deposition techniques. The purpose was to establish the role of microstructural features in controlling the opto-electronic and photovoltaic properties. The approach centered around the use of the uncommon technique of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), which is highly sensitive to microvoids and columnar-like microstructure. Nanovoids of H-rich clusters with 1 to 4 nm sizes in a-Si:H at the 1 vol.% level correlate with poor solar-cell and opto-electronic behavior. Larger-scale features due either to surface roughness or residual columnar-like structures were found in present state-of-the-art device material. Ge alloying above about 10 to 20 at.% typically leads to significant increases in heterogeneity , and this has been shown to be due in part to non-uniform Ge distributions. Ge additions also cause columnar-like growth, but this can be reduced or eliminated by enhanced ion bombardment during growth. In contrast, C alloying typically induces a random nanostructure consisting of a narrow size distribution of 1-nm-sized objects with a high density, consistent with the notably poorer opto-electronic behavior of these alloys. 176. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND LEGAL APPLICATIONS • date - 2002-12-10T18:31:59Z • creator - E.T. Slonecker • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=31051 • description - Aerial photographic interpretation is the process of examining objects on aerial photographs and determining their significance. t is often defined as both art and science because the process, and the quality of the derived information, is often a qualitative nature and much depends on the training, ability, dedication and imagination of the photo interpreter to make specific identifications and complex inferences. t is difficulty to describe photographic interpretation without also discussing two other related disciplines: photogrammetry and remote sensing. hotogrammetry is defined as the science of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment by measuring photographic images. emote sensing is the broader field of techniques that utilize some type of electromagnetic energy to record information about a target surface without physical contact. hoto interpretation is one of the original forms of remote sensing and probably still one of the most practiced forms, although the use of satellite and aircraft imagining sensors has increased in utilization in the environmental sciences. erial photographs have been used successfully in courtroom proceedings for many years and provide distinct advantages for gathering and presenting information about the earth's surface and its processes. owever extraction useable information from aerial photographs is often more complex than it may seem to those unfamiliar with the technology. his paper will review the basics of aerial photographic interpretation and discuss some of the issues related to its utilization in a legal arena. 177. Why do we teach ethnomathematics? • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://cs.beloit.edu/~chavey/M103/7Views.html • description - This paper presents a response to the Beloit College academic senate motion in 1990 that asked how an institution can responsibly represent the best of Western intellectual heritage while providing other perspectives. The goals are to show both the strengths of Western mathematics and the mathematics of other cultures by teaching ethnomathematics. Seven views of teaching and learning the connections between mathematics and world cultures are presented. These are historical, historical modern, anthropological, educational, science studies, mathematical, and modeling. Other terms: Western mathematics, Experimental mathematics, Descriptive mathematics, games, art, patterns, language. 178. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY INSTRUMENTATION DIVISION, R AND D PROGRAMS, FACILITIES, STAFF. • date - 2001-09-28 • creator - INSTRUMENTATION DIVISION STAFF • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/14646-Gk8YOZ/native/ • description - To develop state-of-the-art instrumentation required for experimental research programs at BNL, and to maintain the expertise and facilities in specialized high technology areas essential for this work. Development of facilities is motivated by present BNL research programs and anticipated future directions of BNL research. The Division's research efforts also have a significant impact on programs throughout the world that rely on state-of-the-art radiation detectors and readout electronics. Our staff scientists are encouraged to: Become involved in challenging problems in collaborations with other scientists; Offer unique expertise in solving problems; and Develop new devices and instruments when not commercially available. Scientists from other BNL Departments are encouraged to bring problems and ideas directly to the Division staff members with the appropriate expertise. Division staff is encouraged to become involved with research problems in other Departments to advance the application of new ideas in instrumentation. The Division Head integrates these efforts when they evolve into larger projects, within available staff and budget resources, and defines the priorities and direction with concurrence of appropriate Laboratory program leaders. The Division Head also ensures that these efforts are accompanied by strict adherence to all ES and H regulatory mandates and policies of the Laboratory. The responsibility for safety and environmental protection is integrated with supervision of particular facilities and conduct of operations. 179. ICF quarterly report January - March 1997 volume 7, number 3 • date - 2001-10-16 • creator - Murray, J • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/14765-09XfYr/native/ • description - The National Ignition Facility Project The mission of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to produce ignition and modest energy gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Achieving these goals will maintain U.S. world leadership in ICF and will directly benefit the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) missions in national security, science and technology, energy resources, and industrial competitiveness. Development and operation of the NIF are consistent with DOE goals for environmental quality, openness to the community, and nuclear nonproliferation and arms control. Although the primary mission of inertial fusion is for defense applications, inertial fusion research will provide critical information for the development of inertial fusion energy. The NIF, under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is a cornerstone of the DOE's science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program for addressing high-energy-density physics issues in the absence of nuclear weapons testing. In pursuit of this mission, the DOE's Defense Programs has developed a state-of-the-art capability with the NIF to investigate high-energy-density physics in the laboratory with a microfusion capability for defense and energy applications. As a Strategic System Acquisition, the NIF Project has a separate and disciplined reporting chain to DOE as shown below. 180. A Latent Variable Modelling Approach To The Acoustic-To-Articulatory Mapping Problem • date - 2000-05-04 • creator - A. Carreira-perpinan,Steve Renals • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/388134.html • description - We present a latent variable approach to the acoustic-toarticulatory mapping problem, where different vocal tract configurations can give rise to the same acoustics. In latent variable modelling, the combined acoustic and articulatory data are assumed to have been generated by an underlying low-dimensional process. A parametric probabilistic model is estimated and mappings are derived from the respective conditional distributions. This has the advantage over other methods, such as articulatory codebooks or neural networks, of directly addressing the nonuniqueness problem. We demonstrate our approach with electropalatographic and acoustic data from the ACCOR database. 1. INTRODUCTION Recently, there has been a growing awareness in the speech recognition field that blind science based on acoustical information alone might not tend to more improvements of state of the art computational methods of speech production [5]. Blind science means here the use of complex generic statistical mode... 181. 1999 Summer Research Program for High School Juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics • date - 2003-04-21 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/761594-nTioWP/webviewable/ • description - oak-B202--During the summer of 1999, 12 students from Rochester-area high schools participated in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' Summer High School Research Program. The goal of this program is to excite a group of high school students about careers in the areas of science and technology by exposing them to research in a state-of-the-art environment. Too often, students are exposed to ''research'' only through classroom laboratories that have prescribed procedures and predictable results. In LLE's summer program, the students experience all of the trials, tribulations, and rewards of scientific research. By participating in research in a real environment, the students often become more enthusiastic about careers in science and technology. In addition, LLE gains from the contributions of the many highly talented students who are attracted to the program. The students spent most of their time working on their individual research projects with members of LLE's technical staff. The projects were related to current research activities at LLE and covered a broad range of areas of interest including laser modeling, diagnostic development, chemistry, liquid crystal devices, and opacity data visualization. The students, their high schools, their LLE supervisors and their project titles are listed in the table. Their written reports are collected in this volume. The students attended weekly seminars on technical topics associated with LLE's research. Topics this year included lasers, fusion, holography, optical materials, global warming, measurement errors, and scientific ethics. The students also received safety training, learned how to give scientific presentations, and were introduced to LLE's resources, especially the computational facilities. The program culminated with the High School Student Summer Research Symposium on 25 August at which the students presented the results of their research to an audience that included parents, teachers, and members of LIX. Each student spoke for approximately ten minutes and answered questions. 182. AnÃ¡lise de redes sociais como mÃ©todo para a CiÃªncia da InformaÃ§Ã£o • date - 2006-01-01 • creator - Silva, Antonio Braz de Oliveira e • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00006109/ • description - [Portuguese Abstract] Este artigo apresenta a AnÃ¡lise de Redes Sociais (ARS) como um mÃ©todo a ser aplicado em estudos na CiÃªncia da InformaÃ§Ã£o (CI). O texto dÃ¡ uma visÃ£o geral da fundamentaÃ§Ã£o teÃ³rica da ARS, relacionando estudos que indicam ser uma metodologia originÃ¡ria das ciÃªncias sociais. Em seguida, sÃ£o apresentadas pesquisas que mostram como a anÃ¡lise de redes, sociais ou nÃ£o, Ã© utilizada em diferentes Ã¡reas do conhecimento, como a FÃ­sica e a CiÃªncia da ComputaÃ§Ã£o. Finalmente, sÃ£o apresentados estudos na Ã¡rea da CI que utilizaram a ARS indicando-se, ainda, os benefÃ­cios do seu uso como uma ferramenta metodolÃ³gica na Ã¡rea. [English Abstract] This paper discusses the Social Network Analysis (SNA) as a method to be applied on researches in the Information Science (IS) field. It gives an overview of the theoretical basis of the SNA, using texts that indicate its origin in the social sciences field. Researches on network analysis conducted in different areas, whether social or not, such as Physics and Computer Science, are presented. Finally, studies on subjects related to the IS are showed and, in the conclusion, the authors stress the benefits brought out by the use of SNA as a methodological tool in IS. 183. Operational dose rate visualization techniques • date - 2005-06-24 • creator - Schwarz, R.A.; Morford, R.J.; Carter, L.L.; Jones, G.B.; Greenborg, J. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10141467-RbEC52/native/ • description - The analysis of the gamma ray dose rate in the vicinity of a radiation source can be greatly aided by the use of recent state-of-the-art visualization techniques. The method involves calculating dose rates at thousands of locations within a complex geometry system. This information is then processed to create contour plots of the dose rate. Additionally, when these contour plots are created, animations can be created that dynamically display the dose rate as the shields or sources are moved. 184. Modeling of X-ray beamlines and devices • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Ice, G.E. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/485985-pzE1L8/webviewable/ • description - X-ray beamlines on synchrotron sources are similar in size and complexity to beamlines at state-of-the-art neutron sources. The design principles, tools, and optimization strategies for synchrotron beamlines are also similar to those of neutron beamlines. The authors describe existing design tools for modeling synchrotron radiation beamlines and describe how these tools have evolved over the last two decades. The development of increasingly powerful modeling tools has been driven by the escalating cost and sophistication of state-of-the-art beamlines and by a world-wide race to exploit advanced synchrotron radiation sources. 185. A Decision Support System for Optimum Use of Fertilizers • date - 2001-08-01 • creator - R. L. Hoskinson; J. R. Hess; R. K. Fink • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10135-GOBGTJ/webviewable/ • description - The Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) is an expert system being developed by the Site-Specific Technologies for Agriculture (SST4Ag) precision farming research project at the INEEL. DSS4Ag uses state-of-the-art artificial intelligence and computer science technologies to make spatially variable, site-specific, economically optimum decisions on fertilizer use. The DSS4Ag has an open architecture that allows for external input and addition of new requirements and integrates its results with existing agricultural systems' infrastructures. The DSS4Ag reflects a paradigm shift in the information revolution in agriculture that is precision farming. We depict this information revolution in agriculture as an historic trend in the agricultural decision-making process. 186. FFTF and Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule • date - 2003-03-03 • creator - GANTT, D.A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/805395-krvoQv/webviewable/ • description - This Resource Load Schedule (RLS) addresses two missions. The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) mission, funded by DOE-EM, is to transition assigned, surplus facilities to a safe and compliant, low-cost, stable, deactivated condition (requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance) pending eventual reuse or D&D. Facilities to be transitioned include the 309 Building Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) and Nuclear Energy Legacy facilities. This mission is funded through the Environmental Management (EM) Project Baseline Summary (PBS) RL-TP11, ''Advanced Reactors Transition.'' The second mission, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Project, is funded through budget requests submitted to the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (DOE-NE). The FFTF Project mission is maintaining the FFTF, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and affiliated 400 Area buildings in a safe and compliant standby condition. This mission is to preserve the condition of the plant hardware, software, and personnel in a manner not to preclude a plant restart. This revision of the Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) is based upon the technical scope in the latest revision of the following project and management plans: Fast Flux Test Facility Standby Plan (Reference 1); Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan (Reference 2); and 309 Building Transition Plan (Reference 4). The technical scope, cost, and schedule baseline is also in agreement with the concurrent revision to the ART Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP), which is available in an electronic version (only) on the Hanford Local Area Network, within the ''Hanford Data Integrator (HANDI)'' application. 187. New advances in the modeling of high-temperature superconductors • date - 2005-06-24 • creator - Freitag, L.; Plassmann, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]; Jones, M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10130932-aquVm1/native/ • description - In this paper, we present a new discrete formulation that maintains discrete invariance and is suitable for use on nonorthogonal meshes. This formulation, unlike its predecessors, allows us to easily use adaptive mesh refinement to concentrate grid points where error contributions are large (near vortex centers). In this way we reduce the total number of grid points required to accurately capture vortex configurations and allow the possibility of solving problems previously considered intractable. To solve these large problems, we require the memory capabilities and computational power of state-of-the-art parallel computers. To use these machines, we have developed scalable libraries for adaptive mesh refinement and partitioning on two-dimensional triangular grids. This general-purpose software uses bisection of the longest side to refine triangles in which error contributions are large. These adaptive meshes are both unstructured and dynamic, and we present a new geometric partitioning, algorithm that strives to minimize communication cost by ensuring good partition aspect ratios. We present computational results showing the efficiency of these adaptive techniques for a superconductivity application. 188. Three real-space discretization techniques in electronic structure calculations • date - 2006-01-24 • creator - Rantala, T. T. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0601201 • description - Comment: 39 pages, 10 figures, accepted to a special issue of "physica status solidi (b) - basic solid state physics" devoted to the CECAM workshop "State of the art developments and perspectives of real-space electronic structure techniques in condensed matter and molecular physics". v2: Minor stylistic and typographical changes, partly inspired by referee comments 189. Handwriting Examination: Moving from Art to Science • date - 2004-02-09 • creator - Jarman, Kristin H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hanlen, Richard C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Manzolillo, P A.(USPIS) • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15001462-Fypxed/native/ • description - The scientific basis for handwriting individuality and the expertise of handwriting examiners has been questioned in several court cases and law review articles. The criticisms were originally directed at the proficiency and expertise of forensic document examiners (FDE's). However, these criticisms also illustrate the lack of empirical data to support and validate the premises and methodology of handwriting examination. As a result the admissibility and weight of FDE testimony has been called into question. These assaults on the scientific integrity of handwriting analysis have created an urgent need for the forensic document examination community to develop objective standards, measurable criteria and a uniform methodology supported by properly controlled studies that evaluate and validate the significance of measurable handwriting characteristics. 190. A comparative investigation of thickness measurements of ultra-thin water films by scanning probe techniques • date - 2005-12-06 • creator - Opitz, A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0512109 • description - The reliable operation of micro and nanomechanical devices necessitates a thorough knowledge of the water film thickness present on the surfaces of these devices with an accuracy in the nm range. In this work, the thickness of an ultra-thin water layer was measured by distance tunnelling spectroscopy and distance dynamic force spectroscopy during desorption in an ultra-high vacuum system, from about 2.5 nm up to complete desorption at 1E-8 mbar. The tunnelling current as well as the amplitude of vibration and the normal force were detected as a function of the probe-sample distance. In these experiments, a direct conversion of the results of both methods is possible. From the standpoint of surface science, taking the state-of-the-art concerning adsorbates on surfaces into consideration, dynamic force spectroscopy provides the most accurate values. The previously reported tunnelling spectroscopy, requiring the application of significantly high voltages, generally leads to values that are 25 times higher than values determined by dynamic force spectroscopy. 191. Goal/Completion Abstract. The Wilbur Wright College Environmental Technician Training Program • date - 2003-05-19 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/808326-L5EI1u/native/ • description - In September 1993 DOE through Argonne National Laboratory awarded Wilbur Wright College a grant to develop an Environmental Technician training program. The primary goals included developing a comprehensive curriculum for the best possible training of environmental technicians as well as the building of a state-of-the-art facility to serve these students. The specific goal of the creation of the Environmental Technology Department was to train participants in identifying, auditing, sampling, and managing hazardous substances, handling in routine use, as well as responding to chemical emergencies, and in minimizing the generation of hazardous waste through pollution prevention. The development of the facilities included a state-of-the-art classroom with projection equipment and satellite connection, a computer lab, and a fully equipped wet science laboratory. The program was intended to make available a range of education options for students. Because of the accomplishments of the Environmental Technology Department, it must be considered a success that continues after the completion of the grant. 192. Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator - User's Guide, Version 1.0 • date - 2003-05-05 • creator - HUTCHINSON, SCOTT A; KEITER, ERIC R.; HOEKSTRA, ROBERT J.; WATERS, LON J.; RUSSO, THOMAS V.; RANKIN, ERIC LAMONT; WIX, STEVEN D. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/808595-LjnRHm/native/ • description - This manual describes the use of the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator code for simulating electrical circuits at a variety of abstraction levels. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support,in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. As such, the development has focused on improving the capability over the current state-of-the-art in the following areas: (1) Capability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms (up to thousands of processors). Note that this includes support for most popular parallel and serial computers. (2) Improved performance for all numerical kernels (e.g., time integrator, nonlinear and linear solvers) through state-of-the-art algorithms and novel techniques. (3) A client-server or multi-tiered operating model wherein the numerical kernel can operate independently of the graphical user interface (GUI). (4) Object-oriented code design and implementation using modern coding-practices that ensure that the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator will be maintainable and extensible far into the future. The code is a parallel code in the most general sense of the phrase--a message passing parallel implementation--which allows it to run efficiently on the widest possible number of computing platforms. These include serial, shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel as well as heterogeneous platforms. Furthermore, careful attention has been paid to the specific nature of circuit-simulation problems to ensure that optimal parallel efficiency is achieved even as the number of processors grows. Another feature required by designers is the ability to add device models, many specific to the needs of Sandia, to the code. To this end, the device package in the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator is designed to support a variety of device model inputs. These input formats include standard analytical models, behavioral models and look-up tables. Combined with this flexible interface is an architectural design that greatly simplifies the addition of circuit models. One of the most important contribution Xyce makes to the designers at Sandia National Laboratories is in providing a platform for computational research and development aimed specifically at the needs of the Laboratory. With Xyce, Sandia now has an ''in-house''capability with which both new electrical (e.g., device model development) and algorithmic (e.g., fas 193. Landsat • date - 2003-10-10T18:16:46Z • creator - United States Geologic Survey • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://landsat7.usgs.gov/index.php • description - Official website for the Landsat Project. Landsat is concerned with the aquisition of images of the earth from space and is a joint endeavour of the United States Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The website contains information about the project as well as links to collections of images. 194. Art Ludwig's Sound Page • date - 2003-10-10T18:17:06Z • creator - Arthur Ludwig • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/ • description - This site includes all aspects of sound, including both a non-mathematical description of sound, and a rigorous mathematical derivation based on molecular statistics. This is a good source of supplementary material in a physics course. There are illustrations, animations, a large glossary, and sounds in the form of .WAV files. 195. Oersted Medal Lecture 2001: "Physics Education Research-The Key to Student Learning" • date - 2005-07-13T20:12:07Z • creator - Lillian C. McDermott • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.1389280 • description - Research on the learning and teaching of physics is essential for cumulative improvement in physics instruction. Pursuing this goal through systematic research is efficient and greatly increases the likelihood that innovations will be effective beyond a particular instructor or institutional setting. The perspective taken is that teaching is a science as well as an art. Research conducted by physicists who are actively engaged in teaching can be the key to setting high (yet realistic) standards, to helping students meet expectations, and to assessing the extent to which real learning takes place. 196. Soviet satellite communications science and technology • date - 2006-05-30 • creator - Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5123315-BXo2Wl/ • description - This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs. 197. Faces to the Window: • date - 2002 • creator - Julia H. Berry • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.ecrp.uiuc.edu/v4n1/berry.html • description - A view of construction from the window of a first-grade classroom was the catalyst for a multigrade, multidisciplinary curriculum project at St. Patrick's Episcopal Day School in Washington, DC. The article has two sections. In the first section, one of the school's science teachers provides background information. In the second part, a first-grade teacher reflects on her classroom's project that gradually came to encompass teachers and children throughout the school. The teacher's colleagues in technology, science, art, religion, and music, as well as children in the nursery school, kindergarten, and grades 5 and 6, worked with her first-grade students on different portions of the project. The children and their work are documented in captioned pictures. 198. [Surface structure and stereochemical properties of self-assembled monolayer materials]. [Progress report] • date - 2005-06-23 • creator - Not Available • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10112670-8fQWvz/native/ • description - This document reports the progress the authors have made in support of their proposal to generate well-characterized, well-ordered organic surfaces and to impinge upon the array of oriented organic molecules a well-collimated beam of radical atoms at a well-defined angle of incidence. Using the intensity of helium atom diffraction from the organic surface as a measure of the number of unreacted molecules at the surface, the authors will measure the rate of the reaction. They will then vary the angle of incidence of the reactive atom beam and repeat the measurement. In this manner they plan to map out the reactivity of the molecules on the surface as a function of the angle of incidence of the reactive moiety. To carry out this experiment requires that two fields of research be brought together: (1) molecular beam technology and (2) the science/art of growing well-ordered organic surfaces. The first half of this report describes recent helium diffraction results from molecular beam deposited organic monolayers (structural layer characterization work). The second half reports progress in constructing and characterizing the reactive atom (oxygen) beam source. 199. Salvaging Information Engineering Techniques in the Data Warehouse Environment • date - 2001 • creator - Anthony L. Politano • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://inform.nu/Articles/Vol4/v4n2p035-043.pdf • description - The art of Information Engineering (IE) continuously evolves and, by today's standards, is considered an integral function in most any organization. Strategic planning teams weave methodologies, which are integrated to process information, the goal being to sort, store, and retrieve useful data.<p>The following article will describe three techniques that can utilize existing information engineering in a data warehouse project. First, the entity relationship diagram and its use in a three phase data model approach. Second, the functional decomposition diagram and its use in segmenting and defining key performance indicators and dimensions. Third, creating a modified CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) matrix that deals with logical entities and current systems. 200. Verification, Validation, and Predictive Capability in Computational Engineering and Physics • date - 2003-05-05 • creator - OBERKAMPF, WILLIAM L.; TRUCANO, TIMOTHY G.; HIRSCH, CHARLES • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/809603-5drfgj/native/ • description - Developers of computer codes, analysts who use the codes, and decision makers who rely on the results of the analyses face a critical question: How should confidence in modeling and simulation be critically assessed? Verification and validation (V&V) of computational simulations are the primary methods for building and quantifying this confidence. Briefly, verification is the assessment of the accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation is the assessment of the accuracy of a computational simulation by comparison with experimental data. In verification, the relationship of the simulation to the real world is not an issue. In validation, the relationship between computation and the real world, i.e., experimental data, is the issue. This paper presents our viewpoint of the state of the art in V&V in computational physics. (In this paper we refer to all fields of computational engineering and physics, e.g., computational fluid dynamics, computational solid mechanics, structural dynamics, shock wave physics, computational chemistry, etc., as computational physics.) We do not provide a comprehensive review of the multitudinous contributions to V&V, although we do reference a large number of previous works from many fields. We have attempted to bring together many different perspectives on V&V, highlight those perspectives that are effective from a practical engineering viewpoint, suggest future research topics, and discuss key implementation issues that are necessary to improve the effectiveness of V&V. We describe our view of the framework in which predictive capability relies on V&V, as well as other factors that affect predictive capability. Our opinions about the research needs and management issues in V&V are very practical: What methods and techniques need to be developed and what changes in the views of management need to occur to increase the usefulness, reliability, and impact of computational physics for decision making about engineering systems? We review the state of the art in V&V over a wide range of topics, for example, prioritization of V&V activities using the Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT), code verification, software quality assurance (SQA), numerical error estimation, hierarchical experiments for validation, characteristics of validation experiments, the need to perform nondeterministic computational simulations in comparisons with experimental data, and validation metrics. We then provide an extensive di 201. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop • date - 2001-05-03 • creator - Godfrey, B. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/81027-vTBbsQ/webviewable/ • description - The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study. 202. The Worm that Boasts Earth's Hottest Lifestyle • date - • creator - Mike Matz • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.exploratorium.edu/aaas-2001/dispatches/thermal_worm.html • description - This brief Exploratorium dispatch reports that the Pompeii worm, an inhabitant of hydrothermal vent ecosystems, can withstand hotter temperatures than any other creature on earth can -- except for certain one-celled organisms. Based on the research of marine scientist Craig Cary, the dispatch summarizes a presentation at the 2001 American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting. 203. NSLS 2002 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2002). • date - 2004-03-22 • creator - MILLER,L. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15006833-KiiRbo/native/ • description - The year 2002 has been another highly productive year at the NSLS and an impressive array of highlights from this scientific activity is included in this Activity Report. They have taken significant steps this past year toward better supporting beamlines and users. The number of user science support staff has been increased by about ten positions. They have also worked with their users, DOE, and the other DOE synchrotron facilities to develop a new, more flexible user access policy. Doing things safely remains a top priority, and they are reviewing their training and safety requirements to ensure they are thorough and everyone fully understands the necessity of abiding by them. A major development this past year was approval from DOE for BNL to begin the conceptual design of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN). The CFN will have a dramatic impact on nanoscience in the Northeast, facilitating the synthesis, characterization and scientific exploration of new classes of novel nanostructured materials. It will be located adjacent to the NSLS and a number of NSLS beamlines will be optimized to serve the needs of the nanoscience community. The NSLS and CFN user programs will be coordinated to facilitate easy access to both in a single visit. The VUV and X-Ray rings operated with excellent reliability as a result of continued attention to aging critical systems. The DUV-FEL achieved several important milestones this year, including production of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) laser light at 400 nm and 266 nm, laser seeded saturation at 266 nm, and the first observation of High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) light at 266 nm, with a third harmonic at 89 nm. Light from the DUV-FEL is now enabling user science experiments in ion pair imaging and they look forward to an expanding user program and a continued series of pioneering accelerator physics studies. In 2002, they continued to work with their user community to develop a plan to upgrade the capabilities of the NSLS. In the short term, they have a number of projects ongoing to upgrade insertion devices and beamlines to provide new and enhanced capabilities to their users. In the long term, recognizing the importance of meeting the future needs of their user community, they are working with DOE to formulate a plan for construction of a new state-of-the-art third-generation storage ring at NSLS to provide world class capabilities to their large and outstandingly productive user community. 204. Computational mechanics • date - 2005-06-26 • creator - Goudreau, G.L. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10194488-fd3ZtI/native/ • description - The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling. 205. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD • date - 2000 • creator - Bouilov Leonid L. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=01039733&date=2000&volume=30&issue=3&spage=471 • description - A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered. 206. Water, Fog, Sand, and Light As Art • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://content.nsdl.org/wbr/Issue.php?issue=71 • description - http://nedkahn.com/The confluence of science and art has inspired artist Ned Kahn to experiment with artworks that enable viewers to observe and interact with natural processes such as atmospheric physics, geology, astronomy and fluid motion. Kahn's artworks frequently incorporate flowing water, fog, sand and light to create complex and continually changing systems. Many of these works can be seen as "observatories" in that they frame and enhance our perception of natural phenomena. 207. Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Construction and Operation of the Spallation Neutron Source • date - 2004-10-04 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/823393-nXIFcK/native/ • description - DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulator ring and a second target. The U.S. needs a high-flux, short-pulsed neutron source to provide the scientific and industrial research communities with a much more intense source of pulsed neutrons for neutron scattering research than is currently available, and to assure the availability of a state-of-the-art facility in the decades ahead. This next-generation neutron source would create new scientific and engineering opportunities. In addition, it would help replace the neutron science capacity that will be lost by the eventual shutdown of existing sources as they reach the end of their useful operating lives in the first half of the next century. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM. 208. Predicting Real Optimized Materials: A New Multi-Scale Approach Enabling Ultra-Long Timescale Dynamical Simulation and Optimization of High Energy Density Materials • date - 2004-05-31 • creator - Reed, E; Manaa, R; Fried, L • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15007316-AFaAez/native/ • description - The design and synthesis of novel new high energy density materials (HEDM) is more art than science. Many potential molecular systems have been identified computationally. Most computational studies are performed using traditional gas-phase quantum chemistry methods, which determine high-energy structures of a particular cluster of atoms that are geometrically constrained. At first, a minimum energy optimization of the molecular structure is sought. Once located, the adiabatic stability to decomposition via several channels is explored by locating energy barriers to decomposition. These calculations could then suggest whether a particular cluster is stable and is a viable HEDM candidate. This computational procedure offers nothing in way of practical steps about the synthesis of the HEDM molecule starting from currently existing materials, and therefore is disconnected from experimental undertakings for the realization of novel HEDMs. We propose to apply a new multiscale simulation method for the study of shocked high energy density materials enabling, for the first time, the elucidation of chemistry under shock conditions on the 100 ps timescale. (E. J. Reed, L. E. Fried, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 235503 (2003)) The method combines molecular dynamics and the Euler equations for compressible flow. The method allows the molecular dynamics simulation of the system under dynamical shock conditions for orders of magnitude longer time periods than is possible using the popular non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) approach. A computational speedup of 10{sup 5} has been demonstrated for an example calculation for a silicon model potential. Computational speedups orders of magnitude higher are possible in the study of high energy-density materials at the condensed phase, enabling the computational simulation and optimization of these materials for the first time. Our finding will guide experimental realization of such materials by providing the exact thermodynamical variables for the existence of such materials. Proposed systems of study include polynitrogen, oxygen, and their mixtures. 209. Survey of Forensic Document Examination Habit Areas: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power • date - 2001-08-29 • creator - G Sperry; PA Manzolillo; RC Hanlan; RJ Muehlberger • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10485-lAr04o/webviewable/ • description - Beginning in 1998, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL), US Postal Inspection Service Forensic Laboratory (USPIS), and the Data Fusion Laboratory, Drexel University (DFL) have been collaborating on a large scale research project ''Handwriting Individuality--Moving From Art to Science''. In April 1998 a survey was distributed to the community of forensic document examiners (FDEs) requesting input on the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select the criteria and begin the evaluation of the handwriting samples currently in the project. Preliminary results of the survey were made available to the community at the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE) meeting in August 1998 and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) meeting in February 1999. This report provides final documentation of the survey and its results. This survey has two objectives: (1) to compile a list of handwriting features and characteristics used by professional forensic document examiners in the examination and comparison of handwriting and (2) to gather information about the significance of these features and characteristics. These objectives are met by having the FDEs provide an indication of their experience in the frequency of habit area evaluation and the utility of the habit area for discrimination. 210. AMS congress report: Heart Failure and Europace 2005 • date - 2005 • creator - Piotr K. Okonski • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.termedia.pl/magazine.php?magazine_id=19&article_id=3734&magazine_subpage=FULL_TEXT • description - The 2005 year has abounded in many crucial cardiologic and cardiosurgical congresses and conferences, beginning in Lisbon (Heart Failure), through Prague (Europace), Stockholm (ESC), ending in Barcelona (EACTS). Many important trails have been finished and have been presented during these Conferences, as an example: CIBIS III, PREAMI, SIRIUS II, CLARITY and TNT. Here you can find a short communication related to two of mentioned above conferences. Heart Failure 2005 The annual meeting of the Heart Failure Association (HFA of the ESC) Heart Failure 2005 in Lisbon, Portugal, June 11-14 2005, was exceptionally successful. At the Opening Ceremony, the HFA of the ESC celebrated the 10th Anniversary of Heart Failure within the European Society of Cardiology. Much over 4000 participants took part in this event, 1195 abstracts were submitted for the review process, out of which 554 have been accepted. It was a very successful meeting which took place in a great scenery. Lisbon is a beautiful town with a special atmosphere and with great moist climate from Tag River and the Atlantic Ocean. During the conference the weather â€“ sunny with the temperature till 24 degrees, was suitable to the important debates which took place in modern Lisbon Congress Centre on the PraÃ§a das Ind?strias. There were many very interesting oral presentations, moderated posters and posters. In our opinion two workshops were uniquely interesting. The first â€“ Clinical research methodology in heart failure (Chairmen: Prof. Mcmurray from Glasgow and Prof. Abreu E Lima from Porto) was dedicated to two essential subjects â€“ the suitable preparing of a manuscript to be published in the best medical journal (with high impact factor) and the preparing and managing of a clinical trial. The former theme was brilliantly presented by Prof. Dickstein and the latter by Prof. Mcmurray. I hope Prof. Dickstein agrees to present his presentation in one of the following issues of Archives of Medical Science. It will be a great occasion for our readers â€“ young scientists to get to know the secrets of the publishing art. During another workshop â€“ I think the most interesting one â€“ Statins in heart failure â€“ Cholesterol-lowering is not the only goal (Chairmen: Prof. Kjekshus from Oslo and Prof. Charron from Paris) the mechanisms, influence and the role of statins in patients with heart failure was described. Dr. Ulf Landmesser (Hanover, Germany) discussed how low cholesterol levels are associated with poor outcome 211. DNA Display II. Genetic Manipulation of Combinatorial Chemistry Libraries for Small-Molecule Evolution • date - 2004 • creator - Halpin David R • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0020174 • description - <p>Biological in vitro selection techniques, such as RNA aptamer methods and mRNA display, have proven to be powerful approaches for engineering molecules with novel functions. These techniques are based on iterative amplification of biopolymer libraries, interposed by selection for a desired functional property. Rare, promising compounds are enriched over multiple generations of a constantly replicating molecular population, and subsequently identified. The restriction of such methods to DNA, RNA, and polypeptides precludes their use for small-molecule discovery. To overcome this limitation, we have directed the synthesis of combinatorial chemistry libraries with DNA "genes," making possible iterative amplification of a nonbiological molecular species. By differential hybridization during the course of a traditional split-and-pool combinatorial synthesis, the DNA sequence of each gene is read out and translated into a unique small-molecule structure. This "chemical translation" provides practical access to synthetic compound populations 1 million-fold more complex than state-of-the-art combinatorial libraries. We carried out an in vitro selection experiment (iterated chemical translation, selection, and amplification) on a library of 10<sup>6</sup> nonnatural peptides. The library converged over three generations to a high-affinity protein ligand. The ability to genetically encode diverse classes of synthetic transformations enables the in vitro selection and potential evolution of an essentially limitless collection of compound families, opening new avenues to drug discovery, catalyst design, and the development of a materials science "biology."</p> 212. Nevirapine and Efavirenz Elicit Different Changes in Lipid Profiles in Antiretroviral- Therapy-Naive Patients Infected with HIV-1 • date - 2004 • creator - van Leth Frank • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=15491277&date=2004&volume=1&issue=1&spage= • description - <title>ABSTRACT</title> <title>Background</title> <p>Patients infected with HIV-1 initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) show presumably fewer atherogenic lipid changes than those initiating most ARTs containing a protease inhibitor. We analysed whether lipid changes differed between the two most commonly used NNRTIs, nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV).</p> <title>Methods and Findings</title> <p>Prospective analysis of lipids and lipoproteins was performed in patients enrolled in the NVP and EFV treatment groups of the 2NN study who remained on allocated treatment during 48 wk of follow-up. Patients were allocated to NVP (<italic>n =</italic> 417), or EFV (<italic>n =</italic> 289) in combination with stavudine and lamivudine. The primary endpoint was percentage change over 48 wk in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), TC:HDL-c ratio, non-HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. The increase of HDL-c was significantly larger for patients receiving NVP (42.5%) than for patients receiving EFV (33.7%; <italic>p =</italic> 0.036), while the increase in TC was lower (26.9% and 31.1%, respectively; <italic>p =</italic> 0.073), resulting in a decrease of the TC:HDL-c ratio for patients receiving NVP (-4.1%) and an increase for patients receiving EFV (+5.9%; <italic>p <</italic> 0.001). The increase of non-HDL-c was smaller for patients receiving NVP (24.7%) than for patients receiving EFV (33.6%; <italic>p =</italic> 0.007), as were the increases of triglycerides (20.1% and 49.0%, respectively; <italic>p <</italic> 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (35.0% and 40.0%, respectively; <italic>p =</italic> 0.378). These differences remained, or even increased, after adjusting for changes in HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ cell levels, indicating an effect of the drugs on lipids over and above that which may be explained by suppression of HIV-1 infection. The increases in HDL-c were of the same order of magnitude as those seen with the use of the investigational HDL-c-increasing drugs.</p> <title>Conclusion</title> <p>NVP-containing ART shows larger increases in HDL-c and decreases in TC:HDL-c ratio than an EFV-containing regimen. Based on these findings, protease-inhibitor-sparing regimens based on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, particularly those containing NVP, may be expected to result in a reduced risk of coronary heart dise 213. State-of-the-art report on piping fracture mechanics • date - 2006-01-23 • creator - Wilkowski, G.M.; Olson, R.J.; Scott, P.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/569129-WOBRke/webviewable/ • description - This report is an in-depth summary of the state-of-the-art in nuclear piping fracture mechanics. It represents the culmination of 20 years of work done primarily in the US, but also attempts to include important aspects from other international efforts. Although the focus of this work was for the nuclear industry, the technology is also applicable in many cases to fossil plants, petrochemical/refinery plants, and the oil and gas industry. In compiling this detailed summary report, all of the equations and details of the analysis procedure or experimental results are not necessarily included. Rather, the report describes the important aspects and limitations, tells the reader where he can go for further information, and more importantly, describes the accuracy of the models. Nevertheless, the report still contains over 150 equations and over 400 references. The main sections of this report describe: (1) the evolution of piping fracture mechanics history relative to the developments of the nuclear industry, (2) technical developments in stress analyses, material property aspects, and fracture mechanics analyses, (3) unresolved issues and technically evolving areas, and (4) a summary of conclusions of major developments to date. 214. Handwriting Examination: Moving from Art to Science • date - 2001-06-19 • creator - Jarman, K.H.; Hanlen, R.C.; Manzolillo, P.A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5703-1LmbJ5/webviewable/ • description - In this document, we present a method for validating the premises and methodology of forensic handwriting examination. This method is intuitively appealing because it relies on quantitative measurements currently used qualitatively by FDE's in making comparisons, and it is scientifically rigorous because it exploits the power of multivariate statistical analysis. This approach uses measures of both central tendency and variation to construct a profile for a given individual. (Central tendency and variation are important for characterizing an individual's writing and both are currently used by FDE's in comparative analyses). Once constructed, different profiles are then compared for individuality using cluster analysis; they are grouped so that profiles within a group cannot be differentiated from one another based on the measured characteristics, whereas profiles between groups can. The cluster analysis procedure used here exploits the power of multivariate hypothesis testing. The result is not only a profile grouping but also an indication of statistical significance of the groups generated. 215. Entre a batuta e o tubo de ensaio: a carreira admirÃ¡vel de Alexandre Borodin • date - 2002 • creator - Filgueiras Carlos A. L. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=01004042&date=2002&volume=25&issue=6a&spage=1040 • description - Alexander Borodin (1833-1887) is a singularity in the history of science. Whereas other scientists may have kept lifelong interests in some artistic field, he was unique in pursuing with great success two parallel careers in both chemistry and music, managing to excell in both to the end of his life. Although he considered himself primarily a chemist, present-day appreciation of his powerful music has greatly surpassed interest for his chemistry. This article treats the life and the unusual double career of the Russian chemist-musician. 216. School of Computer Science • date - 1999-08-19 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/391027.html • description - We have developed an artificial neural network based gaze tracking system which can be customized to individual users. A three layer feed forward network, trained with standard error back propagation, is used to determine the position of a user's gaze from the appearance of the user's eye. Unlike other gaze trackers, which normally require the user to wear cumbersome headgear, or to use a chin rest to ensure head immobility, our system is entirely non-intrusive. Currently, the best intrusive gaze tracking systems are accurate to approximately 0.75 degrees. In our experiments, we have been able to achieve an accuracy of 1.5 degrees, while allowing head mobility. In its current implementation, our system works at 15 hz. In this paper we present an empirical analysis of the performance of a large number of artificial neural network architectures for this task. Suggestions for further explorations for neurally based gaze trackers are presented, and are related to other similar art... 217. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge • date - 2005-06-05 • creator - Poloski, A.; Berg, Dr. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/839360-hEIqUX/native/ • description - Since the start of this project in March of 2004 two main goals have been achieved. First, the laboratory facilities of the Center for Surfaces, Polymers and Colloids (SPC) at the University of Washington have been updated with the purchase and installation of two state-of-the-art analysis tools. Second, a study of the sedimentation behavior of high density colloidal solids in complex media has been performed. The results of this study were presented at the 78th ACS Colloid and Surface Science Symposium at Yale University in New Haven, CT, and have been submitted for publication to the Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. Both the new equipment and the results of the initial study will help to gain insight into the physical properties of Hanford transuranic waste sludge. 218. Hardware-Based Rendering of Full-Parallax Synthetic Holograms • date - 2000-09-06 • creator - Alf Ritter,Joachim Bottger,Oliver Deussen,Matthias Konig,Thomas Strothotte,Facultyofcomputer Science • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/407917.html • description - We present a method for efficiently calculating the interference of complex-valued two-dimensional wave patterns which is usefull during the generation of synthetic holograms. These patterns are represented as special kind of images (textures), the interference is calculated in a computer graphics rendering process. This enables us to leverage hardware support for holographic imaging which is implemented in many state-of-the-art computer workstations. Using this approach we gain a speed-up of 60 to 90 compared to conventional calculation methods for interfering wave patterns. Our method is evaluated numerically, examples are shown and the program code is outlined. 219. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry â€“ A versatile tool for ultra-micro analysis of objects of cultural heritage • date - 2004 • creator - Alex von Bohlen • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.morana-rtd.com/e-preservationscience/2004/Bohlen_03_03_04.pdf • description - A short introduction into total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is given. Some aspects of development, including theory, technical advances and publications covering the last 30 years are summarised. The main fields of TXRF applications, trace analysis of elements, micro analysis of solids and surface analysis are presented. A special section describes in detail a gentle micro-sampling method that can be used for the analysis of objects of cultural heritage. The versatility and efficiency of TXRF combined with the micro-sampling of solids for restoration, preservation and art historical tasks are demonstrated using new applications. These examples concern pigment analysis of paintings, analysis of iron gall inks in ancient manuscripts and historical violin varnishes. References are given for further examples. More than 50 references, mainly dedicated to TXRF analysis of art objects, are included. 220. ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL. • date - 2005-03-20 • creator - FITTS,J.P.; KALB,P.D.; FRANCIS,A.J.; FUHRMANN,M.; DODGE,C.J.; GILLOW,J.B. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15011263-Qj1S23/native/ • description - Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants with soil and plant roots to better understand the mechanisms responsible for uptake. This effort will lead to improvements in phytoremediation, an innovative and cost-effective approach to the cleanup of large volumes of soil with low concentrations of contaminants. In a third effort, we are investigating molecular interactions of contaminants in high-level waste tanks with potential grouting materials for remediation of the West Valley, NY site to assess their suitability and long-term performance. 221. Second workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings • date - 2005-11-21 • creator - Kruger, P.; Ramey, H.J. Jr. (eds.) • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/841413-neuIkK/ • description - The Arab oil embargo of 1973 focused national attention on energy problems. A national focus on development of energy sources alternative to consumption of hydrocarbons led to the initiation of research studies of reservoir engineering of geothermal systems, funded by the National Science Foundation. At that time it appeared that only two significant reservoir engineering studies of geothermal reservoirs had been completed. Many meetings concerning development of geothermal resources were held from 1973 through the date of the first Stanford Geothermal Reservoir Engineering workshop December 15-17, 1975. These meetings were similar in that many reports dealt with the objectives of planned research projects rather than with results. The first reservoir engineering workshop held under the Stanford Geothermal Program was singular in that for the first time most participants were reporting on progress inactive research programs rather than on work planned. This was true for both laboratory experimental studies and for field experiments in producing geothermal systems. The Proceedings of the December 1975 workshop (SGP-TR-12) is a remarkable document in that results of both field operations and laboratory studies were freely presented and exchanged by all participants. With this in mind the second reservoir engineering workshop was planned for December 1976. The objectives were again two-fold. First, the workshop was designed as a forum to bring together researchers active in various physical and mathematical branches of the developing field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give participants a current and updated view of progress being made in the field. The second purpose was to prepare this Proceedings of Summaries documenting the state of the art as of December 1976. The proceedings will be distributed to all interested members of the geothermal community involved in the development and utilization of the geothermal resources in the world. Many notable occurrences took place between the first workshop in December 1975 and this present workshop in December 1976. For one thing, the newly formed Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) has assumed the lead role in geothermal reservoir engineering research. The second workshop under the Stanford Geothermal Program was supported by a grant from ERDA. In addition, two significant meetings on geothermal energy were held in Rotarua, New Zealand and Taupo, New Zealand. These meetings concerned geo 222. Climate Modeling using High-Performance Computing • date - 2005-04-24 • creator - Mirin, A A; Wickett, M E; Duffy, P B; Rotman, D A • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15011612-Y3Hl1i/native/ • description - The Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) and the LLNL Atmospheric Science Division (ASD) are working together to improve predictions of future climate by applying the best available computational methods and computer resources to this problem. Over the last decade, researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a number of climate models that provide state-of-the-art simulations on a wide variety of massively parallel computers. We are now developing and applying a second generation of high-performance climate models. As part of LLNL's participation in DOE's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, members of CASC and ASD are collaborating with other DOE labs and NCAR in the development of a comprehensive, next-generation global climate model. This model incorporates the most current physics and numerics and capably exploits the latest massively parallel computers. One of LLNL's roles in this collaboration is the scalable parallelization of NASA's finite-volume atmospheric dynamical core. We have implemented multiple two-dimensional domain decompositions, where the different decompositions are connected by high-speed transposes. Additional performance is obtained through shared memory parallelization constructs and one-sided interprocess communication. The finite-volume dynamical core is particularly important to atmospheric chemistry simulations, where LLNL has a leading role. 223. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R.[Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]; Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W.[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/631170-WDygwB/webviewable/ • description - Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs. 224. Modeling of casting microstructures and defects • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Shapiro, A.B.; Summers, L.T.; Eckels, D.J.; Sahai, V. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/632822-NSUBfZ/webviewable/ • description - Casting is an ancient art that has been a trial-and-error process for more than 4000 years. To predict the size, shape, and quality of a cast product, casting manufacturers typically cast full-size prototypes. If one part of the process is done incorrectly, the entire process is repeated until an acceptable product is achieved. One way to reduce the time, cost, and waste associated with casting is to use computer modeling to predict not only the quality of a product on the macro- scale, such as distortion and part shape, but also on the micro-scale such as grain defects. Modeling of solidification is becoming increasingly feasible with the advent of parallel computers. There are essentially two approaches to solidification modeling.The first is that of macro-modeling where heat transfer codes model latent heat release during solidification as a constant and based solely on the local temperature. This approach is useful in predicting large scale distortion and final part shape. The second approach, micro-modeling, is more fundamental. The micro-models estimate the latent heat release during solidification using nucleation and grain growth kinetics. Micro-models give insight into cast grain morphology and show promise in the future to predict engineering properties such as tensile strength. The micro-model solidification kinetics can be evaluated using first principles or they can be evaluated using experiments. This work describes an implementation of a micro-model for uranium which uses experimental results to estimate nucleation and growth kinetics. 225. Another Front in the Science Wars? • date - 2001-01-23 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/410965.html • description - ndaries. Cross-disciplinary friction can produce problems even more intractable than misunderstanding and dispute. It was fear of discrimination by her own scientific colleagues, due to her feminist, postmodern, text-analytic approach, that led one author to publish her trenchant commentary on Ramachadran and Hirstein's paper under the pseudonym Donnya Wheelwell'. This in turn generated some strong responses from readers, such as the following: Is there something rotten in academe? It would seem unreasonable in this modern day that an academic author would be so intimidated by her professional colleagues Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8, No. 1, 2001, pp. 3--8 that she would be afraid to publish a mild article of dissent in a mainstream scholarly journal like JCS. Donnya Wheelwell's' article, Against the Reduction of Art to Galvanic Skin Response' is not scandalous, libellous, shocking, irresponsible, lurid, prurient, or 226. LLNL state-of-the-art codes for source calculations • date - 2001-05-03 • creator - Glenn, L.A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/86980-JqYBQK/webviewable/ • description - The explosion-source region is defined as the region surrounding an underground explosion that cannot be described by elastic or anelastic theory. This region extends typically to ranges on the order of 1 km/kt. For the simulation or analysis of seismic signals, what is required is the time resolved motion and stress state at the inelastic boundary. Various analytic approximations have been made for these boundary conditions, but since they rely on near-field empirical data they cannot be expected to reliably extrapolate to different explosion sites. More important, without some knowledge of the initial energy density and the characteristics of the medium immediately surrounding the explosion, these simplified models are unable to distinguish chemical from nuclear explosions, identify cavity decoupling, or account for such phenomena as anomalous dissipation via pore collapse. The purpose here is to document the state-of-the-art codes at LLNL involved in simulating underground (chemical and nuclear) explosions and, in so doing, present an overview of the physics. In what follows, the authors first describe the fundamental equations involved, discuss solution methods, coordinate frames and dimensionality. Then they identify the codes used at LLNL and their limitations. A companion report will describe the factors that most influence the seismic response, i.e., the source properties important for discrimination. That report will emphasize the coupling between the rock properties and the characteristics of the explosion cavity. 227. Risk assessment and life prediction of complex engineering systems • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Garcia, M.D.; Varma, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]; Heger, A.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/219413-pbmBhA/webviewable/ • description - Many complex engineering systems will exceed their design life expectancy within the next 10 to 15 years. It is also expected that these systems must be maintained and operated beyond their design life. This paper presents a integrated approach for managing the risks associated with aging effects and predicting the residually expectancy these systems, The approach unifies risk assessment, enhanced surveillance and testing, and robust computational models to assess the risk, predict age, and develop a life-extension management procedure. It also relies on the state of the art in life-extension and risk assessment methods from the nuclear power industry. Borrowing from the developments in decision analysis, this approach should systematically identify the options available for managing the existing aging systems beyond their intended design life. 228. Food Attitudes towards Food Safety Concept among Turkish University Students • date - 2005 • creator - ÃƒÂ–zlem Tokuolu • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=15493652&date=2005&volume=1&issue=3&spage=156 • description - This study investigated university studentsâ€™ food choices focusing on their reported usual intake and food safety perceptions and conducted at Manisa Celal Bayar University Engineering Faculty, Science and Art Faculty and Education Faculty students. The present study primary investigated how affects the storage style, manufacturing qualification, shelf life and food safety concept, advertisement effect on consuming, natural and fortificated foods to university students. Meanwhile, faculty differences, sex (male, female) and age differences, living area, family features (parent living style, education, brother and sister number etc.) of students were determined. In addition, consuming frequency of extensively consumed beverages (soft drinks, cola, tea, coffee, alcoholic drinks) and bread as main consuming food were investigated based on sex and faculty criteria as daily, weekly, monthly. 229. DEVELOPMENT OF RECOMMENDATIONS AND METHODS TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF SOIL VENTING PERFORMANCE AND CLOSURE • date - 2005-06-06T17:01:36Z • creator - R Varadhan • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=63259 • description - The purpose of this document is to improve the current "state of the art" and "state of the science" of soil venting application. A strategy is proposed for venting closure. A vadose zone paradigm is developed to dynamically link the performance of ground-water remediation to vadose zone remediation. A detailed and comprehensive literature review is provided to form the foundation of an innovative method of design based on attainment of a critical pore-gas velocity in contaminated media. Research conducted to improve the science of venting application is summarized in the following areas: (1) linearization of the gas flow equation, (2) one-dimensional steady-state gas flow with slippage, (3) two-dimensional steady-state gas flow and permeability estimation in a domain open to the atmosphere, (4) two-dimensional steady-state gas flow and permeability estimation in a semi-confined domain, (5) two-dimensional transient gas flow and permeability estimation, (6) radius of influence versus critical pore-gas velocity based venting design, (7) modification of a gas extraction well to minimize water-table upwelling, (8) rate-limited vapor transport with diffusion modeling, (9) respiration testing, and (10) one-dimensional, analytical, vadose zone transport modeling to assess mass flux to and from the capillary fringe. 230. Cruise reservation systems used by European passenger ferry companies in Internet: An Evaluation With . . . • date - 2000-08-01 • creator - L. Svensson,U. Snis,C. Srensen,H. Fgerlind,T. Lindroth,M. Magnusson,C. Stlund (eds,Jonna Jrvelinen,Turku Centre,Computer Science • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/412826.html • description - Internet is just one additional medium to make travel reservation alongside traditional telephone and personal visit to travel agency. This paper examines Internet reservation systems' competitiveness compared to traditional reservation media, in media richness theory's perspective. In total 92 Web sites of European passenger cruise companies were browsed through to find best practices in Internet reservation systems. Results indicate that few companies have invested in state-of-the-art interactive online reservation systems, although according to media richness theory Internet would be the most effective medium for the customer to make the travel reservation. Keywords: cruise reservation system, Internet, media richness 1. Introduction Making a travel reservation can be a very complicated task. There are several components to be reserved, for outward and return journeys, or even for different legs. If we consider cruise reservation, a mutual understanding between the customer and th... 231. IMPROVED EUTROPHYING AND ACIDIFYING DEPOSITION ALGORITHMS IN CMAQ • date - 2005-09-14T14:04:37Z • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=114550 • description - A long term goal of multimedia environmental management is to achieve sustainable ecological resources. Progress towards this goal rests on a foundation of science-based methods and data integrated into predictive multimedia, multi-stressor open architecture modeling systems. The strategic pathway aims at progressing from addressing one stressor at a time to a comprehensive multimedia assessment capability for current and projected ecosystem health. The multimedia tasks in the Atmospheric Modeling Division (AMD) address a number of issues that arise in multimedia modeling with an emphasis on interactions among the atmosphere and other environmental media. While the watershed is a fundamental unit of ecosystem analysis, due primarily to its containment of the hydrologic cycle and related stresses, the relevant atmospheric scale of modeling and analysis for linking to watersheds is regional/continental in scope, encompassing multiple States and/or watersheds. The interaction between the atmosphere and the underlying surface is increasingly being recognized as an important factor in multimedia issues. Targeted development, evaluation and application of state-of-the-art, multi-pollutant atmospheric models of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen and mercury to multimedia issues help determine how to further improve the one-atmosphere models and support ongoing ecological assessments. Software tools are needed to support linkage of models across media and specialized multimedia data analysis applications. This multimedia work helps to bring the results of air pollution control, that primarily stem from addressing human health effects, into the management purview for addressing multimedia or ecosystem problems. The AMD multimedia tasks support Goal 4 (Healthy Communities and Ecosystems) and its Long-Term Goals ECO-6, Forecasting - Assess vulnerability and manage for sustainability, and HG-3, Transport and fate - understand the transport and fate of mercury from release to the receptor.<br><br>The interaction between the atmosphere and the underlying surface is increasingly recognized as important. A key output of atmospheric models for multimedia studies is the dry deposition component of total deposition (wet + dry). There is an extreme paucity of empirical dry deposition estimates for use with ecosystem management modeling. The estimates from the atmospheric models fill a critical gap. A targeted focus on creating state-of-the-science dry deposition algorithms for t 232. Computer Animation for the Visual Arts 233. Goudreau Museum of Mathematics in Arts and Science • date - 2004-02-05T17:48:25Z • creator - Goudreau Museum of Mathematics • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.mathmuseum.org/ • description - This web site contains links to fractal-making applets and an extensive list of math-related games. 234. Environment Canada: Freshwater Web Site (title provided or enhanced by cataloger) • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/index.htm • description - This comprehensive site contains facts, figures, references, teacher's aides, news, events, and much more on subjects pertaining to water. Some of the subjects touched on include aquatic ecosystems, groundwater, lakes, permafrost, properties of water, rivers, sediment, snow and ice, water and climate, and Wetlands. Water policy and legislation is also discussed and includes information on federal-provincial cooperation, international, legislation and regulation, provincial/territorial, and water policy in Canada. There is also a section on the management of water including bulk water removal and water export, Flood Damage Reduction Program, floods, water efficiency/conservation, water modeling, water pollution, water quality, water resource economics, and water use. The section on water and culture discusses Aboriginal issues, water and art, and water and Canadian identity. 235. Illinois State Museum • date - 1996-04-06 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.museum.state.il.us/index.html • description - This is the home site for the Illinois State Museum. The Exhibits link features on-line exhibits and physical exhibits. These include: At Home in the Heartland - an exhibit about family life in Illinois from 1700 to the present; The Midwest at 16,000 years ago - a display on the environments, plants and animals of the Midwestern United States at that time; Journey to Other Worlds: Siberian Collections - the environment and life of the people of this area; Ice Ages; State Symbols of Illinois; RiverWeb American Bottom Landing Site - a exploration into the environment, history, and cultures of a section of the Mississippi River valley; Mazon Creek Fossils - fossils discovered along the Mazon Creek in northeastern Illinois; and Prairies in the Prairie State - information on the Prairie ecosystem, and specifically, the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie. The Programs link features information on education, research, publications, museum grants, and the Illinois Artisans Program. The collections page includes a description of the extensive collections maintained by the museum. There is a link to General Information, which includes information on directories, history and museum sites. The Calendar of Events lists current exhibits and programs at all Museum sites including the Dickson Mounds Museum, Illinois Art Gallery, Illinois Artisans Shop, Lockport Gallery, and the Southern Illinois Artisans Shop and Visitors Center. 236. Aerogels for microelectronic applications: Fast, inexpensive, and light as air • date - 2006-05-22 • creator - Contolini, R.J.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Bernhardt, A.F. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10175075-hTB9u7/ • description - Silica aerogel consists of bonded silicon and oxygen joined into log strands, which are randomly linked together with pockets of air between them. Discovered in the 1930s, the material was thought to have little use outside of theoretical science. However, with the advent of greatly improved processing techniques, such as those developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, aerogels are on the verge of commercialization. This document describes the need for aerogels in the high-speed microelectronics industry, and state of the art processing techniques. Collaboration is welcomed in the endeavor. 237. Essays of an Information Scientist: Journalology, KeyWords Plus, and Other Essays, Vo1:13, p.38, 1990 • date - 2001-05-15 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/513794.html • description - this article, Mosey has made a valuable contribution to the ongoing discussion concerning the interrelationships between the worlds of art and science. As recently noted, I have never believed in the "two cullures " dichotomy and have dedicated much of my work to demonstrating the connectedness of these seemingly disparate worlds. 2 1 agree entirely with Mosey in rejecting Snow's assumption that science and the humanities occupy, in Mosey's words, "separate boxes." As we all go about the business of attempting to fathom ourselves and our universe, whatever our discipline or specialty might be, it is far more beneficial to consider the underlying commonality of our endeavors 238. Amber: Window to the Past • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/amber/index.html • description - This site displays a menagerie of insects, feathers, flowers, a gecko lizard, a scorpion, and a frog, all preserved for millions of years in amber. It allows students to explore the clues left behind by ancient ecosystems and introduces them to amber and the ancient ecosystems this organic substance has preserved. It includes three sections. Amber in Nature tells how this protective tree resin has hardened and been preserved in the crust of the Earth for millions of years, providing a record of ancient life. Amber Varieties explains the origins of amber, specimens from the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods, and Baltic and Dominican amber. Amber in Art displays objects made from amber including a 1767 Knights Set, a 19th century bottle from China, a Roman finger ring, and Peter the Greats Amber Room. 239. Spoken Language Dialogue Systems and Components: Best practice in development and evaluation (DISC 24823) - Periodic Progress Report 1: Basic Details of the Action 240. Museums: The Underutilized Resource • date - • creator - Brent Breithaupt • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/Breithaupt3.html • description - This article explains why and how to use museums as an educational resource. Although the examples allude to a museum of natural history, the guidelines presented can be used for any museum visit such as for English and Art. 241. Volcano World: Kids Door (title provided or enhanced by cataloger) • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/kids/kids.html • description - This extensive site contains data on recent volcanoes, a volcano quiz, a volcano art gallery, games, virtual field trips to volcanoes on Earth and Mars, school project ideas, stories, and activity suggestions. The games include eruption simulations and a geography matching game. 242. Pompeii: Unraveling Ancient Mysteries • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/pompeii/index.html • description - This site discusses the destruction of Pompeii in the year 79 A.D. It explains what the eruption was like at Vesuvius and why Vesuvius is located where it is. It also covers the effects of the eruption on the nearby towns of Herculaneum, Misenum and Stabiae. There is information on Pompeii's features, such as the House of Faun, Forum, Thermae Stabianae, Amphitheater, as well as examples of art from Pompeii. A time line provides the history of Pompeii, including what it is like today. • date - 2003-06-28 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/645856.html • description - Peep K ungas Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Computer and Information Science peep@idi.ntnu.no Abstract Although during the last decade in several papers applicability of Linear Logic (LL) theorem proving to AI planning has been emphasised, there is still no experimental data nor prototype available, which would allow to justify performance of LL planning. In this paper we present results demonstrating that performance of a Linear Logic planner may be comparable to state-ofthe -art domain-independent planners. While planning with LL, we first abstract a planning problem propositionally. 243. Bugscope • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://bugscope.beckman.uiuc.edu/index.htm • description - The Bugscope project is an educational outreach program for K-12 classrooms. The project provides a resource to classrooms so that they may remotely operate a scanning electron microscope to image "bugs" at high magnification. The microscope is remotely controlled in real time from a classroom computer over the Internet using a web browser. Bugscope provides a state-of-the-art microscope resource for teachers that can be readily integrated into classroom activities. The classroom has ownership of the project - they design their own experiment and provide their own bugs to be imaged in the microscope. The Bugscope project is primarily oriented towards K-12 classrooms and there is no cost to participate in the project. 244. The State of the Art in Image and Video • date - 2003-09-15 • creator - N. Sebe,M. S. Lew,X. Zhou,T. S. Huang • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/661704.html • description - les. The immediate question is what to do with all the information. One could store the digital information on tapes, CDROMs, DVDs or any such device but the level of access would be less than the well-known shoe boxes filled with tapes, old photographs, and letters. What is needed is that the techniques for organizing images and video stay in tune with the amounts of information. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a semantic understanding of image and video. Creating access to still images is still hard problem. It requires hard work, precise modeling, the inclusion of considerable amounts of a priori knowledge and solid experimentation to analyze the contents of a photograph. Luckily, it can be argued that the access to video is somehow a simpler problem than access to still images. Video comes as a sequence, so what moves together most likely forms an entity in real life, so segmentation of video is intrinsically simpler than a still image, at the expense of only more data to h 245. The PowerPoint Society: The Influence of PowerPoint in the U.S. Government and Bureaucracy • date - 2005-07-01 • creator - Pece, Gregory Shawn • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05202005-065041/ • description - The standard method for presenting information in the military and political establishments of the US government is through the projection of data in bullet-style and/or graphical formats onto an illuminated screen, using some sort of first analogue, or now, digital media. Since the late 1990s, the most common and expected form of presentation is via the most commonly pre-installed software of presentation genre: Microsoft PowerPoint. This style of presentation has become the norm of communication, and in doing so, has replaced other methods of discursive and presentation. The art of the brief and in particular, the art of the PowerPoint has become a new standard of what was once group communication through oratory. This paper will attempt to show that PowerPoint slide-ware has reduced communication to mere presentation, negatively influencing the decision-making and critical thinking processes of individuals and organizations, particularly within the military and government. This is accomplished through the visual reception of the briefings themselves, where and when the theatrical nature of the presentation takes precedence over the content. And, in fact, this dramatic twist determines which ideas gain acceptance among audiences. This simple style of presentation is becoming indicative of a visual and leadership style of our era. This is the effect of a PowerPoint method of leadership, now de rigueur in the military and demonstrated by the current president and administration. The style of PowerPoint, both at the micro-level in particular presentations, and the macro-level, as demonstrated by people and organizations, ultimately works today as a form of control and discipline. And, in the end, it can become a convenient vehicle for furtherance of a specific ideology and propaganda campaigns. 246. Massively parallel mesh generation for physics codes • date - 2001-05-04 • creator - Hardin, D.D. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/251377-xWwdaD/webviewable/ • description - Massively parallel processors (MPPs) will soon enable realistic 3-D physical modeling of complex objects and systems. Work is planned or presently underway to port many of LLNLs physical modeling codes to MPPs. LLNLs DSI3D electromagnetics code already can solve 40+ million zone problems on the 256 processor Meiko. However, the author lacks the software necessary to generate and manipulate the large meshes needed to model many complicated 3-D geometries. State-of-the-art commercial mesh generators run on workstations and have a practical limit of several hundred thousand elements. In the foreseeable future MPPs will solve problems with a billion mesh elements. The objective of the Parallel Mesh Generation (PMESH) Project is to develop a unique mesh generation system that can construct large 3-D meshes (up to a billion elements) on MPPs. Such a capability will remove a critical roadblock to unleashing the power of MPPs for physical analysis and will put LLNL at the forefront of mesh generation technology. PMESH willfront-end a variety of LLNL 3-D physics codes, including those in the areas of electromagnetics, structural mechanics, thermal analysis, and hydrodynamics. The DSI3D and DYNA3D codes are already running on MPPs. The primary goal of the PMESH project is to provide the robust generation of large meshes for complicated 3-D geometries through the appropriate distribution of the generation task between the users workstation and the MPP. Secondary goals are to support the unique features of LLNL physics codes (e.g., unusual elements) and to minimize the user effort required to generate different meshes for the same geometry. PMESHs capabilities are essential because mesh generation is presently a major limiting factor in simulating larger and more complex 3-D geometries. PMESH will significantly enhance LLNLs capabilities in physical simulation by advancing the state-of-the-art in large mesh generation by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. 247. Mount Shasta Companion • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.siskiyous.edu/shasta/index.htm • description - The Companion is a collection of information regarding northern California's Mount Shasta. The overall objective of this project is to develop a resource that can be used to provide information about Mount Shasta while enhancing the study of the sciences, humanities, social sciences, and the environment. To that end, the Companion offers several topics to choose from: geology, environment, Native Americans, Folklore, History, Art and Artists 1841-1941, Literature, Outdoor Recreation, Maps and Graphics, and the Mount Shasta Collection. The site offers comprehensive in-depth detail on each of these topics. Of special note is the Mount Shasta Collection, the largest repository of information and documents about Mount Shasta, located at the College of Siskiyous library. The collection consists of thousands of books, articles, manuscripts, photographs, maps, prints, and audiovisual materials, some of which are highlighted and searchable on this website. The Companion also highlights a 'Lesson Plan' option where teachers can submit lesson plans regarding the Mount Shasta area. In general, the Companion is well illustrated, thus users can study photographs and other various images while reading the accompanying text. 248. CHESAPEAKE BAY 2007 RE-EVALUATION • date - 2005-11-02T21:08:31Z • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=114552 • description - A long term goal of multimedia environmental management is to achieve sustainable ecological resources. Progress towards this goal rests on a foundation of science-based methods and data integrated into predictive multimedia, multi-stressor open architecture modeling systems. The strategic pathway aim is to progress from addressing one stressor at a time to a comprehensive multimedia assessment capability for current and projected ecosystem health. The multimedia tasks in AMD address a number of issues that arise in multimedia modeling with an emphasis on interactions among the atmosphere and multiple other environmental media. While the watershed is a fundamental unit of ecosystem analysis, due primarily to its containment of the hydrologic cycle and related stresses, the relevant atmospheric scale of modeling and analysis for linking to watersheds is regional/continental in scope, encompassing multiple States and/or watersheds. The interaction between the atmosphere and the underlying surface is increasingly being recognized as an important factor in multimedia issues. Targeted development, evaluation and application of state-of-the-art, multi-pollutant atmospheric models of nitrogen and mercury to multimedia issues help determine how to further improve the one-atmosphere models and support ongoing ecological assessments. Software tools are needed to support linkage of models across media and specialized multimedia data analysis applications. This multimedia work helps to bring the results of air pollution control, that primarily stem from addressing human health effects, into the management purview for addressing multimedia or ecosystem problems. The multimedia tasks support Goal 4 (Healthy Communities and Ecosystems) and its Long-Term Goals ECO-3, Restoration - develop scientifically defensible methods to protect ecosystem conditions, and HG-3, Transport and fate - understand the transport and fate of mercury from release to the receptor.<br><br>Targeted applications that link the state-of-the-art models of nitrogen deposition with watershed and estuarine models in support of assessments provide an important test bed for learning what capabilities are required of the atmospheric models to support multimedia assessments. Past linkage work has shown that it is important that atmospheric deposition be able to be related to climatological averages. This work has also shown atmospheric models fill a critical gap for provision of dry deposition estimates for 249. Gender Differences in Computer Attitudes, Interests, and Usage in an Elite High School • date - 2000-07-25 • creator - Anderson, Marilyn Joan Whinnerah • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-07202000-17500018/ • description - A descriptive case study examined the gender differences concerning computer technology (IT) by a convenience sample (N = 180, 76%) of 11 th and 12 th graders at an elite public high school, recently named the "second best high school in America" (Newsweek, 2000), in suburban Northern Virginia. The purpose of the study was to examine the apparent discrepancy in male and female differences in computer use, interests, and attitudes. <p> The research design included a student questionnaire combining the Computer Attitude Rating Scale (CARS, Heinssen, Glass, & Knight, 1987) and the Attitudes toward Computer Technology (ACT, Delcourt & Kinzie, 1993) with demographic and academic data (GPA, PSAT, and SAT I), and the Strong Interest Inventory (Strong, 1994). Chi-square tests of association for categorical data and t tests for independence of means for metric data were used to analyze the data, which resulted in several statistically significant relationships (p = < .05) and meaningful effect sizes (> .70). <p> The results were higher mean scores for the Strong Realistic General Occupational Theme (males) and Artistic Theme (females); the Athletic and Mechanical Basic Interest Scales (males) and Music/Drama, Art, Culinary Arts, and Social Service Scales (females), and Risk-Taking Personal Style Scales (males) and Working Style with People (females). Females also had higher GPAs, levels of computer anxiety, resistance to technology, and avoidance of careers and study in computer fields. Females chose Pre-Medicine majors to help others and males chose Computer Science majors to gain financial rewards. <p> The implications for practice and research included: female technology internships, 9th grade mechanical and technical training, computer anxiety group counseling, cooperative learning and hands on instruction, female-friendly computer and computer science classes, equal access to computers at all grade levels, student-parent information programs concerning the many opportunities and high paying jobs available in computer technology, female orientated computer games, and more non-linear computer programs and activities that encourage females to "have fun" with computers and not view them as machines. A longitudinal study of the current sample and research at other grade levels and locations were recommended. 250. The three-dimensional, discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code TORT: An overview • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Azmy, Y.Y. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/425360-DbkIYS/webviewable/ • description - The centerpiece of the Discrete Ordinates Oak Ridge System (DOORS), the three-dimensional neutral particle transport code TORT is reviewed. Its most prominent features pertaining to large applications, such as adjustable problem parameters, memory management, and coarse mesh methods, are described. Advanced, state-of-the-art capabilities including acceleration and multiprocessing are summarized here. Future enhancement of existing graphics and visualization tools is briefly presented. 251. PST users guide • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Rempe, J.L.; Cebull, M.J.; Gilbert, B.G. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/425368-rGtJyM/webviewable/ • description - The Parametric Source Term (PST) software allows estimation of radioactivity release fractions for Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). PST was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRCs) Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program. PST contains a framework of equations that model activity transport between volumes in the release pathway from the core, through the vessel, through the containment, and to the environment. PST quickly obtains exact solutions to differential equations for activity transport in each volume for each time interval. PST provides a superior method for source term estimation because it: ensures conservation of activity transported across various volumes in the release pathway; provides limited consideration of the time-dependent behavior of input parameter uncertainty distributions; allows input to be quantified using state-of-the-art severe accident analysis code results; increases modeling flexibility because linkage between volumes is specified by user input; and allows other types of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plant designs to be evaluated with minimal modifications. PST is a microcomputer-based system that allows the analyst more flexibility than a mainframe system. PST has been developed to run with both MS DOS and MS Windows 95/NT operating systems. PST has the capability to load ASP Source Term Vector (STV) information, import pre-specified default input for the 6 Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) initially analyzed in the NRC ASP program, allow input value modifications for release fraction sensitivity studies, export user-specified default input for the LWR being modeled, report results of radioactivity release calculations at each time interval, and generate formatted results that can interface with other risk assessment codes. This report describes the PST model and provides guidelines for using PST. 252. Direct observation of mobile protons in SiO{sub 2} thin films: Potential application in a novel memory device • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Vanheusden, K.; Warren, W.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.[and others] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/431162-5MqMAL/webviewable/ • description - In this work we show that annealing of silicon/silicon-dioxide/silicon structures in forming gas (N{sub 2}:H{sub 2}; 95:5) above 500{degrees}C leads to spontaneous incorporation of mobile H{sup+} ions in the buried SiO{sub 2} layer. We demonstrate that, unlike the alkali ions feared as killer contaminants in the early days, the space charge distribution of these mobile protons within the buried oxide layer can be very well controlled and easily rearranged with relatively high speed at room temperature. The hysteresis in the flat band voltage shift provides a unique vehicle to study proton kinetics in silicon dioxide thin films. It is further shown how this effect can be used as the basis for a reliable nonvolatile FET memory device that has potential to be competitive with state-of-the-art Si-based memory technologies. The power of this novel device is its simplicity; it requires few processing steps, all of which are standard in Si integrated-circuit fabrication. 253. Methodology, status, and plans for development and assessment of the TRAC code • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Boyack, B.E.; Nelson, R.A.; Jolly-Woodruff, S. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/434475-WqCMoF/webviewable/ • description - The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) is a state-of-the-art, best-estimate, transient system analysis computer code for analyzing geometrically complex multidimensional thermal hydraulic systems, primarily nuclear reactor power plants. TRAC is used by government and industry organizations for design and safety analysis, phenomenological studies, operational transient analysis, evaluating emergency operating procedures, simulator support and operator training, and for assessment of data involving basic experiments, separate effects tests, and plant operations. TRAC will calculate one- and three-dimensional (rectilinear and cylindrical coordinates) fluid flow involving gas, liquid, and mixture states. Although TRAC has many capabilities, it also has limitations. Some limitations arise from its implementation, dating from the 1970s. Rapid advances in hardware and software engineering highlight TRACs inefficiencies; however, other limitations relate to the level of scientific knowledge regarding two-phase flow physics. These limitations will continue until such time as the fundamental understanding of two-phase flows is extended. Presently, several development activities are either in progress or soon to begin that will fundamentally improve TRAC. Foremost among these are reimplementation of the current TRAC data structures in Fortran 90 and the integrated development of closure packages for large-break loss-of-coolant accident applications. 254. Use of coupled passivants and consolidants on calcite mineral surfaces • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Nagy, K.L.; Cygan, R.T.; Brinker, C.J.; Ashley, C.S.[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]; Scotto, C.S.[Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Optical Sciences Div.] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/441661-OhgFfa/webviewable/ • description - Deterioration of monuments, buildings, and works of art constructed of carbonate-based stone potentially can be arrested by applying a combination of chemical passivants and consolidants that prevent hydrolytic attack and mechanical weakening. The authors used molecular modeling and laboratory synthesis to develop an improved passivating agent for the calcite mineral surface based on binding strength and molecular packing density. The effectiveness of the passivating agent with and without a linked outer layer of consolidant against chemical weathering was determined through leaching tests conducted with a pH-stat apparatus at pH 5 and 25 C. For the range of molecules considered, modeling results indicate that the strongest-binding passivant is the trimethoxy dianionic form of silylalkylaminocarboxylate (SAAC). The same form of silylalkylphosphonate (SAP) is the second strongest binder and the trisilanol neutral form of aminoethylaminopropylsilane (AEAPS) is ranked third. Short-term leaching tests on calcite powders coated with the trisilanol derivative of SAAC, the triethoxy neutral form of SAP, and the trimethoxy neutral form of AEAPS show that the passivant alone does not significantly slow the dissolution rate. However, all passivants when linked to the sol consolidant result in decreased rates. Combined AEAPS plus consolidant results in a coating that performs better than the commercial product Conservare{reg_sign} OH and at least as well as Conservare{reg_sign} H. The modeling results indicate that there may be a threshold binding energy for the passivant above which the dissolution rate of calcite is actually enhanced. More strongly-binding passivants may aid in the dissolution mechanism or dissociate in aqueous solution exposing the calcite surface to water. 255. Thermal diffusivity mapping of 4D carbon-carbon composites • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/446404-jl9z6f/webviewable/ • description - High resolution, 2-D thermal diffusivity maps of carbon-carbon composites were obtained by a state-of-the-art infrared thermal imaging system. Unlike the traditional single-point IR detector used for thermal diffusivity measurements, the IR camera is capable of capturing images in its 256 x 256 pixel Focal Plane Array detector in a snap-shot mode. The camera takes up to 200 images at a rate of 120 frames/second. The temperature resolution of the Ir camera is 0.015 C and the spatial resolution is 20{micro}m. Thermal diffusivity was calculated for each pixel. Four-direction carbon-carbon composites were used for the thermal diffusivity mapping study. The fiber bundles along the heat flow direction were found to have 25% higher diffusivity values than the surrounding matrix. The diffusivity map also showed detailed local variations in diffusivity which were impossible to measure using a single-point detector. Accurate diffusivity maps are very important to the design of composite materials. 256. IPIRG-2 task 1 - pipe system experiments with circumferential cracks in straight-pipe locations. Final report, September 1991--November 1995 • date - 2006-01-23 • creator - Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Rudland, D. [and others] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/453762-1tiRZR/webviewable/ • description - This report presents the results from Task 1 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The IPIRG-2 program is an international group program managed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and funded by a consortium of organizations from 15 nations including: Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Republic of China, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The objective of the program was to build on the results of the IPIRG-1 and other related programs by extending the state-of-the-art in pipe fracture technology through the development of data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping systems that contain defects. The IPIRG-2 program included five main tasks: Task 1 - Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds Task 2 - Fracture of Flawed Fittings Task 3 - Cyclic and Dynamic Load Effects on Fracture Toughness Task 4 - Resolution of Issues From IPIRG-1 and Related Programs Task 5 - Information Exchange Seminars and Workshops, and Program Management. The scope of this report is to present the results from the experiments and analyses associated with Task 1 (Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds). The rationale and objectives of this task are discussed after a brief review of experimental data which existed after the IPIRG-1 program. 257. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Kress, R.L.[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]; Love, L.J.[Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/459425-M1Jdkd/webviewable/ • description - The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations. 258. In situ ion beam research in Argonnes intermediate voltage electron microscope • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Allen, C.W.; Ryan, E.A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/459862-FS3MFS/webviewable/ • description - Since Fall 1995, a state-of-the-art intermediate voltage electron microscope (IVEM) has been operational in the HVEM-Tandem Facility with in situ ion irradiation capabilities similar to those of the HVEM of the Facility. A 300 kV Hitachi H-9000NAR is interfaced to the two ion accelerators of the Facility, with a demonstrated point-to-point spatial resolution for imaging of 0.25 nm with the ion beamline attached to the microscope. The IVEM incorporates a Faraday cup system for ion dosimetry with measurement aperture 6.5 cm from the TEM specimen, which was described in Symposium A of the 1995 MRS Fall Meeting. The IVEM is now employed for a variety of in situ ion beam studies ranging from low dose ion damage experiments with GaAs, in which damage zones individual displacement cascades are observed, to implantation studies in metals, in which irradiation-induced noble gas precipitate mobility is studied in real time. In this presentation, the new instrumentation and its specifications will be described briefly, several basic concepts relating to in situ experiments in transmission electron microscopes will be summarized and examples of in situ experiments will be presented which exploit the experimental capabilities of this new user facility instrumentation. 259. Pitting of 3003 aluminum • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Lee, R. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/459978-n3V9g5/webviewable/ • description - The Advanced Photon Source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded Al. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 Al had developed water leaks, which were subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Materials subjected to the pitting analysis in this study are 3003, 6061, and 6063 Al. 260. Final report for LDRD project{open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes} • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Phillips, C.A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/461264-6dgfqB/webviewable/ • description - This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant{open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia. 261. Accelerated stress rupture lifetime assessment for fiber composites • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Groves, S.E.; DeTeresa, S.J.; Sanchez, R.J.; Zocher, M.A.; Christensen, R.M. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/461398-wtMDVV/webviewable/ • description - Objective was to develop a theoretical and experimental framework for predicting stress rupture lifetime for fiber polymer composites based on short-term accelerated testing. Originally a 3-year project, it was terminated after the first year, which included stress rupture experiments and viscoelastic material characterization. In principle, higher temperature, stress, and saturated environmental conditions are used to accelerate stress rupture. Two types of specimens were to be subjected to long-term and accelerated static tensile loading at various temperatures, loads in order to quantify both fiber and matrix dominated failures. Also, we were to apply state-of-the-art analytical and experimental characterization techniques developed under a previous DOE/DP CRADA for capturing and tracking incipient degradation mechanisms associated with mechanical performance. Focus was increase our confidence to design, analyze, and build long-term composite structures such as flywheels and hydrogen gas storage vessels; other applications include advanced conventional weapons, infrastructures, marine and offshore systems, and stockpile stewardship and surveillance. Capabilities developed under this project, though not completed or verified, are being applied to NIF, AVLIS, and SSMP programs. 262. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.; Paulik, S. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/462893-ZXngDo/webviewable/ • description - Purpose of the research is to improve the properties of current state- of-the-art materials used for SOFCs. The project includes interconnect development, high-performance cathode, electrochemical testing, and accelerated testing. This document reports results of mechanical tests (bend strength, elastic modulus, fracture strength) of acceptor-substituted lanthanum chromite (interconnect material). 263. Evaluation of nonlinear structural dynamic responses using a fast-running spring-mass formulation • date - 2001-05-03 • creator - Benjamin, A.S.; Altman, B.S.; Gruda, J.D. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/46548-JX8oR9/webviewable/ • description - In todays world, accurate finite-element simulations of large nonlinear systems may require meshes composed of hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom. Even with todays fast computers and the promise of ever-faster ones in the future, central processing unit (CPU) expenditures for such problems could be measured in days. Many contemporary engineering problems, such as those found in risk assessment, probabilistic structural analysis, and structural design optimization, cannot tolerate the cost or turnaround time for such CPU-intensive analyses, because these applications require a large number of cases to be run with different inputs. For many risk assessment applications, analysts would prefer running times to be measurable in minutes. There is therefore a need for approximation methods which can solve such problems far more efficiently than the very detailed methods and yet maintain an acceptable degree of accuracy. For this purpose, we have been working on two methods of approximation: neural networks and spring-mass models. This paper presents our work and results to date for spring-mass modeling and analysis, since we are further along in this area than in the neural network formulation. It describes the physical and numerical models contained in a code we developed called STRESS, which stands forSpring-mass Transient Response Evaluation for structural Systems. The paper also presents results for a demonstration problem, and compares these with results obtained for the same problem using PRONTO3D, a state-of-the-art finite element code which was also developed at Sandia. 264. Workshop report on large-scale matrix diagonalization methods in chemistry theory institute • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Bischof, C.H.; Shepard, R.L.; Huss-Lederman, S.[eds.] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/465681-Vz0c7G/webviewable/ • description - The Large-Scale Matrix Diagonalization Methods in Chemistry theory institute brought together 41 computational chemists and numerical analysts. The goal was to understand the needs of the computational chemistry community in problems that utilize matrix diagonalization techniques. This was accomplished by reviewing the current state of the art and looking toward future directions in matrix diagonalization techniques. This institute occurred about 20 years after a related meeting of similar size. During those 20 years the Davidson method continued to dominate the problem of finding a few extremal eigenvalues for many computational chemistry problems. Work on non-diagonally dominant and non-Hermitian problems as well as parallel computing has also brought new methods to bear. The changes and similarities in problems and methods over the past two decades offered an interesting viewpoint for the success in this area. One important area covered by the talks was overviews of the source and nature of the chemistry problems. The numerical analysts were uniformly grateful for the efforts to convey a better understanding of the problems and issues faced in computational chemistry. An important outcome was an understanding of the wide range of eigenproblems encountered in computational chemistry. The workshop covered problems involving self- consistent-field (SCF), configuration interaction (CI), intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR), and scattering problems. In atomic structure calculations using the Hartree-Fock method (SCF), the symmetric matrices can range from order hundreds to thousands. These matrices often include large clusters of eigenvalues which can be as much as 25% of the spectrum. However, if Cl methods are also used, the matrix size can be between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 9} where only one or a few extremal eigenvalues and eigenvectors are needed. Working with very large matrices has lead to the development of 265. Proceedings of the seminar on leak before break in reactor piping and vessels • date - 2006-01-23 • creator - Faidy, C. [ed.] [Electricite de France, Villeurbanne (France)]; Gilles, P. [ed.] [Framatome, Paris (France)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/468617-96toEH/webviewable/ • description - The objective of the seminar was to present the current state of the art in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology development, validation, and application in an international forum. With particular emphasis on industrial applications and regulatory policies, the seminar provided an opportunity to compare approaches, experiences, and codifications developed by different countries. The seminar was organized into four topic areas: status of LBB applications; technical issues in LBB methodology; complementary requirements (leak detection and inspection); LBB assessment and margins. As a result of this seminar, an improved understanding of LBB gained through sharing of different viewpoints from different countries, permits consideration of: simplified pipe support design and possible elimination of loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) mechanical consequences for specific cases; defense-in-depth type of applications without support modifications; support of safety cases for plants designed without the LOCA hypothesis. In support of these activities, better estimates of the limits to the LBB approach should follow, as well as an improvement in codifying methodologies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database. 266. Precision manufacturing using advanced optical interference lithography. Final report • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Britten, J.A.; Hawryluk, A.M. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/491960-jFFksu/webviewable/ • description - Goal was to develop interference lithography (IL) as a reliable process for patterning large-area, deep-submicron scale field emission arrays for field emission display (FED) applications. We have developed a system based on IL which can easily produce an array of 0.2-0.5 micron emitters over large area (up to 400 sq. in. to date) with better than 5% height and spacing uniformity. Process development as a result of this LDRD project represents a significant advance over the current state of the art for FED manufacturing and is applicable to all types of FEDs, independent of the emitter material. Ability of IL to pattern such structures simultaneously and uniformly on a large format has application to other technology areas, such as dynamic random access memory (DRAM) production and magnetic media recording. 267. RoboCon: Operator interface for robotic applications • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Schempf, H.; Warwick, J.; Fung, M.; Chemel, B.; Blackwell, M. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/492007-nrzIhL/webviewable/ • description - Carnegie Mellon U. and ORNLs Robotics and Process Systems Division are developing a state-of-the-art robot operator control station (RoboCon) with standardized hardware and software control interfaces to be adaptable to a variety of remote and robotic equipment currently funded by DOEs Office of Science& Technology Robotics Technology Development Program. The human operation and telerobotic and supervisory control of sophisticated and remote and robotic systems is a complex, tiring, and non-intuitive activity. Since decontamination& decommissioning, selective equipment removal, mixed waste operations, and in-tank cleanup are going to be a major future activity in DOE environmental restoration and waste management cleanup agenda, it seems necessary to utilize an operator control station and interface which maximizes operator comfort and productivity. 268. Comprehensive country energy assessments using the MARKAL-MACRO model • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Reisman, A.W. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/493358-70udza/webviewable/ • description - A number of comprehensive country energy assessments were performed in the late 1970s and early 1980s in cooperation with the governments of various countries. The assessments provided a framework for analyzing the impacts of various national strategies for meeting energy requirements. These analyses considered the total energy framework. Economics, energy supply, national resources, energy use, environmental impacts, technologies, energy efficiencies, and sociopolitical impacts were some of the factors addressed. These analyses incorporated the best available data bases and computer models to facilitate the analyses. National policy makers identified the various strategies to examine. The results of the analyses were provided to the national policy makers to support their decision making. Almost 20 years have passed since these assessments were performed. There have been major changes in energy supply and use, technologies, economics, available resources, and environmental concerns. The available tools for performing the assessments have improved drastically. The availability of improved computer modeling, i.e., MARKAL-MACRO, and improved data collection methods and data bases now permit such assessments to be performed in a more sophisticated manner to provide state of the art support to policy makers. The MARKAL-MACRO model was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory over the last 25 years to support strategic energy planning. It is widely used in the international community for integrating analyses of environmental options, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It was used to perform the analyses in the least cost energy strategy study for the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Improvements continue to be made to MARKAL-MACRO and its capabilities extended. A methodology to conduct Country Energy Assessments using MARKAL-MACRO is discussed. 269. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report • date - 2006-01-23 • creator - Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P. [and others] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/493367-dSR9UZ/webviewable/ • description - This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program. 270. Multivariate volume rendering • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Crawfis, R.A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/495676-OVtWLe/webviewable/ • description - This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog. 271. The science and art of valuing externalities: A recent history of electricity sector evaluations • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Wiel, S. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/503480-oP7TZL/webviewable/ • description - In this paper the author looks at the question of placing values on the costs of pollution generated in power plants, in their effects of human health and welfare, and environmental harm, and how these values are assigned and applied in practice. The concept of placing such values on pollution is reflected in the institution of emission controls on power plants. Such types of controls and their costs tend to be termed as externalities. In practice such externalities are generally applied in economic analysis only to new plants and new construction. The author looks at the problem of establishing the economic costs of such factors, and then the factors which figure into the application of such costs in the real world. 272. LIAR -- A computer program for the modeling and simulation of high performance linacs • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Assmann, R.; Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.; Emma, P.; Raubenheimer, T.; Siemann, R.; Thompson, K.; Zimmermann, F. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/505387-Q1WKnV/webviewable/ • description - The computer program LIAR (LInear Accelerator Research Code) is a numerical modeling and simulation tool for high performance linacs. Amongst others, it addresses the needs of state-of-the-art linear colliders where low emittance, high-intensity beams must be accelerated to energies in the 0.05-1 TeV range. LIAR is designed to be used for a variety of different projects. LIAR allows the study of single- and multi-particle beam dynamics in linear accelerators. It calculates emittance dilutions due to wakefield deflections, linear and non-linear dispersion and chromatic effects in the presence of multiple accelerator imperfections. Both single-bunch and multi-bunch beams can be simulated. Several basic and advanced optimization schemes are implemented. Present limitations arise from the incomplete treatment of bending magnets and sextupoles. A major objective of the LIAR project is to provide an open programming platform for the accelerator physics community. Due to its design, LIAR allows straight-forward access to its internal FORTRAN data structures. The program can easily be extended and its interactive command language ensures maximum ease of use. Presently, versions of LIAR are compiled for UNIX and MS Windows operating systems. An interface for the graphical visualization of results is provided. Scientific graphs can be saved in the PS and EPS file formats. In addition a Mathematica interface has been developed. LIAR now contains more than 40,000 lines of source code in more than 130 subroutines. This report describes the theoretical basis of the program, provides a reference for existing features and explains how to add further commands. The LIAR home page and the ONLINE version of this manual can be accessed under: http://www.slac.stanford.edu/grp/arb/rwa/liar.htm. 273. Improving in vivo calibration phantoms • date - 2006-05-30 • creator - Lynch, T.P.; Olsen, P.C. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5071795-cSd7RY/ • description - Anthropomorphic phantoms have been the basis for quantification of radioactive material in the body using in vivo measurements. The types of phantoms used and the degree of anthropomorphic detail vary depending on the counting application, the radioactive material to be measured, phantom availability and cost. Consequently, measurement results for the same types of radioactive material from different facilities are not always comparable. At a February 1990 meeting at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) the need to develop the gold standards'' or primary reference standards for in vivo phantoms was discussed in detail. The consensus of the attendees at the meeting was that the state of the art in phantoms was adequate as a starting point and that there was no need to start phantom development from scratch. In particular, the torso phantom developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and its commercial progeny, the bottle manikin absorption (BOMAB) phantom and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard N44.3 thyroid phantom, were identified as the starting points for the development of the primary reference standards. Working groups at the meeting subsequently recommended design improvements for the existing phantom designs. The implementation of these recommendations is the subject of this paper. 274. Advanced ceramics for land-based gas turbine applications. Final report • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Schneibel, J.H.; Ludeman, E.; Sabol, S.M. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/508149-awn8w3/webviewable/ • description - In order to increase the efficiency of land-based gas turbines, inlet gas temperatures have to be increased, and the amount of air which cools the turbine vanes has to be reduced, to the maximum extent possible. Presently, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are the state of the art in achieving these goals. However, since TBCs are very thin (typically 100{mu}m), they have clearly limitations. Since all-ceramic turbine vanes would be a very large and risky development step, Westinghouse is considering to protect the leading edges of turbine vanes with high-performance ceramics. This might be done by either replacing the leading edge with a suitably shaped ceramic part, or by modifying the vanes such that they can accommodate ceramic inserts. Among the most important criteria for the success of ceramics in such applications are (a) thermodynamic compatibility with the turbine vane alloy, (b) sufficient thermal shock resistance to survive the thermal cycling during operation and in particular during emergency shut-down, and a design considering the thermal expansion mismatch of the metallic and ceramic components. This paper presents results of work performed on SiC, SiN, and aluminas. 275. Development of a building wake/stack height numerical modeling capability • date - 2006-05-30 • creator - Lee, R.L.; McCallen, R.C. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5109726-Fx4BBW/ • description - We are developing state-of-the-art numerical tools which can be used to provide reliable estimates of potential emissions at various LLNL sites. In particular we have focused our efforts in generating models which can simulate the wind flow and dispersion of airborne pollutants around surface-mounted structures such as buildings or building complexes. To achieve this goal, we have adopted two different but complementary approaches in the modeling of this complex problem. The first approach employs a Reynolds-averaged set of equations whose solution results in a description of the mean flow and concentration pattern. In the second approach, we are developing a more advanced model based on the large eddy simulation (LES) concept. In this report, we describe the progress in the development of the two approaches. We begin by discussing the calculational procedure which has been chosen for the Reynolds-averaged model, namely: prediction of the mean flow via a turbulent flow model, and; employment of the calculated flow field to drive a particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model (ADPIC). The performance of this model is benchmarked against experimental data obtained for flow over a backward-facing step. The backward-facing step problem can be viewed as a simplification of a rectangular-shaped surface mounted obstacle. We next include a brief description of the LES method, the continuum and discretized LES equations, the numerical methodology, and some preliminary flow calculations. As with the Reynolds-averaged model, the backward- facing step is used to benchmark the LES model development. The results are in agreement with the calculations of other researchers. We conclude by discussing several improvements which will be considered as we continue the development of both the Reynolds-averaged and the LES models. 40 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab. 276. Cost Effective Machining Of Ceramics (CEMOC) • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Barkman, W.E. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/519119-aOLSkw/webviewable/ • description - The purpose of the CEMOC program was to support U.S. industry needs in fabricating precision components, from difficult to machine materials, while maintaining and enhancing the precision manufacturing skills of the Oak Ridge Complex. Oak Ridge and partner company personnel worked in a team relationship wherein each contributed equally to the success of the program. In general, Oak Ridge contributed a wider range of expertise to a given task while the companies provided operations-specific equipment and shop-floor services. Process control technologies, machining procedures and parameters, and coolant-related environmental tasks were the primary focus areas. The companies were very pleased with the results of the CRADAs and are planning on continuing the relationships. Finish machining operations contribute the majority of the costs associated with fabricating high quality ceramic products. These components are typically used in harsh environments such as diesel engines, defense machinery, and automotive components. The required finishing operations involve a variety of technologies including process controls, machine coolants, product certification, etc. and are not limited only to component grinding methods. The broad range of manufacturing problem solving expertise available in Oak Ridge provided resources that were far beyond what are typically available to the CRADA partners. These partners contributed equipment, such as state-of-the-art machine tools, and operation-specific experience base. In addition, addressing these challenging tasks enabled Oak Ridge personnel to maintain familiarity with rapidly advancing technologies, such as those associated with computer control systems. 277. Cementing of geothermal wells. Progress report No. 6, July--September 1977 • date - 2006-01-09 • creator - Kukacka, L.E.; Fontana, J.; Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Sugama, T. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5218244-cHGFuA/ • description - A coordinated program for the development of improved cements specifically designed for geothermal well applications was started in April 1976. Since that time an assessment of the state of the art of well cementing has been made, a management plan prepared, and research on organic and inorganic cementing materials started. 278. Seismic imaging on massively parallel computers • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Ober, C.C.; Oldfield, R.A.; Womble, D.E.[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]; Mosher, C.C.[ARCO Exploration and Production Technology (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/527468-TxIQ3O/webviewable/ • description - A key to reducing the risks and costs associated with oil and gas exploration is the fast, accurate imaging of complex geologies, such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and overthrust regions in US onshore regions. Pre-stack depth migration generally yields the most accurate images, and one approach to this is to solve the scalar-wave equation using finite differences. Current industry computational capabilities are insufficient for the application of finite-difference, 3-D, prestack, depth-migration algorithms. High performance computers and state-of-the-art algorithms and software are required to meet this need. As part of an ongoing ACTI project funded by the US Department of Energy, the authors have developed a finite-difference, 3-D prestack, depth-migration code for massively parallel computer systems. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that massively parallel computers (thousands of processors) can be used efficiently for seismic imaging, and that sufficient computing power exists (or soon will exist) to make finite-difference, prestack, depth migration practical for oil and gas exploration. 279. Design of the support structure, drive pedestal, and controls for a solar concentrator • date - 2006-05-30 • creator - Goldberg, V.R.; Ford, J.L.; Anderson, A.E. (WG Associates, Dallas, TX (United States)) • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5301520-wQstYT/ • description - The glass/metal McDonnell-Douglas dish is the state-of-the-art of parabolic dish concentrators. Because of the perceived high production cost of this concentrator, the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Program is developing stretch-membrane technology for large (75 kWt) solar concentrators for integration with receivers and engines in 25 kWe dish-Stirling systems. The objective of this development effort is to reduce the cost of the concentrator while maintaining the high levels of performance characteristic of glass-metal dishes. Under contract to Sandia National Laboratories, Science Applications International Corporation, Solar Kinetics Inc. and WG Associates are developing a faceted stretched-membrane heliostat technology. This design will result in a low-risk, near-term concentrator for dish-Stirling systems. WG Associates has designed the support structure, drives and tracking controls for this dish. The structure is configured to support 12 stretched-membrane, 3.5-meter diameter facets in a shaped dish configuration. The dish design is sized to power a dish-Stirling system capable of producing 25 kW (electric). In the design of the structure, trade-off studies were conducted to determine the best'' facet arrangement, dish contour, dish focal length, tracking control and walk-off protection. As part of the design, in-depth analyses were performed to evaluate pointing accuracy, compliance with AISC steel design codes, and the economics of fabrication and installation. Detailed fabrication and installation drawings were produced, and initial production cost estimates for the dish were developed. These issues, and the final dish design, are presented in this report. 7 refs., 33 figs., 18 tabs. 280. Development of an inert ceramic anode to reduce energy consumption in magnesium production. Final Report • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/530966-595Atx/webviewable/ • description - The objective of this work is to develop a dimensionally stable ceramic anode for production of magnesium metal in electrolytic cells, replacing the graphite anodes currently used by The Dow Chemical Company magnesium business. The work is based on compositional and design technology for a ceramic anode developed in the former Central Research Inorganic Laboratory. The approach selected is to use a ceramic semiconductor tube as the material to interface with the bath and gaseous atmosphere in the cell. The testing goal was to demonstrate six anodes surviving a 30 day test lifetime with acceptable wear rates and electrical performance in a laboratory scale magnesium cell test. State of the art slip casting techniques were used and advanced in the pursuit of a virtually flaw free ceramic anode shell. Novel core materials were also invented to allow for the complete, crack free fabrication of the laboratory scale anode. Two successive anodes were tested and exceeded the 30 day cell lifetime goal with excellent wear characteristics. More aggressive testing of the ceramic anode revealed that the anode had a rather narrow operating region. 281. A framework for hierarchical, object-oriented simulation modeling of a steel manufacturing enterprise • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Henriksen, A.D.; Joyce, E.L.; Lally, B.R. [and others] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/534515-l8mB47/webviewable/ • description - This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project is to combine detailed physical models of industrial processes with unit operations and business-level models. This would allow global and individual process control schemes to be implemented that would facilitate improved overall system performance. Intelligent decision support that employs expert system concepts (knowledge base and rules) could then also be incorporated. This project is innovative because it attempts to incorporate all levels of production-related activities from atoms to enterprise, and to integrate those activities into one comprehensive decision support tool. This project is an interdisciplinary effort requiring enterprise modeling and simulation model integration; process modeling and control; process control and optimization; chemical process modeling; and detailed molecular-level models. It represents the state of the art in enterprise modeling and simulation and incorporates cutting edge process modeling, process control, and system optimization techniques. 282. Evaluation of field enforced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition dielectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics for pulse discharge capacitors • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Hoover, B.D.; Tuttle, B.A.; Olson, W.R.; Goy, D.M.; Brooks, R.A.; King, C.F. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/537385-sTxWcq/webviewable/ • description - Discharge capacitors were designed based on materials with antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) field enforced transitions that had 10 times the capacitance of relaxor ferroelectric or state of the art BaTiO{sub 3} materials in the voltage range of interest. Nonlinear RLC circuit analysis was used to show that the AFE to FE materials have potentially more than 2 times the peak discharge current density capability of the BaTiO{sub 3} or lead magnesium niobate (PMN) based relaxor materials. Both lead lanthanum zirconium tin titanate (PLZST) AFE to FE field enforced phase transition materials and PMN based relaxor materials were fabricated and characterized for Sandias pulse discharge capacitor applications. An outstanding feature of the PLZST materials is that there are high field regimes where the dielectric constant increases substantially, by a factor of 20 or more, with applied field. Specifically, these materials have a low field dielectric constant of 1,000, but an effective dielectric constant of 23,000 in the electric field range corresponding to the FE to AFE transition during discharge. Lead magnesium niobate (PMN) based relaxor materials were also investigated in this project because of their high dielectric constants. While the PMN based ceramics had a low field dielectric constant of 25,000, at a field corresponding to half the charging voltage, approximately 13 kV/cm, the dielectric constant decreases to approximately 7,500. 283. The Fireball integrated code package • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/552765-Vatabg/webviewable/ • description - Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows. 284. Proceedings of the 1997 oil heat technology conference and workshop • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - McDonald, R.J. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/554779-6NlPzR/webviewable/ • description - This report documents the Proceedings of the 1997 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, held on April 3--4 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and sponsored by the US Department of Energy--Office of Building Technologies, State and Community programs (DOE-BTS), in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). This Conference is a key technology transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oil-Heat R and D) program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely: and foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of sustained national economic growth and energy security via energy conservation. The 1997 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) five plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector industry representatives from the US, and Canada, and (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. This book contains 14 technical papers and four summaries from the workshops. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database. 285. Enhanced Internet firewall design using stateful filters final report • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Hutchins, J.A.[Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Infrastructure and Networking Research Dept.]; Simons, R.W.[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Decision Support Systems Architectures] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/554820-lSqMsq/webviewable/ • description - The current state-of-the-art in firewall design provides a lot of security for company networks, but normally at the expense of performance and/or functionality. Sandia researched a new approach to firewall design which incorporates a highly stateful approach, allowing much more flexibility for protocol checking and manipulation while retaining performance. A prototype system was built and multiple protocol policy modules implemented to test the concept. The resulting system, though implemented on a low-power workstation, performed almost at the same performance as Sandias current firewall. 286. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996 • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/560755-pmWUdC/webviewable/ • description - Objectives of this program are to provide a thermal barrier coating system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art systems. This report describes the bond coat deposition process, manufacturing, and repair. 287. A new vehicle data bus architecture and IVIS evaluation platform for ITS modulus • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Spelt, P.F.[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]; Kirson, A.M.[Motorola, Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States)]; Scott, S.[Jet Propulsion Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/560872-HbKbMn/webviewable/ • description - An increasing number of ITS-related after-market systems present a set of in-vehicle installation and use problems relatively unique in the history of automobile use. Many automobile manufacturers would like to offer these new state of the art devices to customers, but are hampered by the current design cycle of new cars. While auto manufacturers are indeed using multiplex buses (the automotive equivalent of a computer local area network), problems remain because manufacturers are not converging on a single bus standard. This paper presents a new dual-bus architecture to address these problems, with an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) research platform on which the principles embodied in the ITS Data Bus architecture can be evaluated. The dual-bus architecture has been embodied in a proposed SAE standard, with a ratification vote in December, 1996. The architecture and a reference model for the interfaces and protocols of the new bus are presented and described. The goals of the ITS Data Bus are to be inexpensive and easy to install, and to provide for safe and secure functioning. These high-level goals are embodied in the proposed standard. The IVIS Development Platform comprises a number of personal computers linked via ethernet LAN, with a high-end PC serving as the IVIS computer. In this LAN, actual devices can be inserted in place of the original PC which emulated them. This platform will serve as the development and test bed for an ITS Data Bus Conformity Test, the SAE standard for which has also been developed. 288. A method to convert algebraic boundary representations to CSG representations for three-dimensional solids • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Buchele, S.F.[Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Computer Sciences Dept.]; Ellingson, W.A.[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/561150-fLEoGP/webviewable/ • description - Recent advances in reverse engineering have focused on recovering a boundary representation (b-rep) of an object, often for integration with rapid prototyping. This boundary representation may be a 3-D point cloud, a triangulation of points, or piecewise algebraic or parametric surfaces. This paper presents work in progress to develop an algorithm to extend the current state of the art in reverse engineering of mechanical parts. This algorithm will take algebraic surface representations as input and will produce a constructive solid geometry (CSG) description that uses solid primitives such as rectangular block, pyramid, sphere, cylinder, and cone. The proposed algorithm will automatically generate a CSG solid model of a part given its algebraic b-rep, thus allowing direct input into a CAD system and subsequent CSG model generation. 289. Environmental representation and the role of clouds in studies and analysis models • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Hummel, J.R.; Campbell, A.P. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/561249-S1YaYz/webviewable/ • description - The Joint Analysis community is currently making significant improvements and enhancements to its suite of modeling tools used to support studies and analyses for Joint applications. This effort is being performed under the Joint Analytic Model Improvement Program (JAMIP) that began in 1995. One part of the JAMIP effort is the development of the Joint Warfare System (JWARS). JWARS will be a state of the art closed-form, constructive simulation of multisided, joint warefare for analysis. The environment will be a significant factor in future warefare analysis and so JWARS will include an authoritative environmental representation that can be represented at variable spatial and temporal scales. Argonnes Dynamic Environmental Effects Model (DEEM) was used to provide the environmental representation for the JWARS prototype effort. In this paper we will present an overview of JWARS and describe how the environment and environmental effects are being represented in JWARS. Specific emphasis will be given on how clouds are included in the JWARS environment and the impacts they have on the warfighting functionality included in JWARS. 290. Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Rivera, J.J.[Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]; Shapiro, V.[Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Spatial Automation Lab.] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/563821-SqGLUD/webviewable/ • description - Throughout Sandias history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on{open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandias parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification. 291. Moving granular-bed filter development program - option 1 - component test facilities • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smelzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/565271-RRCblP/webviewable/ • description - The Westinghouse Science& Technology Center has proposed a novel moving granular bed filter concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF). The SMGBF has inherent advantages over the current state-of-the-art moving granular bed filter technology and is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters. The SMGBF system combines several unique features that make it highly effective for use in advanced coal-fueled power plants, such as pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and integrated coal-gasification combined cycles (IGCC). The SMGBF is being developed in a phased program having an initial Base Contract period followed by optional periods. The Base Contract period was successfully completed and previously documented by Westinghouse. The Option 1 period,{open_quote}Component Test Facilities{close_quotes}, has also been completed and its results are reported in this document. The objective of the Option 1 program was to optimize the performance of the SMGBF system through component testing focused on the major technology issues. The SMGBF has been shown to be a viable technology in both cold flow simulations and high-temperature, high-pressure testing, and conditions to lead to best performance levels have been identified. Several development activities remain to be complete before the SMGBF can achieve commercial readiness. 292. Degradation of lime wood painting supports • date - 2005 • creator - Cornelia Vasile • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.morana-rtd.com/e-preservationscience/2005/Vasile-18-05-2005.pdf • description - Degradation of wood, being a natural process, leads to destruction of wooden objects of historic and cultural value, resulting in loss of cultural heritage. Wood can survive centuries or even thousands of years, if kept in an environment, which limits microbial activity. In an unfavourable environment physical, chemical and morphological modifications of wood also take place as a result of biodegradation. It is important to know the type of degradation and how the processes influence material properties if wooden items are to be properly preserved. The objective of this study is to present new knowledge on non-invasive techniques useful to assess the preservation status of lime wood in art objects. The methods of investigation were optical and electronic microscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and FT-IR spectroscopy. Following a deconvolution process of the diffraction patterns, crystalline index, apparent lateral crystallite size, proportion of crystallite interior chains, orientation index, mesomorphism, cellulose fraction have been determined and shown to change with increasing age of painting supports. Structural modifications were assessed by FT-IR spectrometry and 2D correlation FT-IR spectroscopy, while morphological modification were characterised using SEM. The principal hetero-elements of the lime wood samples were detected by EDX. It can be concluded that only a multi-analytical approach can provide the information needed on wood degradation processes. 293. Talent predictors. [Predictores de talento] • date - 2005 • creator - Lorenzo, Raquel • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.intangiblecapital.org/Articulos/N7/0035.htm • description - The knowledge of talent predictors is the initial point for building diagnosis and encouragement procedures in this field. The meaning of word predictor is to anticipate the future, to divine. Early prediction of high performance is complex problem no resolute by the science yet. There are many discrepancies about what measure and how to do. The article analyze the art state in this problematic because the excellence is determined by the interaction between internal and environmental factors. [El conocimiento de los predictores del talento es el punto de partida para elaborar y/o determinar procedimientos de diagnÃ³stico y de estimulaciÃ³n en ese campo. La palabra predictor significa anunciar el futuro, pronosticar y vaticinar. La predicciÃ³n temprana del alto desempeÃ±o es un problema complejo no resuelto por la ciencia. Se afrontan discrepancias en cuanto a quÃ© se va a medir y cÃ³mo hacerlo. El artÃ­culo analiza el estado del arte en estas polÃ©micas porque la excelencia es resultado de la interacciÃ³n de factores intraindividuales -habilidades cognitivas y no cognitivas- con los factores ambientales.] 294. Ethnoentomological studies in the state of Bahia: an homanage to the 50 • date - 2004 • creator - Eraldo Medeiros Costa Neto • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=01031643&date=2004&volume=17&issue=1&spage=117 • description - This paper discusses the importance of research in ethnoentomology by examining the works which have been carried out in different social and cultural contexts within Bahia State, northeastern Brazil. Such works range from studies in ethnotaxonomy to the use of insects both as food and medicinal resources, as well as their use in the art of philately and advertising. Studies on ethnoentomology can stimulate new ideas to be researched by science, especially those stressing both the therapeutic and protein potential of the insects, thus representing a valuable contribution to the question of biodiversity and opening up possibilities for the economic valorization of species which are normally regarded as harmful or useless. 295. Understanding Planets in Ancient Mesopotamia • date - 2001 • creator - Raul Veede • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.folklore.ee/folklore/vol16/planets.pdf • description - On our planet time flows evenly everywhere but the history as weknow it has different length and depth in every place. Maybe thedeepest layer of history lies in the land between Tigris and Eufrat Ã¢Â€Â“Mesopotamia (Greek Ã¢Â€Â˜the land between two riversÃ¢Â€Â™). Itis hard to grasp how much our current culture has inherited fromthe people of that land Ã¢Â€Â“ be it either the wheel, the art of writing,or the units for measuring time and angles. Science and knowledgeof stars has always Ã¢Â€Â“ though with varying success Ã¢Â€Â“ been importantin European culture. Much from the Babylonian beliefs about constellationsand planets have reached our days. Planets had an importantplace in Babylonian astral religion, they were observed asmuch for calendrical as astrological purposes, and the qualities ofthe planetary gods were carried on to Greek and Rome.The following started out as an attempt to compose a list of planetstogether with corresponding gods who lend their names and qualitiesto the planets. Though it was easy to find such a list aboutGreece and Rome, texts concerning Mesopotamia included miscellaneousfacts subdivided into general categories only (e.g. Pannekoek1961). The reasons of this vagueness later became evident with thecompiling of such a table starting to look like Sisyphean work. 296. Sol-gel preservation of mankinds cultural heritage in objects constructed of stone • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Brinker, C.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Sellinger, A.S.[and others] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/573146-VdHN2z/webviewable/ • description - Monuments, buildings, and works of art constructed of carbonate-based stone (calcite, e.g., limestone and marble) are subject to deterioration resulting from the effects of environmental exposure, granular disintegration, freeze/thaw cycles, and salt recrystallization. This damage can potentially be reversed by the use of mineral-specific chemical passivants and consolidants that prevent hydrolytic attack and mechanical weakening. The treatment strategy combined the use of calcite coupling molecules to passivate the surfaces against new weathering with alkoxysilane strengthening or consolidating layers to arrest physical deterioration. The authors report on the effectiveness of passivating agents designed through a combined approach of modeling their adhesive and passivating properties using computations at the molecular scale and testing those properties using simulated leaching tests, microscopic evaluation, and characterization of mechanical strength. The experimental results indicate that there may be a threshold binding energy for the passivant above which the dissolution rate of calcite is actually enhanced. Passivant/consolidant treatments were identified which showed substantial reductions in the leach rate of calcite exposed to simulated acid rain conditions. 297. HVDC power transmission electrode siting and design • date - 2001-05-05 • creator - Holt, R.J.[NDT Engineering, Inc., Shrewbury, MA (United States)]; Dabkowski, J.[Electro-Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)]; Hauth, R.L.[New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/580585-d9I696/webviewable/ • description - This research strives to shed light on the feasibility and practicality of using deep earth electrodes to permit their use for extended periods without adverse consequences. This report begins with a review of the fundamentals associated with current conduction in earth, including the various techniques available for measuring the earths electrical properties. The sources of existing data are discussed and some specific data for selected regions of the U.S. and Canada are reviewed as examples. Electrode technology and design issues are reviewed and recent experience gained by New England Power and Hydro-Quebec is discussed. The issues associated with direct current flowing in underground pipelines (and other facilities) are described and the present-day mitigation measures are evaluated. Suggestions are made for further R&D in the coordination of cathodic protection systems, an area that has evolved as an empirical, trial- and-error art more than a science. 298. Spray forming -- Aluminum: Third annual report (Phase 2). Technical progress -- Summary • date - 2004-07-26 • creator - Kozarek, R.L. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/587914-1I8UCB/webviewable/ • description - Commercial production of aluminum sheet and plate by spray atomization and deposition is a potentially attractive manufacturing alternative to conventional ingot metallurgy/hot-milling and to continuous casting processes because of reduced energy requirements and reduced cost. To realize the full potential of the technology, the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa), under contract by the US Department of Energy, is investigating currently available state-of-the-art atomization devices to develop nozzle design concepts whose spray characteristics are tailored for continuous sheet production. This third technical progress report will summarize research and development work conducted during the period 1997 October through 1998 March. Included are the latest optimization work on the Alcoa III nozzle, results of spray forming runs with 6111 aluminum alloy and preliminary rolling trials of 6111 deposits. 299. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York • date - 2006-05-30 • creator - Berry, H.A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6101954-s81l36/ • description - An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs. 300. First-principles approaches to materials stability • date - 2001-05-07 • creator - Turchi, P.E.A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/61744-qc9zLo/webviewable/ • description - Parameter-free electronic structure approaches are now being used to predict chemical order, and to a lesser extent, structural transformations in multi-component alloys, as a function of temperature, concentration and pressure. The underlying state-of-the-art framework will be briefly reviewed, and applications to specific aspects of the statics and kinetics of alloy transformations will be discussed. Finally special emphasis will be put on the relations between stability and mechanical properties in substitutional alloys with examples pertaining to the energetics of antiphase boundaries and interfaces. 301. GaN Device Processing • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Pearton, S.J.[University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)]; Ren, F.[Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)]; Zolper, J.C.[Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA (United States)]; Shul, R.J.[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/622943-nn2n0R/webviewable/ • description - Recent progress in the development of dry and wet etching techniques, implant doping and isolation, thermal processing, gate insulator technology and high reliability contacts is reviewed. Etch selectivities up to 10 for InN over AlN are possible in Inductively Coupled Plasmas using a Cl2/Ar chemistry, but in general selectivities for each binary nitride relative to each other are low ({lt} OR= 2) BECAUSE OF THE HIGH ION ENERGIES NEEDED TO INITIATE ETCHING. IMPROVED N-TYPE OHMIC CONTACT RESISTANCES ARE OBTAINED BY SELECTIVE AREA SI+ IMPLANTATION FOLLOWED BY VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE ({gt}1300 deg C) anneals in which the thermal budget is minimized and AlN encapsulation prevents GaN surface decomposition. Implant isolation is effective in GaN, AlGaN and AlInN, but marginal in InGaN. Candidate gate insulators for GaN include AlN, AlON and Ga(Gd)O(x), but interface state densities are still to high to realize state-of-the-art MIS devices. 302. An outline of positron measurements of superconducting oxides • date - 2006-05-30 • creator - Howell, R.H.; Fluss, M.J. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6255161-hT5VrM/ • description - Positron measurements on superconducting oxides have gone through an evolution from divergent results of low statistical precision on samples of suspect quality to convergent results of higher statistical precision on high quality samples. We outline the elements affecting the progress of these experiments and questions that can be addressed at our present state of the art. 11 refs. 303. A Reactor Pressure Vessel Dosimetry Calculation Using ATTILA, An Unstructured Tetrahedral Mesh Discrete-Ordinates Code • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Wareing, T.A.; Parsons, D.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]; Pautz, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/626463-3WnZY3/webviewable/ • description - Recently, a new state-of-the-art discrete-ordinates code, ATTILA, was developed. ATTILA provides the capabilities to solve geometrically complex 3-D transport problems by using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. In this paper we describe the application of ATTILA to a 3-D reactor pressure vessel dosimetry problem. We provide numerical results from ATTILA and the Monte Carlo code, MCNP. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of ATTILA for such calculations. 304. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/629367-QfsnAS/webviewable/ • description - The objectives of the program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating (TBC) system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1, Program Planning -- Complete; Phase 2, Development; Phase 3, Selected Specimen -- Bench Test. Work is being performed in Phase 2 and 3 of the program. 305. Oxide ceramic alloys and microlaminates. Final report, May 1, 1989--October 31, 1997 • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Chen, I.W. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/629441-veiaKG/webviewable/ • description - Major research conducted in this program falls into the following areas: (a) microstructure and micromechanics of superplastic ceramic composites; (b) solute segregation and grain boundary kinetics of ceramic alloys; (c) sintering, grain growth, and texture development of ceramics and thin films; and (d) in-situ and microlaminate oxide composites. The basic approach to the above research is to utilize the state of the art methods to process colloidal and green ceramics, to employ crystal chemistry and phase equilibria for microalloy and microcomposite design, to comprehensively characterize microstructure development and mechanical performance, to develop models, theories, and simulations to understand the energetics, kinetics and mechanics, and to explore novel microstructures and improved performance for practically important ceramics. Major accomplishments are here. 306. Metals Processing Laboratory User Facility: Facilities capabilities; Interactive programs; Recent experience • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Raschke, R.A.[eds.][comps.] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/629473-h6xFgC/webviewable/ • description - MPLUS is a DOE designated User Facility providing extensive Technical Expertise and Specialized Facilities to assist Industrial and Academic Partners in becoming more Energy Efficient and enhancing US Competitiveness in the World market. MPLUS focusing on 7 major vision industries (aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metals castings, refineries, and steel) identified by DOE as being energy intensive, as well as cross-cutting industries such as welding and heat treating. MPLUS consists of four primary facilities: (1) Materials Processing, (2) Materials Joining, (3) Materials Characterization and Properties, and (4) Materials Process Modeling. Each facility provides rapid access to unique, state-of-the-art equipment, capabilities, and technical expertise necessary for solving materials processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging technologies. These capabilities include: (1) materials synthesis; (2) deformation processing; (3) materials characterization; (4) joining and mathematical modeling. 307. Application of ionic and electronic conducting ceramics in solid oxide fuel cells • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Singhal, S.C. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/634180-wxAp7s/webviewable/ • description - Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a pollution-free technology to electrochemically generate electricity at high efficiencies. These fuel cells consist of an oxygen ion conducting electrolyte, electronic or mixed electronic and ionic conducting electrodes, and an electronic conducting interconnection. This paper reviews the ceramic materials used for the different cell components, and discusses the performance of cells fabricated using these materials. The paper also discusses the materials and processing studies that are underway to reduce the cell cost, and summarizes the recently built power generation systems that employed state-of-the-art SOFCs. 308. Near Infrared Spectroscopy: fundamentals, practical aspects and analytical applications • date - 2003 • creator - Pasquini Celio • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-50532003000200006 • description - This paper intends to review the basic theory of Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy and its applications in the field of Analytical Science. It is addressed to the reader who does not have a profound knowledge of vibrational spectroscopy but wants to be introduced to the analytical potentialities of this fascinating technique and, at same time, be conscious of its limitations. Essential theory background, an outline of modern instrument design, practical aspects, and applications in a number of different fields are presented. This work does not intend to supply an intensive bibliography but refers to the most recent, significant and representative material found in the technical literature. Because this paper has been produced as consequence of the First Workshop on Near Infrared Spectroscopy, whose venue was Campinas - Brazil, as a pre-conference activity of the XI National Meeting on Analytical Chemistry (ENQA), it also depicts the state of the art of NIR spectroscopy in Brazil, pointing out the current achievements and the need to take the technology to a level consistent with this country's economical activities. 309. The art and science of presentation: the poster. 310. The art and science of presentation: 35-mm slides. 311. BLOGS AS ELECTRONIC LEARNING JOURNALS • date - 2004 • creator - Reece Lamshed • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=13240781&date=2004&volume=7&issue=1&spage= • description - Blogs (web logs) are one of the fastest growing features of the World Wide Web. At its simplest a blog is a personal web based space for writing managed by the author who compiles lists of links to personally interesting material interspersed with information and editorial. Recent research conducted at the RMIT in the Faculty of Art, Design and Communication has explored the range of potential applications of blogging technology in education and training for student communication, learning content delivery, student mentoring, professional development, collaboration and knowledge management. The focus of this article is on the use of blogs by students as learning journals. Blogs are able to integrate the personal aspect of a traditional learning journal or diary that documents a studentÂ’s journal through their leaning with the immediate publishing capability of the web. A blog site was developed specifically for the research and groups of students from three learning contexts developed online learning journals as part of their studies. Qualitative interviews were conducted with participants using informal open ended questions. Participants reported enthusiastically about the use of blogs for storage and safekeeping of learning, maintenance of study routines, encouragement to structured thinking and revision and the possibilities for transformation to meaningful knowledge from learned information. The use of blogs as e-learning spaces is supported by this research which offer the possibility of a new tool to add to the more familiar forms of online communication and extends the body of evidence that support the use of learning journals as part of the education process. 312. THE HERMENEUTIC WITHIN THE ANTHROPOLOGY, AN EXPERIENCE AND PROPOSAL FOR ETNOGRAPHIC WORK: THE DENSE DESCRIPTION OF CLIFFORD GEERTZ • date - 2005 • creator - Juan CristÃ³bal LÃ³pez Carrera • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.doaj.org/openurl?genre=article&issn=16650441&date=2005&volume=1&issue=2&spage=291 • description - The hermeneutic is the science and art of the interpretation, it tries to understand texts; that is to say, to de-construct them to study and/or to place them in theirs respective contexts. It is not limited to texts written, spoken or acted: it can develop into a method to comprehend each and every one of the languages of the world (reality as text): cultural, archaeological, social-spatial, visual. Nowadays hermeneutic is a fundamental attitude in the philosophy and human sciences; erecting itself as a theory and practice of the interpretation which finds in the language (symbolic) its shaman or sense mediation. 313. Evidence-based medicine: science and art. 314. The art and science of presentation: electronic presentations. 315. Treatment of bipolar disorder part II: beyond guidelines, the science and the art of combining medication and psychoeducation in bipolar disorders 316. Why is the sea salty Lesson • date - rasmussw@u.arizona.edu • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.col-ed.org/cur/sci/sci166.txt • description - An activity appropriate for grades k-3 art and science students, designed to help students answer the question of why the sea is salty. Allows students to observe how salt concentration increases in water and how the salt remains after the water evaporates. Tying it in artistically, directions are included for a Saltwater Painting. 317. Penn State Pointers: Agricultural Information Services • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://aginfo.psu.edu/PSP/index.html • description - Penn State Pointers are informational graphics produced using information from the press releases of the College of Agricultural Sciences at Penn State University. There are graphics about soil testing, composting, raised-beds, planting, preventing deer damage, food safety, fertilizing, pruning, household lead exposure, saving seeds, gardening tools, termite infestation, tree health, herbicides, wild mushrooms, landscaping, and more. More than 80 graphics are available and they are designed to be used in electronic media or as a downloadable, printable file for magazines, newsletters, newspapers, and other publications. Related press releases and instructions for dwonloading are included. 318. WorldAtlas.com • date - • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.graphicmaps.com/aatlas/world.htm • description - World Atlas.com is a world atlas library of maps, flags and geography facts. This site contains many maps to download including the world, countries, bodies of water, provinces, states and islands. Users can view the continents by size, by population, and by number of countries. Maps contain details such as population, language, religion, capital, climate, size, and status. Latitude and longitude are provided for cities, towns, countries, and villages. The current time and date is available for locations around the world. There is also a large selection of geographic clip-art available to download and use, as well as map tests and outline maps for teachers to use in the classroom. Many links are provided for additional information about countries and continents around the world. 319. Automatic Face Recognition System Based on Local Fourier-Bessel Features • date - 2005-09-27 • creator - Zana, Yossi • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0509081 • description - Comment: 2005, Brazilian Symposium on Computer Graphics and Image Processing, 18 (SIBGRAPI) 320. Face Verification in Polar Frequency Domain: a Biologically Motivated Approach • date - 2005-09-27 • creator - Zana, Yossi • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0509083 • description - We present a novel local-based face verification system whose components are analogous to those of biological systems. In the proposed system, after global registration and normalization, three eye regions are converted from the spatial to polar frequency domain by a Fourier-Bessel Transform. The resulting representations are embedded in a dissimilarity space, where each image is represented by its distance to all the other images. In this dissimilarity space a Pseudo-Fisher discriminator is built. ROC and equal error rate verification test results on the FERET database showed that the system performed at least as state-of-the-art methods and better than a system based on polar Fourier features. The local-based system is especially robust to facial expression and age variations, but sensitive to registration errors. 321. Face Recognition Based on Polar Frequency Features • date - 2005-09-27 • creator - Zana, Yossi • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0509082 • description - Comment: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception 322. Evolino for recurrent support vector machines • date - 2005-12-15 • creator - Schmidhuber, Juergen • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0512062 • description - Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures 323. n-Channel Entropy-Constrained Multiple-Description Lattice Vector Quantization • date - 2006-02-09 • creator - Ostergaard, Jan • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0602035 • description - In this paper we derive analytical expressions for the central and side quantizers which, under high-resolutions assumptions, minimize the expected distortion of a symmetric multiple-description lattice vector quantization (MD-LVQ) system subject to entropy constraints on the side descriptions for given packet-loss probabilities. We consider a special case of the general n-channel symmetric multiple-description problem where only a single parameter controls the redundancy tradeoffs between the central and the side distortions. Previous work on two-channel MD-LVQ showed that the distortions of the side quantizers can be expressed through the normalized second moment of a sphere. We show here that this is also the case for three-channel MD-LVQ. Furthermore, we conjecture that this is true for the general n-channel MD-LVQ. For given source, target rate and packet-loss probabilities we find the optimal number of descriptions and construct the MD-LVQ system that minimizes the expected distortion. We verify theoretical expressions by numerical simulations and show in a practical setup that significant performance improvements can be achieved over state-of-the-art two-channel MD-LVQ by using three-channel MD-LVQ. 324. Solving Sparse Integer Linear Systems • date - 2006-03-21 • creator - Eberly, Wayne • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0603082 • description - We propose a new algorithm to solve sparse linear systems of equations over the integers. This algorithm is based on ap-adic lifting technique combined with the use of block matrices with structured blocks. It achieves a sub-cubic complexity in terms of machine operations subject to a conjecture on the effectiveness of certain sparse projections. A LinBox-based implementation of this algorithm is demonstrated, and emphasizes the practical benefits of this new method over the previous state of the art. 325. A Versatile Environment For Active Learners And Teachers • date - 2002-01-16 • creator - Andr Heck,Amstel Insfituut • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/520439.html • description - We all like to provide our students with opportunities... 326. The Death Of Computer Languages, The Birth Of Intentional Programming • date - 1970-01-01 • creator - Redmond Wa,Charles Simonyi • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/52171.html • description - This lecture series sponsored by Prof. Randell has long-standing tradition of grand overviews of the state of the art in some aspect of computer science. In this instance, Brian and I have decided to break with tradition for a number of reasons. First, currently I am only articulate when I discuss Intentional Programming so this limited the choice of subjects. But the general topic of "Future of Software" suggests we look forward and it also grants a certain license to speculate. It so happens that this is the first public forma where I have ever discussed these ideas and this should add some spice to the occasion. 327. A Practical Investigation Task with the Computer at Secondary School: Bridges and Hanging Chains. • date - 2002-01-16 • creator - Andr Heck,Andr Holleman • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/521908.html • description - Almost everywhere you can come across hanging chains and cables. Examples are necklaces, power lines, and cables that support a bridge surface. Do these cables all hang in the same mathematical shape? The first thought of many a pupil will be: this is a parabola, isn't it? In the computer learning environment Coach you can easily measure this on digital images. It will mm out that the parabolic shape quite often occurs with bridges, but that an ordinary chain does not hang as a parabola. Can this be understood? We shall show that a key idea for solving the problem can be discovered by measuring on digital images and that this can be theoretically explained with basic physics. It also leads to a simple computer model of hanging chains. We shall discuss our learning material and classroom experiences, and in this way present an example of how ICT and context situations can contribute to the realisation of challenging cross-disciplinary investigation tasks. 328. Explanation in Probabilistic Systems: Is It Feasible? Will It Work? • date - 1996-06-26 • creator - Marek J. Druzdzel • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/52696.html • description - . Reasoning within such domains as engineering, science, management, or medicine is traditionally based on formal methods employing probabilistic treatment of uncertainty. It seems natural to base artificial reasoning systems in these domains on the normative foundations of probability theory. Two usual objections to this approach are (1) probabilistic inference is computationally intractable in the worst case, and (2) probability theory is incomprehensible for humans and, hence, probabilistic systems may be hardly usable. The first objection has been addressed effectively in the last decade by a variety of efficient exact and approximate schemes for probabilistic reasoning, applied in several practical systems. In this paper, I review the state of the art with respect to the second objection. First I argue that the observed discrepancies between human and probabilistic reasoning and the anticipated difficulties in building user interfaces are not a good reason for rejecting probabilit... 329. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility • date - 2001-03-27 • creator - Mary Jayne Adriaans,Feng-chuan Liu • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/533781.html • description - LTMPF) is a state-of-the-art facility for long duration science investigations whose objectives can only be achieved in microgravity and at low temperature. LTMPF is a self-contained, reusable, cryogenic facility that will accommodate a series of low temperature experiments to be conducted on the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) of the International Space Station. The Facility design has been guided by enveloping the needs of a wide variety of experiments requiring highly stable thermal platforms in a dewar with a designed cryogen lifetime of approximately five months. This paper will describe the LTMPF and its goals, its design requirements, and the current status of the Facility. Opportunities for utilization and collaboration will also be discussed. 330. Simple Confluently Persistent Catenable Lists. (Extended Abstract) • date - 2001-12-10 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/537548.html • description - Haim Kaplan , Chris Okasaki 2', and Robert E. Tarjan 3 AT&T labs, 180 Park Ave, Florham Park, NJ. hklresearch. art. corn School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. 331. Instrumented Sensor System Architecture • date - 2003-07-18 • creator - Mohamed Dekhil,Thomas C. Henderson • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/640365.html • description - Sensor systems are becoming ubiquitous throughout society, yet their design, construction and operation are still more of an art than a science. In this paper, we define, develop, and apply a formal semantics for sensor systems that provides a theoretical framework for an integrated software architecture for modeling sensor-based control systems. Our goal is to develop a design framework which allows the user to model, analyze and experiment with different versions of a sensor system. This includes the ability to build and modify multisensor systems and to monitor and debug both the output of the system and the affect of any modification in terms of robustness, efficiency, and error measures. The notion of Instrumented Logical Sensor Systems (ILSS) that are derived from this modeling and design methodology is introduced. The instrumented sensor approach is based on a sensori-computational model which defines the components of the sensor system in terms of their functionality, accuracy, robustness and efficiency. This approach provides a uniform specification language to define sensor systems as a composition of smaller, predefined components. From a software engineering standpoint, this addresses the issues of modularity, reusability, and reliability for building complex systems. An example is given which compares vision and sonar techniques for the recovery of wall pose. 332. An Empirical Study of Aesthetic Computing • date - 2003-12-15 • creator - Paul Fishwick,Timothy Davis,Jane Douglas • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/642183.html • description - Aesthetic Computing is an area that has been developing over the past three years, supported by workshops, classes and an upcoming edited volume. In this area, the goal is to study the application of artistic practice and theory to computing. The Aesthetic Computing class is run every Spring, and contains both art and computer science students. The students look at issues in representation, and make projects to illustrate new representations of artifacts in mathematics and computing. Natural questions arise such as Does aesthetic computing provide any benefit?. To help answer this question, the student needs to be presented with a body of knowledge that represents the "aesthetic computing technique", and then the student applies this knowledge to create the artifacts. We present recent empirical studies from two classes, Aesthetic Computing and Computer Simulation, where aesthetic "methods/techniques" were employed. From the studies, we determined that while aesthetic computing techniques had their negative results, aside from the appeal of being able to customize formal structures, the most positive result was found in a perceived enhancement of communication of technical topics by the students to others. 333. In vacuum undulator task force report • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.C.; Stefan, P.[and others] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/639775-RZOAIb/webviewable/ • description - Historically the NSLS has been active in R&D for state-of-the-art electron beams, photon beams and x-ray optics. One of the available straight sections has therefore been dedicated to insertion device R&D. Over the past five to seven years a program aimed at exploiting the very small vertical{beta} function in the straight sections has yielded first a prototype small gap undulator (PSGU) and then an in-vacuum undulator (IVUN). The IVUN sources attain a brightness similar to the existing hybrid wigglers in X21 and X25. They radiate significantly lower total power than the wigglers but produce higher power densities. They provide undulator rather than wiggler spectra. Because of the small gaps and small periods there is not much tunability in these devices and they will have to be purpose-built for a specific scientific program. The original IVUN parameters were chosen for in-elastic x-ray scattering, similar to the scientific program on X21. This put the fundamental at 4.6 keV and the third harmonic at 13.8 keV. The question that this new possible insertion device poses is what science programs can best take advantage of this new insertion device source? To answer this, a task force was formed by M. Hart, NSLS Department Chair and charged with identifying viable scientific programs that could seek outside funding to construct IVUN beamlines. The task force concentrated on experimental programs that are presently being pursued on new insertion devices worldwide. For example, x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, which takes advantage of the large coherent flux from undulator sources, was considered. However, this program was not considered as the highest priority. The general area of protein crystallography, however, is ideal for the IVUN source. The unique electron beam optics that makes the IVUN possible in the first place also makes the IVUN ideal as a source for microdiffraction. 334. Development and demonstration of a teleoperated modular{open_quotes}snake{close_quotes} robot system. Final report, September 30, 1986--December 31, 1993 • date - 2001-05-03 • creator - Tesar, D.; Hooper, R. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/64144-7WNX9R/webviewable/ • description - The U.S. Department of Energy has provided support to four universities and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to pursue research leading to the development and deployment of advanced robotic systems capable of performing tasks that generate significant occupational radiation exposure and/or whose execution times can be reduced if performed by an automated system. The goal was to develop advanced robotic systems capable of performing surveillance, maintenance, and repair tasks in nuclear facilities and other hazardous environments. The approach to achieving the program objective was a transition from teleoperation to the capability of autonomous operation within three successive generations of robotic systems. The robotic system will always have the capability to request human assistance. The development of general purpose robots to perform skilled labor tasks in restricted environments was shown to have extensive payback in areas of energy systems (nuclear and fossil units), chemical plants, fire fighting, space operations, underwater activities, defense, and other hazardous activities. The strategy that was used to achieve the program goals in an efficient and timely manner consisted in utilizing, and advancing where required, state-of-the-art robotics technology through close interaction between the universities and the manufacturers and operators of nuclear power plants. The research effort showed that a broad range of applications for the robotic systems existed for the improved operation of nuclear reactors and in other hazardous tasks. As a consequence, each institution was able to obtain additional support from other agencies, e.g., DoD and NASA. Areas of cooperation with other nations (e.g., Japan, France, Germany) were utilized. 335. Chemistry modification of high oxygen-carbon powder by plasma melting: Follow up to complete the story • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Dunn, P.S.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Garcia, F.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]; Michaluk, C.A. [Cabot Performance Materials (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/650296-93tgyj/webviewable/ • description - State of the art melting of tantalum and tantalum alloys has relied on electron beam (EB) or vacuum arc remelting (VAR) for commercial ingot production. Plasma arc melting (PAM) provides an alternative for melting tantalum that contains very high levels of interstitials where other melting techniques can not be applied. Previous work in this area centered on plasma arc melt quality and final interstitial content of tantalum feedstock containing excessive levels of interstitial impurities as a function of melt rate and plasma gas. This report is an expansion of this prior study and provides the findings from the analysis of second phase components observed in the microstructure of the PAM tantalum. In addition, results from subsequent EB melting trials of PAM tantalum are included. 336. Sol-gel processing of energetic materials • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.H.; Fox, G.L.; Simpson, R.L.; Lee, R.W.; Swansiger, R.W.; Simpson, L.R. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/653598-voS3Zd/webviewable/ • description - As part of a new materials effort, we are exploring the use of sol- gel chemistry to manufacture energetic materials. Traditional manufacturing of energetic materials involves processing of granular solids. One application is the production of detonators where powders of energetic material and a binder are typically mixed and compacted at high pressure to make pellets. Performance properties are strongly dependent on particle size distribution, surface area of its constituents, homogeneity of the mix, and void volume. The goal is to produce detonators with fast energy release rate the are insensitive to unintended initiation. In this paper, we report results of our early work in this field of research, including the preparation of detonators from xerogel molding powders and aerogels, comparing the material properties with present state-of-the-art technology. 337. An alternative test for verifying electronic balance linearity • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Thomas, I.R. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/653958-HYp1PF/webviewable/ • description - This paper presents an alternative method for verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy. This method is being developed for safeguards weighings (weighings for the control and accountability of nuclear material) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). With regard to balance linearity and accuracy, DOE Order 5633.3B, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials, Paragraph 2, 4, e, (1), (a) Scales and Balances Program, states:All scales and balances used for accountability purposes shall be maintained in good working condition, recalibrated according to an established schedule, and checked for accuracy and linearity on each day that the scale or balance is used for accountability purposes. Various tests have been proposed for testing accuracy and linearity. In the 1991 Measurement Science Conference, Dr. Walter E. Kupper presented a paper entitled:Validation of High Accuracy Weighing Equipment. Dr. Kupper emphasized that tolerance checks for calibrated, state-of-the-art electronic equipment need not be complicated, and he presented four easy steps for verifying that a calibrated balance is operating correctly. These tests evaluate the standard deviation of successive weighings (of the same load), the off-center error, the calibration error, and the error due to nonlinearity. This method of balance validation is undoubtedly an authoritative means of ensuring balance operability, yet it could have two drawbacks: one, the test for linearity is not intuitively obvious, especially from a statistical viewpoint; and two, there is an absence of definitively defined testing limits. Hence, this paper describes an alternative means of verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy that is being developed for safeguards measurements at the INEEL. 338. In-vehicle human factors for integrated multi-function systems: Making ITS user-friendly • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Spelt, P.F.; Scott, S. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/672061-FrEBES/webviewable/ • description - As more and more Intelligent Transportation System in-vehicle equipment enters the general consumer market, the authors are about to find out how different design engineers are from ordinary drivers. Driver information systems are being developed and installed in vehicles at an ever-increasing rate. These systems provide information on diverse topics of concern and convenience to the driver, such as routing and navigation, emergency and collision warnings, and a variety of motorists services, or yellow pages functions. Most of these systems are being developed and installed in isolation from each other, with separate means of gathering the information and of displaying it to the driver. The current lack of coordination among on-board systems threatens to create a situation in which different messages on separate displays will be competing with each other for the drivers attention. Urgent messages may go unnoticed, and the number of messages may distract the driver from the most critical task of controlling the vehicle. Thus, without good human factors design and engineering for integrating multiple systems in the vehicle, consumers may find ITS systems confusing and frustrating to use. The current state of the art in human factors research and design for in-vehicle systems has a number of fundamental gaps. Some of these gaps were identified during the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative Human Factors Technology Workshop, sponsored by the US Department of Transportation, in Troy, Michigan, December 10--11, 1997. One task for workshop participants was to identify needed research areas or topics relating to in-vehicle human factors. The top ten unmet research needs from this workshop are presented. Many of these gaps in human factors research knowledge indicate the need for standardization in the functioning of interfaces for safety-related devices such as collision avoidance systems (CAS) and adaptive cruise controls (ACC). Such standards and guidelines will serve to make the safety-critical aspects of these systems consistent across different manufacturers, thereby reducing the likelihood of driver surprise. A second area to emerge from the Workshop concerns research into techniques for integrating multiple devices in vehicles. This type of research is needed to support the development and validation of standards and guidelines, and is discussed in the second section. The majority of the top ten research types identified in the Workshop fall under the need for a 339. Recommendations for a proposed standard for performing systems analysis • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - LaChance, J.[Science Applications International Corp. (United States)]; Whitehead, D.[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]; Drouin, M.[Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/674596-xui5YI/webviewable/ • description - In August 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a policy statement proposing improved regulatory decisionmaking by increasing the use of PRA[probabilistic risk assessment] in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. A key aspect in using PRA in risk-informed regulatory activities is establishing the appropriate scope and attributes of the PRA. In this regard, ASME decided to develop a consensus PRA Standard. The objective is to develop a PRA Standard such that the technical quality of nuclear plant PRAs will be sufficient to support risk-informed regulatory applications. This paper presents examples recommendations for the systems analysis element of a PRA for incorporation into the ASME PRA Standard. 340. Advanced modeling of high intensity accelerators • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Ryne, R.D.; Habib, S.; Wangler, T.P. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/674890-D3pP0v/webviewable/ • description - This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goals of this project were three-fold: (1) to develop a new capability, based on high performance (parallel) computers, to perform large scale simulations of high intensity accelerators; (2) to apply this capability to modeling high intensity accelerators under design at LANL; and (3) to use this new capability to improve the understanding of the physics of intense charge particle beams, especially in regard to the issue of beam halo formation. All of these goals were met. In particular, the authors introduced split-operator methods as a powerful and efficient means to simulate intense beams in the presence of rapidly varying accelerating and focusing fields. They then applied these methods to develop scaleable, parallel beam dynamics codes for modeling intense beams in linacs, and in the process they implemented a new three-dimensional space charge algorithm. They also used the codes to study a number of beam dynamics issues related to the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, and in the process performed the largest simulations to date for any accelerator design project. Finally, they used the new modeling capability to provide direction and validation to beam physics studies, helping to identify beam mismatch as a major source of halo formation in high intensity accelerators. This LDRD project ultimately benefited not only LANL but also the US accelerator community since, by promoting expertise in high performance computing and advancing the state-of-the-art in accelerator simulation, its accomplishments helped lead to approval of a new DOE Grand Challenge in Computational Accelerator Physics. 341. Heavy-section steel technology program: Semiannual progress report for April--September 1996. Volume 13, Number 2 • date - 2006-02-06 • creator - Pennell, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/677089-DQDkkH/webviewable/ • description - The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program focus is on the development and validation of technology for the assessment of fracture-prevention margins in commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The HSST Program is organized in seven tasks: (1) program management, (2) constraint effects analytical development and validation, (3) evaluation of cladding effects, (4) ductile to cleavage fracture mode conversion, (5) fracture analysis methods development and applications, (6) material property data and test methods, and (7) integration of results into a state-of-the-art methodology. The program tasks have been structured to place emphasis on the resolution fracture issues with near-term licensing significance. Resources to execute the research tasks are drawn from ORNL with subcontract support from universities and other research laboratories. Close contact is maintained with the sister Heavy-Section Steel irradiation Program at ORNL and with related research programs both in the US and abroad. This report provides an overview of principal developments in each of the seven program tasks from April 1996--September 1996. 342. Cementing of geothermal wells. Progress report No. 2, July--September 1976 • date - 2006-01-09 • creator - Kukacka, L.E.; Fontana, J.; Galen, B. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/7228214-I5vvCU/ • description - A coordinated program for the development of improved cements specifically designed for geothermal well applications was started in April 1976. Since that time an assessment of the state-of-the-art of well cementing has been made, a preliminary management plan prepared, and research on polymer cementing materials started. To date, two water wells have been cemented with polymer cement (PC). Work accomplished during the period July 1-September 30, 1976, is described. 343. Dubose CRADA • date - 2001-06-19 • creator - Schuttler, G.L. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/750403-Vredqf/webviewable/ • description - In phase one of this project, Mr. Dubose needed assistance to evaluate his Minimal Crevice Volume (MCV) Piston Ring concept to see if it showed enough technical merit to warrant the expenditure of time and money into patenting the concept and commercializing it. He initially enlisted the help of Texas Tech University, and subsequently Honeywell FM and T, to evaluate the concept for technical feasibility. This evaluation included engineering evaluations of the concept's functionality and manufacturability, along with design analysis and refinement through finite element analysis and other methods. The Principal Investigator at FM and T (Greg Schuttler) and Dr. Maxwell at Texas Tech provided feedback to Mr. Dubose on the functional feasibility of the concept, and the Principal Investigator at FM and T provided manufacturability guidance. Dr. Maxwell had engineering students and a graduate student at Texas Tech conduct static finite element studies to further evaluate the concept; and an extensive dynamic finite element evaluation of the concept, including design refinement, was carried out at FM and T by the Principal Investigator and Jim Mahoney. The results of the FM and T finite element analysis were used as a justification for Mr. Dubose to pursue patent application for this concept. The dynamic finite element study pushed the state-of-the-art for this type of study at FM and T. It also served as a vehicle to facilitate the familiarization of FM and T associates outside the Finite Elements group in Engineering with finite element techniques and capabilities, a plant goal. In phase two of this project, Mr. Dubose was attempting to prove the viability of his already patented ''Variable Orbital Aperture'' concept. All three of the major US automotive corporations had expressed an interest in Mr. Dubose's multiple valve disc concept, if it could be proven that an effective sealing method could be found, since rotary valve engines have historically been nearly impossible to seal. To accomplish this, Mr. Dubose proposed to build a functional single-disc cylinder head to try different seal designs. Texas Tech had a Kawasaki single cylinder engine that was suitable for this use, and it was decided that a rotary valve cylinder head would be fabricated to fit this engine. To this end, Texas Tech provided assistance in creating the cylinder head design, assisted by Honeywell FM and T. Several design iterations were created, and both wax and stereolithography models 344. Forensic imaging tools for law enforcement • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - SMITHPETER,COLIN L.; SANDISON,DAVID R.; VARGO,TIMOTHY D. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/751066-ykaclh/webviewable/ • description - Conventional methods of gathering forensic evidence at crime scenes are encumbered by difficulties that limit local law enforcement efforts to apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. Working with a local law-enforcement agency, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prototype multispectral imaging system that can speed up the investigative search task and provide additional and more accurate evidence. The system, called the Criminalistics Light-imaging Unit (CLU), has demonstrated the capabilities of locating fluorescing evidence at crime scenes under normal lighting conditions and of imaging other types of evidence, such as untreated fingerprints, by direct white-light reflectance. CLU employs state of the art technology that provides for viewing and recording of the entire search process on videotape. This report describes the work performed by Sandia to design, build, evaluate, and commercialize CLU. 345. Very large assemblies: Optimizing for automatic generation of assembly sequences • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - CALTON,TERRI L. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/751347-e5apdD/webviewable/ • description - Sandia's Archimedes 3.0{copyright} Automated Assembly Analysis System has been applied successfully to several large industrial and weapon assemblies. These have included Sandia assemblies such as portions of the B61 bomb, and assemblies from external customers such as Cummins Engine Inc., Raytheon (formerly Hughes) Missile Systems and Sikorsky Aircraft. While Archimedes 3.0{copyright} represents the state-of-the-art in automated assembly planning software, applications of the software made prior to the technological advancements presented here showed several limitations of the system, and identified the need for extensive modifications to support practical analysis of assemblies with several hundred to a few thousand parts. It was believed that there was substantial potential for enhancing Archimedes 3.0{copyright} to routinely handle much larger models and/or to handle more modestly sized assemblies more efficiently. Such a mature assembly analysis capability was needed to support routine application to industrial assemblies that overstressed the system, such as full nuclear weapon assemblies or full-scale aerospace or military vehicles. 346. Surfactant-modified diffusion on transition-metal surfaces (reprinted with the addition of the appendices) • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - FEIBELMAN,PETER J.; KELLOGG,GARY LEE • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/752083-owiP7w/webviewable/ • description - Wanting to convert surface impurities from a nuisance to a systematically applicable nano-fabrication tool, the authors have sought to understand how such impurities affect self-diffusion on transition-metal surfaces. Their field-ion microscope experiments reveal that in the presence of surface hydrogen, self-diffusion on Rh(100) is promoted, while on Pt(100), not only is it inhibited, but its mechanism changes. First-principles calculations aimed at learning how oxygen fosters perfect layerwise growth on a growing Pt(111) crystal contradict the idea in the literature that it does so by directly promoting transport over Pt island boundaries. The discovery that its real effect is to burn off adventitious adsorbed carbon monoxide demonstrates the predictive value of state-of-the-art calculation methods. 347. Low-activity solid waste measurements at Tokai Works • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - J. L. Parker; D. H. Beddingfield; H. O. Menlove • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/752362-8kh6yQ/webviewable/ • description - There is significant interest in performing assay measurements of containerized low-activity solid waste. The authors have examined the cases of typical waste drum matrices containing small quantities of plutonium and fission products. They have discussed various measurement techniques and considered the advantages and disadvantages of each method. They present a new state-of-the-art passive neutron waste drum counter with minimum detectable mass limits far below those systems which they have previously fabricated. 348. Computer control raises welding from art to science: Inventions& Innovations success story • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/754588-hmzRGc/native/ • description - Fact sheet written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new welding control system that provides precise, effective welds and documents weld integrity. 349. Nanostructure of a-Si:H and related alloys by small-angle scattering of neutrons and X-rays: Annual technical progress report: May 22, 1998 -- May 21, 1999 • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Williamson, D. L. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/754641-dWfa7T/native/ • description - This report describes work being performed to provide details of the microstructure in high-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon and related alloys on the nanometer scale. The materials under study are being prepared by state-of-the-art deposition methods, as well as by new and emerging deposition techniques. The purpose is to establish the role of nanostructural features in controlling opto-electronic and photovoltaic properties. The approach centers around the use of the uncommon technique of small-angle scattering of both X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS). SAXS has already been established as highly sensitive to microvoids and columnar-like microstructure. A major goal of this research is to establish the sensitivity of SANS to the hydrogen nanostructure. Conventional X-ray diffraction techniques are being used to examine medium-range order and microcrystallinity, particularly near the boundary between amorphous and microcrystalline material. 350. Direct laser powder deposition - 'State of the Art' • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Sears, J.W. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/754936-xpuqpP/webviewable/ • description - Recent developments on Laser Cladding and Rapid Prototyping have led to Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) technologies that produce net shape metal components by laser fusion of metal powder alloys. These processes are known by various names such as Directed Light Fabrication (DLF{trademark}), Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}), and Direct Metal Deposition (DMD{trademark}) to name a few. These types of processes can be referred to as direct laser powder deposition (DLPD). DLPD involves fusing metal alloy powders in the focal point of a laser (or lasers) that is (are) being controlled by Computer Aided Design-Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. DLPD technology has the capability to produce fully dense components with little need for subsequent processing. Research and development of DLPD is being conducted throughout the world. The list of facilities conducting work in this area continues to grow (over 25 identified in North America alone). Selective Laser Sintering (SLS{trademark}) is another type of SFF technology based on laser fusion of powder. The SLS technology was developed as a rapid prototyping technique, whereas DLPD is an extension of the laser cladding technology. Most of the effort in SLS has been directed towards plastics and ceramics. In SLS, the powder is pre-placed by rolling out a layer for each laser pass. The computer control selects where in the layer the powder will be sintered by the laser. Sequential layers are sintered similarly forming a shape. In DLPD, powder is fed directly into a molten metal pool formed at the focal point of the laser where it is melted. As the laser moves on the material it rapidly resolidifies to form a shape. This talk elaborates on the state of these developments. 351. Biofuel News, Winter 1998, Vol. 2, No. 1 • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Woodward, S. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/756312-5lbCEO/native/ • description - This issue of Biofuels News contains two articles. The first focuses on the art and science of bioenergy project financing using the example of three companies planning biomass-to-ethanol plants. The second highlights the objectives and activities of the five Regional Biomass Energy Programs (RBEP) within the US DOE. 352. Mobile Munitions Assessment System Field Capabilities • date - 2001-06-19 • creator - A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; K. D. Watts • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/7596-SbRwcl/webviewable/ • description - The US has developed, stored, tested, and conducted disposal operations on various forms of chemical munitions for several decades. The remnants of these activities have resulted in the presence of suspect CWM at more than 200 sites in the US, the District of Columbia, and the US Virgin Islands. An advanced Mobile Munitions Assessment System (Phase II MMAS) has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory under contract to the US Army's Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel for use in the assessment and characterization of ''non-stockpile'' chemical warfare materiel (CWM). The Phase II MMAS meets the immediate need to augment response equipment currently used by the US Army with a system that includes state-of-the-art assessment equipment and advanced sensors. The Phase II MMAS will be used for response to known storage and remediation sites. This system is designed to identify the munition type; evaluate the condition of the CWM; evaluate the environmental conditions in the vicinity of the CWM; determine if fuzes, bursters, or safety and arming devices are in place; identify the chemical fill; provide other data (e.g., meteorological data) necessary for assessing the risk associated with handling, transporting, and disposing of CWM; and record the data on a dedicated computer system. The Phase II MMAS is capable of over-the-road travel and air transport to any site for conducting rigorous assessments of suspect CWM. The Phase II MMAS utilizes a specially-designed commercial motor home to provide a means to transport an interactive network of non-intrusive characterization and assessment equipment. The assessment equipment includes radiography systems, a gamma densitometer system, a Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) system, a Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) system, air monitoring equipment (i.e., M-90s and a field ion spectroscopy system), and a phase determination equipment Command and control equipment includes a data acquisition and handling system, two meteorological stations, video equipment, and multiple communication systems. The Phase II MMAS motor home also serves an as environmentally controlled on-site command post for the MMAS operators when deployed. The data developed by the MMAS will be used to help determine the appropriate methods and safeguards necessary to transport, store, and dispose of agent-filled munitions in a safe and environmentall 353. Excitations and Optical Properties of Phenylene Based Polymers • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Kirova, N.; Brazovskii, S.; Bishop, A.R.; McBranch, D.; Klimov, V. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/760137-sdiIK0/webviewable/ • description - A complex picture of phenylene-based polymers is developed which unifies features of band and molecular exciton models. It incorporates major experimental finding in direct, and photoinduced optical absorption, stimulated photoemission and photoconductivity. The authors give new assignments for the most disputed features and identify new ones as edge states. The authors confirm a low binding energy for the principle emitting exciton and show that it dominates also in the fundamental absorption. Contradictions in the current modeling state-of-art are displayed and discussed. 354. Flux Gain for Next-Generation Neutron-Scattering Instruments Resulting From Improved Supermirror Performance • date - 2002-01-28 • creator - Rehm, C. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/788629-tP6Vou/native/ • description - Next-generation spallation neutron source facilities will offer instruments with unprecedented capabilities through simultaneous enhancement of source power and usage of advanced optical components. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and scheduled to be completed by 2006, will provide greater than an order of magnitude more effective source flux than current state-of-the-art facilities, including the most advanced research reactors. An additional order of magnitude gain is expected through the use of new optical devices and instrumentation concepts. Many instrument designs require supermirror (SM) neutron guides with very high critical angles for total reflection. In this contribution, they discuss how the performance of modern neutron scattering instruments depends on the efficiency of these supermirrors. They outline ideas for enhancing the performance of the SM coatings, particularly for improving the reflectivity at the position of the critical wave vector transfer. A simulation program has been developed which allows different approaches for SM designs to be studied. Possible instrument performance gains are calculated for the example of the SNS reflectometer. 355. BTeV level 1 vertex trigger • date - 2002-01-16 • creator - Michael H.L.S. Wang • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/788290-40L4TB/native/ • description - BTeV is a B-physics experiment that expects to begin collecting data at the C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron in the year 2006. Its primary goal is to achieve unprecedented levels of sensitivity in the study of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in b and c quark systems. In order to realize this, it will employ a state-of-the-art first-level vertex trigger (Level 1) that will look at every beam crossing to identify detached secondary vertices that provide evidence for heavy quark decays. This talk will briefly describe the BTeV detector and trigger, focus on the software and hardware aspects of the Level 1 vertex trigger, and describe work currently being done in these areas. 356. TeleKnoSys Interactive Tool for a God's Eye View of Flight Test Experiments • date - 2001-06-19 • creator - Ashcraft, G.W.; Giron, J.W.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Ryerson, D.E.; Sandison, D.R. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/7875-FV5lB6/webviewable/ • description - Flight test vehicle telemetry can be visualized in the field using existing dual-processor desktop computing technology. Our results show that processor speed allows more robust sensor analysis techniques, like Kalman filtering. In this case we used only 15% of the analysis time available within each major frame. The 10-15 Hz visualization rates that are possible with scenes that contain tens of thousands of polygons are too slow for state-of-the-art flight simulators, but provide a wealth of information from real-time flight vehicles. A newer version of the APL decommutation system can time-tag minor frames, which minimizes data loss. Specifically, we can use all of the minor frames in the first major frame collected after a dropout. Sending sporadic minor frames as they are collected may help fill the data gap associated with large dropouts, but an unbuffered data collection scheme reduces the time slice available for data analysis. To avoid a scaled earth model and single precision vehicle position image jitter, we are implementing Vega's Large Area Database Manager (LADBM), which provides double precision position calculations and can dynamically shift the database origin to a local area-of-interest. As computers and graphics accelerators continue to increase in speed and power, and Telemetry System development gets increasingly more complex acquiring tremendous amounts of data, interactive 3D visualization tools will become essential in the understanding of these data sets. 357. Dramatic Reduction of DC Field Emission from Large Area Electrodes by Plasma-Source Ion Implantation • date - 2001-12-27 • creator - C.K. Sinclair; H.F. Dylla; T.L. Siggins; D. Manos; T.J. Verhaus • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/787354-1IkBuH/native/ • description - Field emission from the electrodes of practical electron guns is one of the principal phenomena limiting the operating voltage of these guns. There is substantial interest in developing photoemission cathode based DC electron guns operating with cathode field strengths and cathode-anode voltages well beyond the present state-of-the-art. These electron sources could provide high brightness, high average current beams for energy recovering superconducting linear accelerators, for applications in next generation light sources, electron cooling, and electron-ion colliders. We have studied the effect of plasma-source ion implantation on the field emission behavior of large area stainless steel electrodes. Our apparatus allows operation of disc-shaped electrode pairs with 100 cm{sup 2} uniform field areas to 125 kV. The cathode electrode is biased at high voltage, and the anode is electrically isolated, permitting measurement of the field emission current from the cathode. The electrode pairs were either mechanically polished, or implanted with nitrogen ions. Two separate ion implanted electrodes have shown negligible field emission at 20 MV/m, and emission between 0.5 and 1.7 pA/cm{sup 2} at 30 MV/m during multi-hour runs at high field. These electrodes showed very little conditioning effect. 358. A program in detector development for the US synchrotron radiation community • date - 2001-12-27 • creator - Thompson, A.; Mills, D.; Naday, S.; Gruner, S.; Siddons, P.; Arthur, J.; Wehlitz, R.; Padmore, H. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/787153-XUP8Mj/native/ • description - There is a clear gulf between the capabilities of modern synchrotrons to deliver high photon fluxes, and the capabilities of detectors to measure the resulting photon, electron or ion signals. While a huge investment has been made in storage ring technology, there has not to date been a commensurate investment in detector systems. With appropriate detector technology, gains in data rates could be 3 to 4 orders of magnitude in some cases. The US community working in detector technology is under-funded and fragmented and works without the long term funding commitment required for development of the most advanced detector systems. It is becoming apparent that the US is falling behind its international competitors in provision of state-of-the-art detector technology for cutting edge synchrotron radiation based experiments. 359. INVERSION OF STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS: STATE-OF-THE-ART AND ORIENTATIONS OF RESEARCH 360. The Ephithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter Design and Performance Manual: More Rapid Plutonium and Uranium Inventory Verifications by Factors of 5-20 • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - J. E. Stewart; H. O. Menlove; D. R. Mayo; W. H. Geist; L. A. Carrillo; G. D. Herrera • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/775881-jqw8CS/webviewable/ • description - Thermal neutron multiplicity counters (TNMCs) assay {sup 240}Pu-effective mass, isolating spontaneous-fission (SF), induced-fission, and ({alpha},n) neutrons emitted from plutonium metal, oxide, scrap, and residue items. Three independent parameters are measured: single, double, and triple neutron-pulse-coincidence count rates. TNMC assays can become precision limited by high ({alpha},n) neutron rates arising from low-Z impurities and {sup 241}Am. TNMCs capture thermal neutrons in 4-atm {sup 3}He tubes after fast-source-neutron moderation by polyethylene. TNMCs are {approximately}50% efficient with {approximately}-{micro}s die-away times. Simultaneously increasing efficiency and reducing die-away time dramatically improve assay precision. Using 10-atm {sup 3}He tubes, they've developed and performance-tested the first of a new generation of neutron assay counters for a wide range of plutonium items. The Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) has an efficiency of 65% and a 22-{micro}s die-away time. The ENMC detects neutrons before thermalization using higher {sup 3}He pressure counters and less moderator than TNMCs. A special insert raises efficiency to 80% for small samples. For five bulk samples containing 50 to 875 g of {sup 240}Pu-effective, ENMC assay times are reduced by factors of 5 to 21, compared with prior state-of-the-art TNMCs. The largest relative gains are for the most impure items, where gains are needed most. In active mode, the ENMC assay times are reduced by factors of 5 to 11, compared with the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). The ENMC, with high precision and low multiplicity dead time (37 ns), can be used in standards verification mode to precisely and accurately characterize plutonium standards and isotopic sources. The ENMC's performance is very competitive with calorimetry. This report describes the ENMC; presents results of characterization, calibration, and verification measurements; and shows the clear performance and economic advantages of implementing the ENMC for nuclear materials control and accountability. 361. IEA Agreement on the Production and utilization of hydrogen: 1998 annual report • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Elam, Carolyn C. (National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO (US)) (ed.) • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/775567-Ntze3u/webviewable/ • description - The annual report includes an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including its guiding principles. The Chairman's report section includes highlights of the agreement for 1998. Annex reports are given on various tasks: Task 10, Photoproduction of Hydrogen, Task 11, Integrated Systems, and Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage. Lastly, a feature article by Karsten Wurr, E3M Material Consulting, GmbH, Hamburg Germany, is included titled 'Hydrogen in Material Science and Technology: State of the Art and New Tendencies'. 362. PROBABILISTIC INFORMATION INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - J. BOOKER; M. MEYER; ET AL • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/775296-lVnYBI/native/ • description - The Statistical Sciences Group at Los Alamos has successfully developed a structured, probabilistic, quantitative approach for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources, called Information Integration Technology (IIT). The technology integrates diverse types and sources of data and information (both quantitative and qualitative), and their associated uncertainties, to develop distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. Applications include predicting complex system performance, where test data are lacking or expensive to obtain, through the integration of expert judgment, historical data, computer/simulation model predictions, and any relevant test/experimental data. The technology is particularly well suited for tracking estimated system performance for systems under change (e.g. development, aging), and can be used at any time during product development, including concept and early design phases, prior to prototyping, testing, or production, and before costly design decisions are made. Techniques from various disciplines (e.g., state-of-the-art expert elicitation, statistical and reliability analysis, design engineering, physics modeling, and knowledge management) are merged and modified to develop formal methods for the data/information integration. The power of this technology, known as PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking), won a 1999 R and D 100 Award (Meyer, Booker, Bement, Kerscher, 1999). Specifically the PREDICT application is a formal, multidisciplinary process for estimating the performance of a product when test data are sparse or nonexistent. The acronym indicates the purpose of the methodology: to evaluate the performance or reliability of a product/system by combining all available (often diverse) sources of information and then tracking that performance as the product undergoes changes. 363. Toward a virtual building laboratory • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - Klems, J.H.; Finlayson, E.U.; Olsen, T.H.; Banks, D.W.; Pallis, J.M. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/775094-9OUbIW/webviewable/ • description - In order to achieve in a timely manner the large energy and dollar savings technically possible through improvements in building energy efficiency, it will be necessary to solve the problem of design failure risk. The most economical method of doing this would be to learn to calculate building performance with sufficient detail, accuracy and reliability to avoid design failure. Existing building simulation models (BSM) are a large step in this direction, but are still not capable of this level of modeling. Developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques now allow one to construct a road map from present BSM's to a complete building physical model. The most useful first step is a building interior model (BIM) that would allow prediction of local conditions affecting occupant health and comfort. To provide reliable prediction a BIM must incorporate the correct physical boundary conditions on a building interior. Doing so raises a number of specific technical problems and research questions. The solution of these within a context useful for building research and design is not likely to result from other research on CFD, which is directed toward the solution of different types of problems. A six-step plan for incorporating the correct boundary conditions within the context of the model problem of a large atrium has been outlined. A promising strategy for constructing a BIM is the overset grid technique for representing a building space in a CFD calculation. This technique promises to adapt well to building design and allows a step-by-step approach. A state-of-the-art CFD computer code using this technique has been adapted to the problem and can form the departure point for this research. 364. Robotics Use in Source Recovery at the Savannah River Site • date - 2004-07-12 • creator - Lewis, C.W. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/773195-SLAFT5/native/ • description - The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken South Carolina has a state of the art Instrument Calibrations facility that supports calibration and repair of an inventory of approximately 8000 portable radiological monitoring instruments. The Instrument Calibrations facility began operations in 1996. The Low Scatter Irradiator (LSI) system is a key part of the facility. The LSI room is a shielded 40-foot by 40-foot by 40-foot room designed to minimize radiation scatter during calibrations and evaluations. Aluminum floor grating with one-inch spacing is part of the design to minimize scatter. A shielded source storage carousel is used to select calibration sources via a computer-controlled system. The carousel has eight source slots with seven sources used providing a selection of 60Cobalt, 137Cesium, and 252Californium sources of different intensities. One slot is used for a dummy source for system function testing. Sources are contained in an aluminum container known as the source rabbit. Air pressure is used to blow the selected source through a transfer tube to the top of the tube where it is held in place by a suction cup and a maintained air vacuum. During calibrations, instruments are placed on four LSI tracks that move instruments to the proper distance from the source for the desired calibrated exposure rate. Sources are returned to the carousel using gravity with multiple interlocks and safeguards built into the system to ensure that the source has dropped before entry into the LSI after a source exposure. Two room radiation monitors provide a remote reading to the operator from the computer console as another indicator of the source status. Due to the design of the LSI, it was assumed that a source could not become lodged in the transfer tube. That proved to be a false assumption when in May 2000, a source did not return to its home position. At this time, the LSI was being tested due to some apparent difficulties in sources being held by the suction cup at the top of the transfer tube. Two LSI room radiation monitors located at different positions indicated radiation rates of around 7600 mR/hr and 1100 mR/hr respectively instead of the expected 0 mR/hr when a source has returned to its home position. This paper focuses on the recovery operations for the exposed source with a summary of each step. 365. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator - An Overview • date - 2001-06-19 • creator - HUTCHINSON,SCOTT A.; KEITER,ERIC R.; HOEKSTRA,ROBERT J.; WATTS,HERMAN A.; WATERS,ARLON J.; SCHELLS,REGINA L.; WIX,STEVEN D. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/771528-cMGM2C/webviewable/ • description - The Xyce{trademark} Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. As such, the development has focused on providing the capability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms (up to thousands of processors). In addition, they are providing improved performance for numerical kernels using state-of-the-art algorithms, support for modeling circuit phenomena at a variety of abstraction levels and using object-oriented and modern coding-practices that ensure the code will be maintainable and extensible far into the future. The code is a parallel code in the most general sense of the phrase--a message passing parallel implementation--which allows it to run efficiently on the widest possible number of computing platforms. These include serial, shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel as well as heterogeneous platforms. Furthermore, careful attention has been paid to the specific nature of circuit-simulation problems to ensure that optimal parallel efficiency is achieved even as the number of processors grows. 366. MODEL UPDATING: TRANSITION FROM RESEARCH TO PRACTICE? • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - D. C. ZIMMERMAN; F. M. HEMEZ • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/765631-bYsHlb/webviewable/ • description - This session offers an open forum to discuss issues associated with the transition of nearly two decades of engineering research into computational guided model updating into industry state-of-the-practice. Related technical issues are the model updating technology, model reduction, test-analysis correlation and optimization strategies. The session is organized as follows. Technical presentations review the state-of-the-art in finite element model updating and present examples of industrial applications. The results of a recent survey on the potential and usefulness of the model updating technology are discussed. Panel discussions and interaction with the audience discuss industrial needs, future trends and challenges and why negative model updating results are never discussed within the structural dynamics community. 367. MODEL VALIDATION AND UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION. • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Hemez, F.M.; Doebling, S.W. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/765268-7MnQ6g/webviewable/ • description - This session offers an open forum to discuss issues and directions of research in the areas of model updating, predictive quality of computer simulations, model validation and uncertainty quantification. Technical presentations review the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamics and model validation for structural dynamics. A panel discussion introduces the discussion on technology needs, future trends and challenges ahead with an emphasis placed on soliciting participation of the audience, One of the goals is to show, through invited contributions, how other scientific communities are approaching and solving difficulties similar to those encountered in structural dynamics. The session also serves the purpose of presenting the on-going organization of technical meetings sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to health monitoring, damage prognosis, model validation and uncertainty quantification in engineering applications. The session is part of the SD-2000 Forum, a forum to identify research trends, funding opportunities and to discuss the future of structural dynamics. 368. An Embedded System for Safe, Secure and Reliable Execution of High Consequence Software • date - 2001-05-06 • creator - MCCOY,JAMES A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/761887-MPb80I/webviewable/ • description - As more complex and functionally diverse requirements are placed on high consequence embedded applications, ensuring safe and secure operation requires an execution environment that is ultra reliable from a system viewpoint. In many cases the safety and security of the system depends upon the reliable cooperation between the hardware and the software to meet real-time system throughput requirements. The selection of a microprocessor and its associated development environment for an embedded application has the most far-reaching effects on the development and production of the system than any other element in the design. The effects of this choice ripple through the remainder of the hardware design and profoundly affect the entire software development process. While state-of-the-art software engineering principles indicate that an object oriented (OO) methodology provides a superior development environment, traditional programming languages available for microprocessors targeted for deeply embedded applications do not directly support OO techniques. Furthermore, the microprocessors themselves do not typically support nor do they enforce an OO environment. This paper describes a system level approach for the design of a microprocessor intended for use in deeply embedded high consequence applications that both supports and enforces an OO execution environment. 369. Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report • date - 2004-06-14 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/761702-ajQoqo/native/ • description - The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work is being performed in Phase II and III of the program. 370. Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report • date - 2004-06-14 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/761693-HG00uN/native/ • description - The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work is being performed in Phase II and III of the program. 371. Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report • date - 2004-06-14 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/761692-Xoqlf2/webviewable/ • description - The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development - Complete; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work was performed in Phase II and III of the program during the reporting period. 372. Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report • date - 2004-06-14 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/761691-tP2EkW/native/ • description - The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning--Complete Phase II: Development--Complete Phase III: Selected Specimen--Bench Test Work was performed on the Phase II final report and on Ill of the program during the reporting period. 373. Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report • date - 2004-06-14 • creator - • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/761672-tbIXlw/webviewable/ • description - The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development - Complete; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work was performed on the Phase II final report and on III of the program during the reporting period. 374. Fundamental Power Couplers for Superconducting Cavities • date - 2002-03-04 • creator - Isidoro E. Campisi • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/790366-Cut6t4/native/ • description - Fundamental power couplers (FPC's) for superconducting cavities must meet very strict requirements to perform at high power levels (hundreds of kilowatts) and in a variety of conditions (CS, pulsed, travelling wave, standing wave) without adversely affecting the performance of the cavities they are powering. Producing good coupler designs and achieving operational performances in accelerator environments are challenging tasks that have traditionally involved large resources from many laboratories. The designs involve state-of-the-art activities in RF, cryogenic and mechanical engineering, materials science, vacuum technology, and electromagnetic field modeling. Handling, assembly and conditioning procedures have been developed to achieve ever-increasing power levels and more reliable operation. In this paper, the technical issues associated with the design, construction, assembly, processing, and operation of FPC's will be reviewed, together with the progress in FPC activities in several laboratories during the past few years. 375. High Resolution, High-Speed Photography, an Increasingly Prominent Diagnostic in Ballistic Research Experiments • date - 2003-03-03 • creator - Shaw, L.; Muelder, S. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/791114-TJPV7Y/native/ • description - High resolution, high-speed photography is becoming a prominent diagnostic in ballistic experimentation. The development of high speed cameras utilizing electro-optics and the use of lasers for illumination now provide the capability to routinely obtain high quality photographic records of ballistic style experiments. The purpose of this presentation is to review in a visual manner the progress of this technology and how it has impacted ballistic experimentation. Within the framework of development at LLNL, we look at the recent history of large format high-speed photography, and present a number of photographic records that represent the state of the art at the time they were made. These records are primarily from experiments involving shaped charges. We also present some examples of current photographic technology, developed within the ballistic community, that has application to hydro diagnostic experimentation at large. This paper is designed primarily as an oral-visual presentation. This written portion is to provide general background, a few examples, and a bibliography. 376. Radiation Hardening of CMOS Microelectronics • date - 2003-02-03 • creator - McCarthy, A.; Sigmon, T.W. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/792429-jWGNN1/native/ • description - A unique methodology, silicon transfer to arbitrary substrates, has been developed under this program and is being investigated as a technique for significantly increasing the radiation insensitivity of limited quantities of conventional silicon microelectronic circuits. In this approach, removal of the that part of the silicon substrate not required for circuit operation is carried out, following completion of the circuit fabrication process. This post-processing technique is therefore applicable to state-of-the-art ICs, effectively bypassing the 3-generation technology/performance gap presently separating today's electronics from available radiation-hard electronics. Also, of prime concern are the cost savings that result by eliminating the requirement for costly redesign of commercial circuits for Rad-hard applications. Successful deployment of this technology will result in a major impact on the radiation hard electronics community in circuit functionality, design and software availability and fabrication costs. 377. Use of IsoProbe for Uranium and Plutonium Analysis in Environmental Samples • date - 2002-12-16 • creator - Russ, G.P.; Williams, R. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/792746-0t8uap/native/ • description - The ability to detect and isotopically characterize uranium and plutonium in environmental samples is of primary importance in the search for nuclear proliferation. The utility of isotope ratio measurements for environmental monitoring is limited by sample preparation costs, measurement precision, and sensitivity. This is particularly true for wide-area monitoring where the number of samples required varies inversely with obtainable precision and sensitivity. This report summarizes an initial evaluation of the applicability of a new technique, magnetic-sector, multicollector, inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry, to environmental sample analysis. This technique is embodied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the form of a commercially available instrument, the IsoProbe, manufactured by micromass, LTD. (United Kingdom). This is the second of the current generation of such instruments installed in the United States and the first within the Department of Energy complex. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) using quadrupole mass filters has existed for roughly 15 years. Magnet sector instruments have also existed for about half that time and multicollector instruments have existed for nearly as long. Among the things that make the new generation of instruments, and the IsoProbe in particular, unique are (1) the use of a gas-collision cell to reduce the energy spread of the ions and to remove ions associated with the plasma gas and (2) the introduction of multiple electron-multiplier detection systems. The net effect of these features is to increase sensitivity and precision. Historically uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions have been determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). While requiring extensive sample preparation, no other technique matched its precision and sensitivity for such measurements. The purposes of this project are to evaluate whether the IsoProbe can replace TIMS for environmental monitoring analyses, whether it can extend the state-of-the-art to higher precision, and whether costs savings can be achieved at the same time. 378. At-wavelength characterization of the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand Set-2 optic • date - 2004-10-04 • creator - Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik H.; Batson, Phillip; Denham, Paul E.; Jackson, Keith H.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Rekawa, Senajith; Bokor, Jeffrey • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/795448-k8nyw0/native/ • description - At-wavelength interferometric characterization of a new 4x-reduction lithographic-quality extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical system is described. This state-of-the-art projection optic was fabricated for installation in the EUV lithography Engineering Test Stand (ETS) and is referred to as the ETS Set-2 optic. EUV characterization of the Set-2 optic is performed using the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) installed on an undulator beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. This is the same interferometer previously used for the at-wavelength characterization and alignment of the ETS Set-1 optic. In addition to the PS/PDI-based full-field wavefront characterization, we also present wavefront measurements performed with lateral shearing interferometry, the chromatic dependence of the wavefront error, and the system-level pupil-dependent spectral-bandpass characteristics of the optic; the latter two properties are only measurable using at-wavelength interferometry. 379. The Development and Application of SCDAP-3D • date - 2002-09-02 • creator - Coryell, E.W.; Harvego, E.A.; Siefken, L.J. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/797095-oeR64Y/native/ • description - The SCDAP-3D computer code (Coryell 2001) has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the analysis of severe reactor accidents. A prominent feature of SCDAP-3D relative to other versions of the code is its linkage to the state-of-the-art thermal/hydraulic analysis capabilities of RELAP5-3D. Enhancements to the severe accident models include the ability to simulate high burnup and alternative fuel, as well as modifications to support advanced reactor analyses, such as those described by the Department of Energy's Generation IV (GenIV) initiative. Initial development of SCDAP-3D is complete and two widely varying but successful applications of the code are summarized. The first application is to large break loss of coolant accident analysis performed for a reactor with alternative fuel, and the second is a calculation of International Standard Problem 45 (ISP-45) or the QUENCH 6 experiment. 380. A comparison of optimization software for mesh shape-quality improvement problems. • date - 2002-12-16 • creator - Freitag, L.; Knupp, P.; Munson, T.; Shontz, S. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/801627-NxbHZW/native/ • description - Simplicial mesh shape-quality can be improved by optimizing an objective function based on tetrahedral shape measures. If the objective function is formulated in terms of all elements in a given mesh rather than a local patch, one is confronted with a large-scale, nonlinear, constrained numerical optimization problem. We investigate the use of six general-purpose state-of-the-art solvers and two custom-developed methods to solve the resulting large-scale problem. The performance of each method is evaluated in terms of robustness, time to solution, convergence properties, and scalability on several two- and three-dimensional test cases. 381. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS T7 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING. • date - 2002-11-18 • creator - Ko, Kwok • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/801792-U3E7gI/native/ • description - The T7 Working Group on High Performance Computing (HPC) had more than 30 participants (listed in Section 6). During the three weeks at Snowmass there were about 30 presentations (listed in Section 7). This working group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), M1 (Muon Based Systems), M6 (High Intensity Proton Sources), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), and T8 (Advanced Accelerators). The topics that were discussed fall naturally into three areas: (1) HPC requirements for next-generation accelerator design, (2) state-of-the-art in HPC simulation of accelerator systems, and (3) applied mathematics and computer science activities related to the development of HPC tools that will be of use to the accelerator community (as well as other communities). This document summarizes the material mentioned above and includes recommendations for future HPC activities in the accelerator community. The relationship of those activities to the HENP/SciDAC project on 21st century accelerator simulation is also discussed. 382. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties • date - 2002-11-18 • creator - David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/803212-RvLBVC/native/ • description - The need to produce lighter components in transportation equipment is the main driver in the increasing demand for magnesium castings. In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While being lighter, often times the magnesium parts have lower impact and fatigue properties than the aluminum. The main objective of this study was to identify potential improvements in the impact resistance of magnesium alloys. The most common magnesium alloys in automotive applications are AZ91D, AM50 and AM60. Accordingly, these alloys were selected as the main candidates for the study. Experimental quantities of these alloys were melted in an electrical furnace under a protective atmosphere comprising sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and dry air. The alloys were cast both in a permanent mold and in a UBE 315 Ton squeeze caster. Extensive evaluation of tensile, impact and fatigue properties was conducted at CWRU on permanent mold and squeeze cast test bars of AZ91, AM60 and AM50. Ultimate tensile strength values between 20ksi and 30ksi were obtained. The respective elongations varied between 25 and 115. the Charpy V-notch impact strength varied between 1.6 ft-lb and 5 ft-lb depending on the alloy and processing conditions. Preliminary bending fatigue evaluation indicates a fatigue limit of 11-12 ksi for AM50 and AM60. This is about 0.4 of the UTS, typical for these alloys. The microstructures of the cast specimens were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Concomitantly, a study of the fracture toughness in AM60 was conducted at ORNL as part of the study. The results are in line with values published in the literature and are representative of current state of the art in casting magnesium alloys. The experimental results confirm the strong relationship between aluminum content of the alloys and the mechanical properties, in particular the impact strength and the elongation. As the aluminum content increases from about 5% in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further 383. Report of the Snowmass T7 working group on high performance computing • date - 2003-05-05 • creator - K. Ko; R. Ryne; P. Spentzouris • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/805413-J7ooHg/native/ • description - The T7 Working Group on High Performance Computing (HPC) had more than 30 participants. During the three weeks at Snowmass there were about 30 presentations. This working group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), M1 (Muon Based Systems), M6 (High Intensity Proton Sources), T4 (Particle sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), and T8 (Advanced Accelerators). The topics that were discussed fall naturally into three areas: (1) HPC requirements for next-generation accelerator design, (2) state-of-the-art in HPC simulation of accelerator systems, and (3) applied mathematics and computer science activities related to the development of HPC tools that will be of use to the accelerator community (as well as other communities). This document summarizes the material mentioned above and includes recommendations for future HPC activities in the accelerator community. The relationship of those activities to the HENP/SciDAC project on 21st century accelerator simulation is also discussed. 384. An Approach to Wireless Communications at Sandia National Laboratories • date - 2003-05-05 • creator - WITZKE, EDWARD L. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/805838-oXMf86/native/ • description - Wireless communication plays an increasing role in military, industrial, public safety, and academic computer networks. Although in general, radio transmitters are not currently permitted in secured areas at Sandia, wireless communications would open new opportunities, allowing mobile and pervasive user access. Without wireless communications, we must live in a ''non-mainstream'' world of fixed, wired networks, where it becomes ever more difficult to attract and retain the best professionals. This report provides a review of the current state of wireless communications, which direction wireless technology is heading, and where wireless technology could be employed at Sandia. A list of recommendations on harnessing the power of wireless communications is provided to aid in building a state-of-the-art communication environment for the 21st century at Sandia. 385. Exploitation of parallelism in climate models. Final report • date - 2003-05-05 • creator - Baer, Ferdinand; Tribbia, Joseph J.; Williamson, David L. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/807244-9EOiT9/native/ • description - This final report includes details on the research accomplished by the grant entitled 'Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models' to the University of Maryland. The purpose of the grant was to shed light on (a) how to reconfigure the atmospheric prediction equations such that the time iteration process could be compressed by use of MPP architecture; (b) how to develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state-of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics; and (c) how to capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. In the process of addressing these issues, we created parallel algorithms with spectral accuracy; we developed a process for concurrent climate simulations; we established suitable model reconstructions to speed up computation; we identified and tested optimum realization statistics; we undertook a number of parameterization studies to better understand model physics; and we studied the impact of subgrid scale motions and their parameterization in atmospheric models. 386. Final technical report. Development and installation of a high resolution position sensitive 40x40 cm{sup 2} gas detector for small angle neutron scattering applications at IPNS: ORDELA model 2410N position-sensitive proportional counter system • date - 2003-05-05 • creator - Kopp, Daniel M. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/807502-UlxV3v/native/ • description - The objective of this proposal is to upgrade the new small-angle neutron diffractometer (SAND) instrument in the Department of Energy's scientific user program at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) by installing a state-of-the-art position-sensitive area detector with higher spatial resolution, greater stability, and a capability for high count rates. This report includes the system description, installation, preliminary testing and calibration of the Model 2410N PSPC System delivered to ANL/IPNS. 387. A three-dimensional transient neutronics routine for the TRAC-PF1 reactor thermal hydraulic computer code • date - 2006-01-30 • creator - Bandini, B.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/80751-zhksSi/webviewable/ • description - No present light water reactor accident analysis code employs both high state of the art neutronics and thermal-hydraulics computational algorithms. Adding a modern three-dimensional neutron kinetics model to the present TRAC-PFI/MOD2 code would create a fully up to date pressurized water reactor accident evaluation code. After reviewing several options, it was decided that the Nodal Expansion Method would best provide the basis for this multidimensional transient neutronic analysis capability. Steady-state and transient versions of the Nodal Expansion Method were coded in both three-dimensional Cartesian and cylindrical geometries. In stand-alone form this method of solving the few group neutron diffusion equations was shown to yield efficient and accurate results for a variety of steady-state and transient benchmark problems. The Nodal Expansion Method was then incorporated into TRAC-PFl/MOD2. The combined NEM/TRAC code results agreed well with the EPRI-ARROTTA core-only transient analysis code when modelling a severe PWR control rod ejection accident. 388. Model development for the dynamic analysis of the OSU inherently safe reactor. Part 1 • date - 2001-05-03 • creator - Aybar, H.S. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/80759-VJdQYU/webviewable/ • description - Faculty and students in the Nuclear Engineering Program at the Ohio State University (OSU) have proposed a conceptual design for an inherently safe 340 MWe power reactor. The design is based on the state-of-the-art technology of LWRs and the High Temperature Gas- cooled Reactors (HTGRs). The OSU Inherently Safe Reactor (OSU-ISR) concept uses shorter than standard BWR fuel elements in the reactor core. All the fluid on the primary side is contained within a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV). This important feature significantly reduces the probability of a LOCA. A new feature of the OSU-ISR is an operator independent steam driven Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) housed within the PCRV. In accident conditions where the steam generators are incapacitated, steam from the core drives a jet injector, which takes water from the suppression pool and pumps it into the core cavity to maintain core coverability. The preliminary analysis of the concept was performed as a design project in the Nuclear Engineering Program at the OSU during the Spring of 1985, and published inNuclear Technology. The use of a PCRV for ducting and containment and the replacement of forced recirculation with natural circulation on the primary side significantly improve the inherent safety of the plant. Currently, work is in progress for the refinement of the OSU-ISR concept, partially supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. 389. Introduction to Random Boolean Networks • date - 2004-08-02 • creator - Gershenson, Carlos • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://arxiv.org/abs/nlin/0408006 • description - Comment: 14 pages, 9 figures. Tutorial to be presented at ALife IX conference. More info at http://homepages.vub.ac.be/~cgershen/rbn/ 390. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory • date - 2003-10-10T18:17:24Z • creator - Art McDonald • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca • description - The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is an underground facility designed to detect solar produced neutrinos by means of a Cherenkov detector. This site describes the basics of its operation and lists some research results. 391. Proposal Solicitation and Selection for the 21st Century • date - 1970-01-01 • creator - Palle Mller,Glenn Miller,Brett Blacker • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/279565.html • description - Writing, reviewing, and selecting the proposals which are to define the science program of any state--of--the--art observatory/space mission are all tasks which have grown in complexity, and as a consequence large amounts of time and e#ort are currently being invested in this process by proposers as well as reviewers. Viewed from the opposite vantage point, the currently used solicitation and selection process is a significant operational expense: Mailing paper copies of proposals and gathering reviewers for panel meetings and a "Time Allocation Committee" involves a large amount of logistical support and time by the observatory sta#. Finally, the batching of proposals into yearly cycles (or six month semesters) increases the time from concept of a scientific idea to receipt of actual data which decreases the ability to respond to new scientific developments and also increases the general operational overhead of handling a large batch of observations. In this paper we explore two expe... 392. The iPOINT Testbed for Optoelectronic ATM Networking • date - 1999-05-13 • creator - J. W. Lockwood,C. Cheong,S. Ho,B. Cox,S. M. Kang,S. G. Bishop,R. H. Campbell • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/279561.html • description - This paper presents the iPOINT (Illinois Pulsar--based Optical INTerconnect) testbed, which harnesses the high throughput of fiber optic communication links for ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networking of state--of--the--art UNIX desktop workstations. This research has been supported by National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center grant ECD 89-43166 1 Lockwood, Cheong, Ho, Cox, Kang, Bishop, Campbell: iPOINT 2 Pulsar Switch External port Figure 1: iPOINT testbed configuration Recent advances in integrated detectors, laser sources, and modulators have made gigabit/second digital communication links feasible for system applications. High--bandwidth data channels combined with modern workstations can bring multimedia and high--performance distributed computing applications to the desktop. The iPOINT (Illinois Pulsar--based Optical INterconnect) testbed is aimed at harnessing the high throughput of fiber optic communication links for message passing among multiple st... 393. Scalable Sweeping-Based Spatial Join • date - 1998-10-29 • creator - Lars Arge,Octavian Procopiuc,Sridhar Ramaswamy,Torsten Suel,Jeffrey Scott Vitter • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/279859.html • description - In this paper, we consider the filter step of the spatial join problem, for the case where neither of the inputs are indexed. We present a new algorithm, Scalable Sweeping-Based Spatial Join (SSSJ), that achieves both efficiency on real-life data and robustness against highly skewed and worst-case data sets. The algorithm combines a method with theoretically optimal bounds on I/O transfers based on the recently proposed distribution-sweeping technique with a highly optimized implementation of internal-memory plane-sweeping. We present experimental results based on an efficient implementation of the SSSJ algorithm, and compare it to the state-ofthe -art Partition-Based Spatial-Merge (PBSM) algorithm of Patel and DeWitt. Center for Geometric Computing, Department of Computer Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708--0129. Supported in part by U.S. Army Research Office grant DAAH04--96--1--0013. Email: large@cs.duke.edu. Center for Geometric Computing, Department of Com... 394. On the feasibility to investigate point defects by advanced electron microscopy • date - 2003-04-21 • creator - Kisielowski, C.; Jinschek, J.R. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/808947-Cr2Dti/native/ • description - Transmission Electron Microscopy evolves rapidly as a primary tool to investigate nano structures on a truly atomic level. Its resolution reaches into the sub Angstrom region by now. Together with a better correction of lens aberrations, sensitivities are drastically enhanced. Utilizing advanced electron microscopes, it is feasible to promote experiments that aim to detect single atoms. This enables local investigations of non-stoichiometry. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art. 395. Review of Water Resources and Desalination Technologies • date - 2003-05-05 • creator - MILLER, JAMES E. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/809106-Ripkew/native/ • description - Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods to desalinate brackish water and sea water can help reverse this destabilizing trend. Desalination has now been practiced on a large scale for more than 50 years. During this time continual improvements have been made, and the major technologies are now remarkably efficient, reliable, and inexpensive. For many years, thermal technologies were the only viable option, and multi-stage flash (MSF) was established as the baseline technology. Multi-effect evaporation (MEE) is now the state-of-the-art thermal technology, but has not been widely implemented. With the growth of membrane science, reverse osmosis (RO) overtook MSF as the leading desalination technology, and should be considered the baseline technology. Presently, RO of seawater can be accomplished with an energy expenditure in the range of 11-60 kJ/kg at a cost of2 to4 per 1000 gallons. The theoretical minimum energy expenditure is 3-7 kJ/kg. Since RO is a fairly mature technology, further improvements are likely to be incremental in nature, unless design improvements allow major savings in capital costs. Therefore, the best hope to dramatically decrease desalination costs is to develop ''out of the box'' technologies. These ''out of the box'' approaches must offer a significant advantage over RO (or MEE, if waste heat is available) if they are to be viable. When making these comparisons, it is crucial that the specifics of the calculation are understood so that the comparison is made on a fair and equivalent basis. 396. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership • date - 2003-05-05 • creator - Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/809159-Qinx4H/native/ • description - This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies. 397. Reverse engineering: algebraic boundary representations to constructive solid geometry. • date - 2001-06-19 • creator - Buchele, S. F.; Ellingson, W. A. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/8092-jMnKQL/webviewable/ • description - Recent advances in reverse engineering have focused on recovering a boundary representation (b-rep) of an object, often for integration with rapid prototyping. This boundary representation may be a 3-D point cloud, a triangulation of points, or piecewise algebraic or parametric surfaces. This paper presents work in progress to develop an algorithm to extend the current state of the art in reverse engineering of mechanical parts. This algorithm will take algebraic surface representations as input and will produce a constructive solid geometry (CSG) description that uses solid primitives such as rectangular block, pyramid, sphere, cylinder, and cone. The proposed algorithm will automatically generate a CSG solid model of a part given its algebraic b-rep, thus allowing direct input into a CAD system and subsequent CSG model generation. 398. Growth and Characterization of Quantum Dots and Quantum Dots Devices • date - 2003-06-23 • creator - CEDERBERG, JEFFREY G.; BIEFELD, ROBERT M.; SCHNEIDER, H.C.; CHOW, WENG W. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/810938-sDsPCX/native/ • description - Quantum dot nanostructures were investigated experimentally and theoretically for potential applications for optoelectronic devices. We have developed the foundation to produce state-of-the-art compound semiconductor nanostructures in a variety of materials: In(AsSb) on GaAs, GaSb on GaAs, and In(AsSb) on GaSb. These materials cover a range of energies from 1.2 to 0.7 eV. We have observed a surfactant effect in InAsSb nanostructure growth. Our theoretical efforts have developed techniques to look at the optical effects induced by many-body Coulombic interactions of carriers in active regions composed of quantum dot nanostructures. Significant deviations of the optical properties from those predicted by the ''atom-like'' quantum dot picture were discovered. Some of these deviations, in particular, those relating to the real part of the optical susceptibility, have since been observed in experiments. 399. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS • date - 2003-08-18 • creator - K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/812560-Tqrpe4/native/ • description - The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. 400. pathChirp: Efficient Available Bandwidth Estimation for Network Paths • date - 2003-09-01 • creator - Cottrell, Les • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/813038-caMt6A/native/ • description - This paper presents pathChirp, a new active probing tool for estimating the available bandwidth on a communication network path. Based on the concept of ''self-induced congestion,'' pathChirp features an exponential flight pattern of probes we call a chirp. Packet chips offer several significant advantages over current probing schemes based on packet pairs or packet trains. By rapidly increasing the probing rate within each chirp, pathChirp obtains a rich set of information from which to dynamically estimate the available bandwidth. Since it uses only packet interarrival times for estimation, pathChirp does not require synchronous nor highly stable clocks at the sender and receiver. We test pathChirp with simulations and Internet experiments and find that it provides good estimates of the available bandwidth while using only a fraction of the number of probe bytes that current state-of-the-art techniques use. 401. Regional Evacuation Modeling: A State of the Art Reviewing • date - 2003-10-06 • creator - Southworth, F. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/814579-gUk8w0/native/ • description - Regional evacuation modeling is treated as a five step process: involving vehicle trip generation, trip departure time, trip destination, and trip route selection modeling, supplemented by plan set-up and analysis procedures. Progress under each of these headings is reviewed and gaps in the process identified. The potential for emergency planners to make use of real time traffic data, resulting from the recent technical and economic revolutions in telecommunications and infrared traffic sensing, is identified as the single greatest opportunity for the near future; and some beginnings in the development of real time dynamic traffic modeling specifically geared to evacuation planning are highlighted. Significant data problems associated with the time of day location of large urban populations represent a second area requiring extensive research. A third area requiring much additional effort is the translation of the considerable knowledge we have on evacuee behavior in times of crisis into reliable quantitative measures of the timing of evacuee mobilization, notably by distance from the source of the hazard. Specific evacuation models are referenced and categorized by method. Incorporation of evacuation model findings into the definition of emergency planning zone boundaries is also discussed. 402. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS • date - 2003-11-10 • creator - Xiaodi Huang; Richard Gertsch • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/816485-ZH1eND/native/ • description - The project was highlighted by continued fabrication of drill bit inserts and testing them: (1) The inserts were subjected to hammer tests to determine brittleness. Selected inserts experienced multiple blows from a 16 pound sledge hammer. The resulting damage was minimal. (2) Three inserts were placed on three different 16.5 inch diameter rotary drill bits, and the bits drilled taconite rock until the entire bit failed. (3) The inserts had somewhat less wear resistance than current art, and exhibited no brittle failures. (4) More work is needed to produce the inserts at near net shape. The test inserts required too much machining. The project next turned to manufacturing 6.5 inch diameter disc cutters. The cutters will feature a core of tungsten carbide (TC) in a disc body composed of H13 tool steel. The TC inserts are in manufacture and the dies for the disc are being designed. The plan for next quarter: (1) Investigate materials and manufacturing changes for the fibrous monolith drill bit inserts that will increase their wear life. (2) Begin manufacturing disc cutters. 403. Thermal Diffusivity and Conductivity in Ceramic Matrix Fiber Composite Materials - Literature Study • date - 2004-03-01 • creator - R.G. Quinn • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/821297-H6k2GI/native/ • description - A technical literature review was conducted to gain an understanding of the state of the art method, problems, results, and future of thermal diffusivity/conductivity of matrix-fiber composites for high temperature applications. This paper summarizes the results of test method development and theory. Results from testing on various sample types are discussed with concentration on the anisotropic characteristics of matrix-fiber composites, barriers to heat flow, and notable microstructure observations. The conclusion presents some observations from the technical literature, drawbacks of current information and discusses potential needs for future testing. 404. Natural and Passive Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents: Critical Evaluation of Science and Technology Targets • date - 2004-05-17 • creator - LOONEY, BRIAN • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/822824-L1xXGn/native/ • description - This report was written for multiple audiences. Each reader will likely approach the subject from a different perspective, seeking different information. The team that developed the document consisted of several technical experts on monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and included participants who were integral in the development of US EPA's chlorinated solvent MNA protocol and the subsequent US EPA and Office of Solid Waste and emergency Response (OSWER) policy directive. The primary assignment to the interdisciplinary team was to generate a summary of the state-of-the-art, particularly for chlorinated solvent applications and to identify high-priority opportunities for advancement. A diverse jury of peers reviewed the draft report; the report was edited in response to their comments. 405. A NEW GENERATION CHEMICAL FLOODING SIMULATOR • date - 2004-05-31 • creator - Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori; Mojdeh Delshad • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/823160-SGNXDW/native/ • description - The premise of this research is that a general-purpose reservoir simulator for several improved oil recovery processes can and should be developed so that high-resolution simulations of a variety of very large and difficult problems can be achieved using state-of-the-art algorithms and computers. Such a simulator is not currently available to the industry. The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new-generation chemical flooding simulator that is capable of efficiently and accurately simulating oil reservoirs with at least a million gridblocks in less than one day on massively parallel computers. Task 1 is the formulation and development of solution scheme, Task 2 is the implementation of the chemical module, and Task 3 is validation and application. We have made significant progress on all three tasks and we are on schedule on both technical and budget. In this report, we will detail our progress on Tasks 1 through 3 for the first six months of the second year of the project. 406. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL • date - 2004-05-31 • creator - Robert Balch • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/823507-1QwRrg/native/ • description - Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth annual (and tenth of 12 semi-annual reports) contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through March 2004 period was directed toward completion of the Brushy Canyon FEE Tool and to Silurian-Devonian geology, and development of rules for the Devonian fuzzy system, and on-line software. 407. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS • date - 2004-06-14 • creator - K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/823788-lqVobH/native/ • description - The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. 408. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL • date - 2004-06-14 • creator - William W. Weiss • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/824390-ZPFFjd/native/ • description - Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. As a result, today's pool of experts is much reduced. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the May 2001 through September 2001 was directed toward development of rules for the fuzzy system. 409. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL • date - 2004-06-28 • creator - William W. Weiss • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/824427-7Q0DaJ/native/ • description - Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This second annual report contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. During the second year of the project, data acquisition of the Brushy Canyon Formation was completed with the compiling and analyzing of well logs, geophysical data, and production information needed to characterize production potential in the Delaware Basin. A majority of this data now resides in several online databases on our servers and is in proper form to be accessed by external programs such as Web applications. A new concept was developed and tested in well log analysis using neural networks. Bulk volume oil (BVO) was successfully predicted using wireline logs as inputs. This concept provides a new tool for estimating the potential success of a well and determining the productive interval to be perforated. Regional attributes have been gridded to a 40-ac bin (gridblock) size, and our fuzzy ranking procedures were applied to determine which attributes are best able to predict production trends in the Delaware Basin. The production indicator was the avera 410. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL • date - 2004-06-28 • creator - William W. Weiss • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/824437-7Cm1Kb/native/ • description - Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed for development through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This tool will be beneficial in many regions of the US, enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting and decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the US as reserves are depleted. The proposed expert exploration tool will benefit a diverse group in the US, leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This third of ten semi-annual reports contains an account of the progress, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. 411. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL • date - 2004-06-28 • creator - William W. Weiss • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/824678-i54nDF/native/ • description - Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. Expert systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration expert tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed for development through the use of fuzzy logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool''. This tool will be beneficial in many regions of the US, enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting and decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lack the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the US as reserves are depleted. The proposed expert exploration tool will benefit a diverse group in the US, leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. 412. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL • date - 2004-06-28 • creator - Robert Balch • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/824681-cKW9BD/native/ • description - Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The pool of experts is much reduced today. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fourth of five annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the April 2002 through March 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software. 413. Managing discovery risks--A Tevatron case study • date - 2004-09-06 • creator - Bakul Banerjee • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/826396-EsktJF/native/ • description - To meet the increasing need for higher performance, Management of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has undertaken various projects to improve systems associated with the Tevatron high-energy particle collider located at Batavia, Illinois. One of the larger projects is the Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system. The objective of this project is to replace the existing BPM electronics and software system that was originally installed during early 1980s, along with the original construction of the Tevatron.The original system consists of 236 beam position monitors located around the underground tunnel of the accelerator. Above ground control systems are attached to these monitors using pickup cables. When the Tevatron collider is operational, signals received from the BPMs are used to perform a number of control and diagnostic tasks. The original system can only capture the proton signals from the collider. The new system, when fully operational, will be able to capture combined proton and antiproton signals and will be able to separate the antiproton signal from the combined signal at high resolution. This significant enhancement was beyond the range of technical capabilities when the Tevatron was constructed about two decades ago. To take advantage of exceptional progress made in the hardware and software area in past two decades, Department of Energy approved funding of the BPM electronics and software replacement project. The approximate length of the project is sixteen months with a budget of four million dollars not including overhead, escalation, and contingencies. Apart from cost and schedule risks, there are two major risks associated with this research and development project. The primary risk is the risk of discovery. Since the Tevatron beam path is highly complex, BPMs have to acquire and process a large amount of data. In this environment, analysis of data to separate antiproton signals is even more complex. Finding an optimum algorithm that can be implemented with current state of the art hardware and software technology is even more complex. The second most important risk is the risk of unavailability of the premiere high energy physics scientific facility to worldwide users. This paper presents a model of minimizing these risks using a phased model of project management. To complete the project successfully, it is essential to keep track of the constraints imposed by uncertainties in the discovery phase while maintaining the highest 414. An Application of a State of the Art 3D-CAD-Modeling and Simulation System for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Capital Equipment in Respect of German Prototype Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant Karlsruhe • date - 2005-01-30 • creator - Schulz, M.; Boese, U.; Doering, K. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/827932-FfM5Vq/native/ • description - Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH is engaged in the optimization of decommissioning processes for several years. With respect of the complexity of the projects, the time frame and the budget it is necessary to find more effective ways to handle those tasks in the near future. The decommissioning and dismantling will be achieved in six steps taking into account that some processing equipment can be dismantled before and the rest only after the High Active Liquid Waste Concentrate (HAWC) has been vitrified approximately by mid of 2005. After the successful beginning of the remote dismantling of the main process cells from March 2000, the next remote dismantling project at the WAK was initiated April 2000. 415. Volume visualization of multiple alignment of genomic DNA • date - 2004-10-04 • creator - Shah, Nameeta; Weber, Gunther H.; Dillard, Scott E.; Hamann, Bernd • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/828565-VYkwyA/native/ • description - Genomes of hundreds of species have been sequenced to date and many more are being sequenced. As more and more sequence data sets become available, and as the challenge of comparing these massive ''billion basepair DNA sequences'' becomes substantial, so does the need for more powerful tools supporting the exploration of these data sets. Similarity score data used to compare aligned DNA sequences is inherently one-dimensional. One-dimensional (1D) representations of these data sets do not effectively utilize screen real estate. We present a technique to arrange 1D data in 3D space to allow us to apply state-of-the-art interactive volume visualization techniques for data exploration. We provide results for aligned DNA sequence data and compare it with traditional 1D line plots. Our technique, coupled with 1D line plots, results in effective multiresolution visualization of very large aligned sequence data sets. 416. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM • date - 2005-02-20 • creator - Gregory Gaul • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/828617-4JNGhx/native/ • description - Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing, combustion, cooling, materials, coatings and casting development. The market potential for the ATS gas turbine in the 2000-2014 timeframe was assessed for combined cycle, simple cycle and integrated gasification combined cycle, for three engine sizes. The total ATS market potential was forecasted to exceed 93 GW. Phase 3 and Phase 3 Extension involved further technology development, component testing and W501ATS engine detail design. The technology development efforts consisted of ultra low NO{sub x} com 417. Towards advanced electron beam brightness enhancement and conditioning. • date - 2004-12-13 • creator - Kim, K.-J.; Carlsten, B.; Dowell, D.; Flottmann, K.; Jensen, K.; Petillo, J.; Sessler, A.; Stupakov, G. • provider - NSDL OAI Repository • location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/834030-AxIERG/native/ • description - The importance of developing higher-brightness electron beam sources for future accelerators was emphasized during the DOE-BESAC Subcommittee Meeting on the BES 20-Year Facility Roadmap held in Washington on February 20, 2003 [1]. The Subcommittee made a strong recommendation for an R&D program for high-brightness gun development. Spurred by this recommendation, a workshop was organized at Argonne National Laboratory on September 22-26, 2003 under the auspices of the ANL Theory Institute. About thirty experts in electron gun physics came for a week of intense discussion, reviewing the current state of the art and exploring ways to improve the performance of laser-driven rf photocathode guns, in particular whether an order of magnitude improvement of the beam brightness is feasible. Presentations given during the workshop can be found on the Internet at http://www.aps.anl.gov/asd/theory/presentations-online.html. This white paper grew out of the Argonne workshop. Its aim is to provide a summary of the ANL workshop and to propose an R&D program to develop advanced electron sources with an order of magnitude higher brightness than currently feasible. The budget for the R&D program for this purpose, discussed in Section 4, is estimated to be about10M per year for ten years with an additional onetime start-up cost of $10M. Although expensive, the expenditure is well worthwhile in view of the tremendous benefits the higher brightness gun will bring in future accelerator development, in particular a fourth-generation light source based on x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) technology and a future linear collider, which together will cost about$10B. Facilities capable for general accelerator-based R&D have been and are constructed as a part of larger accelerator complexes for research in various scientific disciplines, generally without provision for their use for research in advancing accelerator science. Sophistication in accelerator devices has become such that it is now necessary to promote accelerator research in its own right to be pursued with strong participation by university groups.
418. Microstructural Aspects of Irradiation Damage in A508 Gr 4N Forging Steel: Composition and Flux Effects
• date - 2005-02-20
• creator - M.G. Burke; R.J. Stofanak; J.M. Hyde; C.A. English; W.L. Server
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/835565-Igdhe4/native/
• description - Neutron irradiation can promote significant changes in the microstructure and associated mechanical properties of low alloy steels. In particular, irradiation can induce the formation of non-equilibrium phases and segregation, which may lead to a degradation in toughness. In this study, the microstructural changes caused by neutron irradiation have been characterized in A508 Grade (Gr) 4N-type steels ({approx}3.5% Ni) using a variety of state-of-the-art analytical techniques including 3D-Atom Probe Field-Ion Microscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering, along with post-irradiation annealing studies combining Positron Annihilation Lineshape Analysis and hardness measurements. Important differences between conventional and ''superclean'' A508 Gr 4N steel have been identified in this investigation. The data indicate that Ni is not the controlling factor in the irradiation damage behavior of these materials; rather, the Mn content of the steel is a dominant factor in the irradiation-induced microstructural development of solute-related hardening features.
419. Growth of Quantum Wires on Step-Bunched Substrate
• date - 2005-11-21
• creator - Liu, Feng
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/836577-2dhRYw/
• description - This proposal initiates a combined theoretical and experimental multidisciplinary research effort to explore a novel approach for growing metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched semiconductor and dielectric substrates, and to lay the groundwork for understanding the growth mechanisms and the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of metallic and magnetic nanowires. The research will focus on four topics: (i) fundamental studies of step bunching and self-organization in a strained thin film for creating step-bunched substrates. (ii) Interaction between metal adatoms (Al,Cu, and Ni) and semiconductor (Si and SiGe) and dielectric (CaF2) surface steps. (iii) growth and characterization of metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched templates. (iv) fabrication of superlattices of nanowires by growing multilayer films. We propose to attack these problems at both a microscopic and macroscopic level, using state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental techniques. Multiscale (electronic-atomic-continuum) theories will be applied to investigate growth mechanisms of nanowires: mesoscopic modeling and simulation of step flow growth of strained thin films, in particular, step bunching and self-organization will be carried out within the framework of continuum linear elastic theory; atomistic calculation of interaction between metal adatoms and semiconductor and dielectric surface steps will be done by large-scale computations using first-principles total-energy methods. In parallel, thin films and nanowires will be grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the resultant structure and morphology will be characterized at the atomic level up to micrometer range, using a combination of different surface/interface probes, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, atomic resolution), atomic force microscopy (AFM, nanometer resolution), low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM, micrometer resolution), reflectance high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and x-ray diffraction. Finally, the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of the thin films and nanowires will be explored by both theory and experiment.
420. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS
• date - 2005-05-07
• creator - Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/838823-Soympr/native/
• description - This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to$179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.
421. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS
• date - 2005-06-12
• creator - Xiaodi Huang; Richard Gertsch
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/839566-igEBwN/native/
• description - Michigan Technological University, together with The Robbins Group, Advanced Ceramic Research, Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing, and Superior Rock Bits, evaluated a new process and a new material for producing drill bit inserts and disc cutters for the mining industry. Difficulties in the material preparation stage slowed the research initially. Prototype testing of the drill bit inserts showed that the new inserts did not perform up to the current state of the art. Due to difficulties in the prototype production of the disc cutters, the disc cutter was manufactured but not tested. Although much promising information was obtained as a result of this project, the objective of developing an effective means for producing rock drill bits and rock disc cutters that last longer, increase energy efficiency and penetration rate, and lower overall production cost was not met.
422. Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)
• date - 2005-08-28
• creator - F. Hua; P. Pasupathi; N. Brown; K. Mon
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/840143-ATNige/webviewable/
423. Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository
• date - 2005-08-28
• creator - K.G. Mon; F. Hua
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/840149-xnVStD/webviewable/
• description - This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the first 10,000-years after repository closure. This paper provides an overview of the degradation of the waste packages and drip shields in the repository after permanent closure of the facility. The degradation modes discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen induced cracking of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys. The effects of microbial activity and radiation on the degradation of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys are also discussed. Further, for titanium alloys, the effects of fluorides, bromides, and galvanic coupling to less noble metals are considered. It is concluded that the materials and design adopted will provide sufficient safety margins for at least 10,000-years after repository closure.
424. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS
• date - 2005-08-21
• creator - Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/840896-S4IAN1/native/
• description - Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.
425. Clean Steel: Advancing the State of the Art (TRP 0003)
• date - 2005-08-21
• creator - Sridhar Seetharaman; Alan W. Cramb
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/840937-Lbrd2S/native/
• description - This project had 3 objectives: (1) to determine the kinetic factors governing inclusion removal from liquid steels at a slag metal interface; (2) to develop a methodology to enable steels of less than 1 ppm total oxygen to be produced with an average inclusion diameter of less than 5 {micro}m; and, (3) to determine the slag-metal interface conditions necessary for ultra clean steels. In objectives 1, and 3, the major finding was that dissolution rates of solid particles in slags were found to be significant in both ladle and tundish slags and must be included in a model to predict steel cleanliness. The work towards objective 2 indicated that liquid steel temperature was a very significant factor in our understanding of clean steel potential and that undercooled steels equilibrated with low oxygen potential inert gases have the potential to be significantly cleaner than current steels. Other work indicated that solidification front velocity could be used to push particles to produce clean steels and that reoxidation must be severely curtailed to allow the potential for clean steels to be realized.
426. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL
• date - 2005-08-28
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/841420-tXXBRC/native/
• description - Incomplete or sparse data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduce a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results when working with sparse data. State-of-the-art expert exploration tools, relying on a database, and computer maps generated by neural networks and user inputs, have been developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk has been reduced with the use of these properly verified and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tools.'' Through the course of this project, FEE Tools and supporting software were developed for two producing formations in southeast New Mexico. Tools of this type can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In today's oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lack the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, volatile oil prices, and scarcity of domestic exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tools benefit a diverse group in the U.S., allowing a more efficient use of scarce funds, and potentially reducing dependence on foreign oil and providing lower product prices for consumers.
427. Tools for Teaching Climate Change Studies
• date - 2005-08-28
• creator - Maestas, A.M.; Jones, L.A.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/841471-B2NUyF/native/
• description - The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) develops public outreach materials and educational resources for schools. Studies prove that science education in rural and indigenous communities improves when educators integrate regional knowledge of climate and environmental issues into school curriculum and public outreach materials. In order to promote understanding of ACRF climate change studies, ACRF Education and Outreach has developed interactive kiosks about climate change for host communities close to the research sites. A kiosk for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) community was installed at the Iupiat Heritage Center in 2003, and a kiosk for the Tropical Western Pacific locales will be installed in 2005. The kiosks feature interviews with local community elders, regional agency officials, and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program scientists, which highlight both research and local observations of some aspects of environmental and climatic change in the Arctic and Pacific. The kiosks offer viewers a unique opportunity to learn about the environmental concerns and knowledge of respected community elders, and to also understand state-of-the-art climate research. An archive of interviews from the communities will also be distributed with supplemental lessons and activities to encourage teachers and students to compare and contrast climate change studies and oral history observations from two distinct locations. The U.S. Department of Energy's ACRF supports education and outreach efforts for communities and schools located near its sites. ACRF Education and Outreach has developed interactive kiosks at the request of the communities to provide an opportunity for the public to learn about climate change from both scientific and indigenous perspectives. Kiosks include interviews with ARM scientists and provide users with basic information about climate change studies as well as interviews with elders and community leaders discussing the impacts of climate change on land, sea, and other aspects of village life.
428. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase II
• date - 2005-10-24
• creator - Nick Cannell (EMTEC); Adrian S. Sabau (ORNL)
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/850402-rd1y7p/
• description - The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The first part of the project involved preparation of reports on the state of the art at that time for all the areas under consideration (die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy). The primary R&D focus during Phase I was on the wax material since the least was known about it. The main R&D accomplishments during this phase were determination of procedures for obtaining the thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties of an unfilled wax and validating those procedures. Phase II focused on die-wax and shell-alloy systems. A wax material model was developed based on results obtained during the previous R&D phase, and a die-wax model was successfully incorporated into and used in commercial computer programs. Current computer simulation programs have complementary features. A viscolastic module was available in ABAQUS but unavailable in ProCAST, while the mold-filling module was available in ProCAST but unavailable in ABAQUS. Thus, the numerical simulation results were only in good qualitative agreement with experimental results, the predicted shrinkage factors being approximately 2.5 times larger than those measured. Significant progress was made, and results showed that the testing and modeling of wax material had great potential for industrial applications. Additional R&D focus was placed on one shell-alloy system. The fused-silica shell mold and A356 aluminum alloy were considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. It was very important to obtain accurate temperature data from actual castings, and significant effort was made to obtain temperature profiles in the shell mold. A model for thermal radiation within the shell mold was developed, and the thermal model was successfully validated using ProCAST. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The prefiring of the empty shell mold was considered in the model, and the shell mold was limited to a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical sim
429. DEGRADATION MODES OF ALLOY 22 IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN REPOSITORY CONDITIONS
• date - 2006-03-13
• creator - F. Hua; G.M. Gordon; R.B. Rebak
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/860241-Rtm5Wk/
• description - The nuclear waste package design for Yucca Mountain (Nevada, USA), in its current configuration, consists of a double wall cylindrical container fabricated using a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 for the outer barrier and type 316 stainless steel for the inner structural vessel. A mailbox-shaped drip shield fabricated primarily using Ti Grade 7 will cover the waste packages. The environmental degradation of the relevant materials have been extensively studied and modeled for over ten years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation modes of Alloy 22 (N06022) due to its interaction with the predicted in-drift mountain conditions including temperature and types of electrolytes. Subjects discussed include thermal aging and phase stability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced cracking.
430. Characterization of Amorphous Silicon Advanced Materials and PV Devices: Final Technical Report, 15 December 2001--31 January 2005
• date - 2006-01-09
• creator - Taylor, P. C.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/860399-e7Q5IX/
• description - The major objectives of this subcontract have been: (1) understand the microscopic properties of the defects that contribute to the Staebler-Wronski effect to eliminate this effect, (2) perform correlated studies on films and devices made by novel techniques, especially those with promise to improve stability or deposition rates, (3) understand the structural, electronic, and optical properties of films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) made on the boundary between the amorphous and microcrystalline phases, (4) search for more stable intrinsic layers of a-Si:H, (5) characterize the important defects, impurities, and metastabilities in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces in a-Si:H films and devices and in important alloy systems, and (6) make state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) devices out of new, advanced materials, when appropriate. All of these goals are highly relevant to improving photovoltaic devices based on a-Si:H and related alloys. With regard to the first objective, we have identified a paired hydrogen site that may be the defect that stabilizes the silicon dangling bonds formed in the Staebler-Wronski effect.
431. Characterization of Photovoltaic Concentrators
• date - 2006-01-09
• creator - Kiehl, J.;Emery, E.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/860840-IDCq4g/
• description - This paper will describe the resources at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for performing characterization of photovoltaic (PV) materials designed for operation under concentrated light. NREL has the capability to measure devices ranging from very small, unencapsulated research cells to reasonably sized, environmentally protected modules. Data gathering and interpretation are also ongoing areas of revision and improvement. The main goal of the current research is to reduce the measurement uncertainty to the lowest practical value. At present, the state of the art is limited at a ?5% level in measuring efficiency accurately.
432. Broad-band characterization of the complex permittivity and permeability of materials
• date - 2001-05-03
• creator - Avalle, C.A.[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Electromagnetics and Diagnostics Group]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/86964-x1QJI3/webviewable/
• description - By employment of state-of-the-art Vector Network Analyzers, and other wide-band measurement equipment and techniques, the authors have the capability of measuring the complex permittivity and permeability of materials, for frequencies ranging from several tens of Kilohertz up to several Gigahertz. Measurement methods and equations for numerical determination are based on recommendations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Types of materials which can be analyzed are dielectric or magnetic RF and radar absorbers; thin sheets, paints, coatings; castable resins; foams and low density materials; ceramics and ferrites; carbonized fabrics; and composites.
433. State of the Art ECR Ion Sources
• date - 2004-12-13
• creator - Xie, Z.Q.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/8744-N8hCfz/native/
• description - Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source which produces highly-charged ions is used in heavy ion accelerators worldwide. Applications also found in atomic physics research and industry ion implantation. ECR ion source performance continues to improve, especially in the last few years with new techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating and better methods to provide extra cold electrons, combined with higher magnetic mirror fields. So far more than 1 emA of multiply-charged ions such as He{sup 2+} and O{sup 6+}, and 30 e{mu}A of Au{sup 32+}, 1.1 e{mu}A of {sup 238}U{sup 48+}, and epA currents of very high charge states such as {sup 86}Kr{sup 35+} and {sup 238}U{sup 60+} have been produced.
434. Magnetism In 3d Transition Metals at High Pressures
• date - 2006-05-22
• creator - Iota, V
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/877770-cUwxEq/
• description - This research project examined the changes in electronic and magnetic properties of transition metals and oxides under applied pressures, focusing on complex relationship between magnetism and phase stability in these correlated electron systems. As part of this LDRD project, we developed new measurement techniques and adapted synchrotron-based electronic and magnetic measurements for use in the diamond anvil cell. We have performed state-of-the-art X-ray spectroscopy experiments at the dedicated high-pressure beamline HP-CAT (Sector 16 Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory), maintained in collaboration with of University of Nevada, Las Vegas and Geophysical Laboratory of The Carnegie Institution of Washington. Using these advanced measurements, we determined the evolution of the magnetic order in the ferromagnetic 3d transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) under pressure, and found that at high densities, 3d band broadening results in diminished long range magnetic coupling. Our experiments have allowed us to paint a unified picture of the effects of pressure on the evolution of magnetic spin in 3d electron systems. The technical and scientific advances made during this LDRD project have been reported at a number of scientific meetings and conferences, and have been submitted for publication in technical journals. Both the technical advances and the physical understanding of correlated systems derived from this LDRD are being applied to research on the 4f and 5f electron systems under pressure.
435. Length-Limited Data Transformation and Compression
• date - 2006-05-22
• creator - Senecal, J G
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/877882-fcspAY/
• description - Scientific computation is used for the simulation of increasingly complex phenomena, and generates data sets of ever increasing size, often on the order of terabytes. All of this data creates difficulties. Several problems that have been identified are (1) the inability to effectively handle the massive amounts of data created, (2) the inability to get the data off the computer and into storage fast enough, and (3) the inability of a remote user to easily obtain a rendered image of the data resulting from a simulation run. This dissertation presents several techniques that were developed to address these issues. The first is a prototype bin coder based on variable-to-variable length codes. The codes utilized are created through a process of parse tree leaf merging, rather than the common practice of leaf extension. This coder is very fast and its compression efficiency is comparable to other state-of-the-art coders. The second contribution is the Piecewise-Linear Haar (PLHaar) transform, a reversible n-bit to n-bit wavelet-like transform. PLHaar is simple to implement, ideal for environments where transform coefficients must be kept the same size as the original data, and is the only n-bit to n-bit transform suitable for both lossy and lossless coding.
436. Information Extraction from Unstructured Text for the Biodefense Knowledge Center
• date - 2006-05-22
• creator - Samatova, N F; Park, B; Krishnamurthy, R; Munavalli, R; Symons, C ; Buttler, D J ; Cottom, T ; Critchlow, T J ; Slezak, T
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/877921-oXJcpE/
• description - The Bio-Encyclopedia at the Biodefense Knowledge Center (BKC) is being constructed to allow an early detection of emerging biological threats to homeland security. It requires highly structured information extracted from variety of data sources. However, the quantity of new and vital information available from every day sources cannot be assimilated by hand, and therefore reliable high-throughput information extraction techniques are much anticipated. In support of the BKC, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, together with the University of Utah, are developing an information extraction system built around the bioterrorism domain. This paper reports two important pieces of our effort integrated in the system: key phrase extraction and semantic tagging. Whereas two key phrase extraction technologies developed during the course of project help identify relevant texts, our state-of-the-art semantic tagging system can pinpoint phrases related to emerging biological threats. Also we are enhancing and tailoring the Bio-Encyclopedia by augmenting semantic dictionaries and extracting details of important events, such as suspected disease outbreaks. Some of these technologies have already been applied to large corpora of free text sources vital to the BKC mission, including ProMED-mail, PubMed abstracts, and the DHS's Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection (IAIP) news clippings. In order to address the challenges involved in incorporating such large amounts of unstructured text, the overall system is focused on precise extraction of the most relevant information for inclusion in the BKC.
437. Progress in the Numerical Solution of the Nonsymmetric Eigenvalue Problem
• date - 1997-09-02
• creator - Zhaojun Bai
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/400664.html
• description - With the growing demands from disciplinary and interdisciplinary fields of science and engineering for the numerical solution of the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem, competitive new techniques have been developed for solving the problem. In this paper, we examine the start-of-the-art of the algorithmic techniques and the software scene for the problem. Some current developments are also outlined. 1 Introduction Over several years working on the LAPACK project [2], and on algorithm and software development of the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem and communication with a variety of users who work in diverse fields involving scientific computing, the author have seen a growing demand for the numerical solution of the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problems. Meanwhile, in numerical analysis community, since Parlett's exploratory review paper entitled "The Software Scene in the Extraction of Eigenvalues from Sparse Matrices" [34] nearly one decade ago, and with the successful development of t...
438. Ethnic Systems Evolution. Computer Modelling
• date - 1998-12-25
• creator - Er K. Guts,Dmitry A. Lanin,Sergei V. Nikitin
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/400690.html
• description - this paper is to build a mathematical model of ethnos development, to create the proper program in TURBO PASCAL language, and to make the computer experiments. We based on ideas of well-known historian L. N. Gumilev [1,2]. The notion of passionarity is fundamental here. Let's consider an ethnos as a system of seven subsystems: passionarians (the vivid persons, who are able to inspire people with enthusiasm), subpassionarians (the persons providing destructive activity, antisocial elements), harmonic people (the mass of people), organization (or, less precise, State), science and technology, culture and art, and landscape. We'll study the development of m ethnic systems E i (i = 1; :::; m), and we'll take that theirs subsystems are of numerical passionarity level. We denote them by P i ; S i ; M i ; O i ; T i ; C i ; L i respectively. The dynamics of history of the interacting ethnoses is described by a system of differencial equations. These equations determine the change rate of the passionarity level for every of the subsystems. The time t (years) is within [0; 1200]. The number 1200 is the time of existence of culture-historic type that is connected with the ethnos [3,5]. The history of the ethnos begins at a certain moment t = 0 with initial passionarity levels
439. Intrusion Detection Systems and Multisensor Data Fusion
• date - 2001-01-19
• creator - Tim Bass
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/402224.html
• description - This article provides a brief review of ID concepts and terms, an overview of the art and science of multisensor data-fusion technology, and introduces the ID systems data-mining environment as a complementary process to the ID system data-fusion model.
440. HIGH PERFORMANCE DISULFONATED POLY(ARYLENE SULFONE) CO- AND TERPOLYMERS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR FUEL CELL AND TRANSDUCER APPLICATIONS: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND FABRICATION OF ION CONDUCTING MEMBRANES
• date - 2005-04-26
• creator - Wiles, Kenton Broyhill
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-04212005-215145/
• description - The results described in this dissertation have demonstrated several alternative proton exchange membranes (PEM) for hydrogen-air and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) that perform as well or better than the state of the art Nafion perfluorosulfonic acid membrane. Direct aromatic nucleophilic substitution polycondensations of disodium 3,3S-disulfonate-4,4S-difluorodiphenylsulfone (SDFDPS), 4,4S-difluorodiphenylsulfone (DFDPS) (or their chlorinated analogs, SDCDPS, DCDPS) and 4,4S-thiobisbenzenethiol (TBBT) in the presence of potassium carbonate were investigated. Electrophilic aromatic substitution was employed to synthesize the SDFDPS or SDCDPS comonomers in high yields and purity. High molecular weight disulfonated poly(arylene thioether sulfone) (PATS) copolymers were easily obtained using the SDFDPS monomers, but in general, slower rates and a lower molecular weight copolymer was obtained using the analogous chlorinated monomers. Tough and ductile membranes were solution cast from N,N-dimethylacetamide for both series of copolymers. The degrees of disulfonation (20-50%, PATS 20-50) were controlled by varying the ratio of disulfonated to unsulfonated comonomers. Composite membranes were prepared by homogeneous solution blending the copolymers with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) in dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The composite PATS membranes exhibited moderate PTA molecule water extraction after acidification treatments performed at either room or boiling temperatures. The membranes containing HPA showed improved conductivity at high temperatures (120 Â¢XC) and low relative humidities when compared to the pure copolymers. Molecular weight of the copolymers plays a critical role in the overall copolymer physical behavior. It is well known that molecular weight has an enormous impact on practically all of the physical properties of polymeric systems. This dissertation discusses the influence of molecular weight on the characteristics of a specific family of PEM PATS copolymers. This study elucidated that the lower molecular weight materials did indeed behave differently than the higher molecular weight copolymers. Specifically, the water uptake and permeability to methanol decreased with increasing molecular weight. Furthermore, the fully hydrated mechanical properties also improved with molecular weight. The synthesis and fabrication of 45 mole percent disulfonated poly(arylene ether phenyl phosphine oxide diphenyl sulfone) terpolymer-heteropolyacid (HPA) composite
441. High Temperature Polymers for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
• date - 2005-04-27
• creator - Einsla, Brian Russel
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-04262005-140621/
• description - Novel proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were investigated that show potential for operating at higher temperatures in both direct methanol (DMFC) and H2/air PEM fuel cells. The need for thermally stable polymers immediately suggests the possibility of heterocyclic polymers bearing appropriate ion conducting sites. Accordingly, monomers and random disulfonated poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing either naphthalimide, benzoxazole or benzimidazole moieties were synthesized via direct copolymerization. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied by simply changing the ratio of disulfonated monomer to nonsulfonated monomer in the copolymerization step. Water uptake and proton conductivity of cast membranes increased with IEC. The water uptake of these heterocyclic copolymers was lower than that of comparable disulfonated poly(arylene ether) systems, which is a desirable improvement for PEMs. Membrane electrode assemblies were prepared and the initial fuel cell performance of the disulfonated polyimide and polybenzoxazole (PBO) copolymers was very promising at 80 C compared to the state-of-the-art PEM (NafionÂ®); nevertheless these membranes became brittle under operating conditions. Several series of poly(arylene ether)s based on disodium-3,3-disulfonate-4,4-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (S-DCDPS) and a benzimidazole-containing bisphenol were synthesized and afforded copolymers with enhanced stability. Selected properties of these membranes were compared to separately prepared miscible blends of disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers and polybenzimidazole (PBI). Complexation of the sulfonic acid groups with the PBI structure reduced water swelling and proton conductivity. The enhanced proton conductivity of NafionÂ® membranes has been proposed to be due to the aggregation of the highly acidic side-chain sulfonic acid sites to form ion channels. A series of side-chain sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers based on methoxyhydroquinone was synthesized in order to investigate this possible advantage and to couple this with the excellent hydrolytic stability of poly(arylene ether)s. The methoxy groups were deprotected to afford reactive phenolic sites and nucleophilic substitution reactions with functional aryl sulfonates were used to prepare simple aryl or highly acidic fluorinated sulfonated copolymers. The proton conductivity and water sorption of the resulting copolymers increased with the ion exchange capacity, but changing the acidity of t
442. Physics in Action: Ferrofluid Fun
• date - 2003-12-04T23:11:34Z
• creator - Physics Central
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.physicscentral.com/action/action-03-07.html
• description - This article describes ferrofluids, which are man-made liquid magnets. The site tells how these liquid magnets are made, what their current uses are, as well as possible future applications. There are also links to research efforts.
443. ASTRONOMY UNBOUND: Physics Clip Art
• date - 2004-01-07T23:47:45Z
• creator - UH
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.herts.ac.uk/astro_ub/a_gifsan.html
• description - This Astronomy Unbound section provides animated gif files of important physical concepts related to astronomy. The animations include: EM radiation, photon emission, photon absorption, a comet's orbit, and many others.
444. The Galileo Project
• date - 2004-01-16T22:32:42Z
• creator - Albert Van Helden
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://galileo.rice.edu/
• description - This site offers information about the history of Galileo and other significant astronomers. There is also a section with several labs for interested students.
445. Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)
• date - 2006-05-01
• creator - Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O'hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/881590-Kfq80v/
• description - Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at various planes. Together, these two techniques can provide the needed local solids flow dynamic information for the same setup under identical operating conditions, and the data obtained can be used as a benchmark for development, and refinement of the appropriate riser models. For the above reasons these two techniques were implemented in this study on a fully developed section of the riser. To derive the global mixing information in the riser, accurate solids RTD is needed and was obtained by monitor
446. Improving the Oxidation Resistance in Advanced Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloys for Turbine Applications
• date - 2001-06-19
• creator - Alexander, K.B.; Kenik, E.A.; Miller, M.K.; Lin, L.S.; Cetel, A.D.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/9241-KxYLwA/webviewable/
• description - The focus of this project was the examination of the role of yttrium and other alloying elements on the microstructure and oxidation performance of improved single crystal nickel-based superalloys for advanced turbine applications. The microstructure and microchemistry of both base and modified alloys and their surface oxides have been measured with state-of-the-art microanalytical techniques (atom probe field ion microscopy) and then correlated with identifying the partitioning behavior of the elemental additions in these superalloys before and after burner rig and engine-test oxidation performance. The overall technical goals included; (1) identifying the partitioning behavior of the elemental additions in these superalloys before and after burner rig and engine tests and the effect on the misfit energy between the phases in the alloys; (2) examining the oxidation performance of these newly-developed alloys; (3) identifying the influence of pre-oxidation processing on the subsequent oxidation performance; and (4) relating the microstructural and microchemical observations to the observed performance of these superalloys. The comparison of the base and modified alloys will produce a better understanding of the interaction between chemistry, structure, and performance in superalloys. In addition, it will lead to optimized alloys with improved performance including enhanced durability in the operating environments at the elevated temperature required to improve energy efficiency. The availability of alloys capable of higher temperature operation will minimize the need for expensive coatings in extreme temperature applications.
447. Atomic force microscope: Enhanced sensitivity
• date - 2001-05-03
• creator - Davis, D.T.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/93754-VZvsIf/webviewable/
• description - Atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are a recent development representing the state of the art in measuring ultrafine surface features. Applications are found in such fields of research as biology, microfabrication, material studies, and surface chemistry. Fiber-optic interferometer techniques developed at LLNL offer the potential of improving the vertical resolution of these instruments by up to 2 orders of magnitude. We are attempting to replace the current AFM measurement scheme, which consists of an optical beam deflection approach, with our fiber-optic interferometer scheme, a much more sensitive displacement measurement technique. In performing this research, we hope to accomplish two important goals; (1) to enhance the sensitivity of the AFM, and (2) to achieve important improvements in our fiber-optic interferometer technology.
448. Monitoring and Steering of Large-Scale Distributed Simulations
• date - 2006-03-30
• creator - Geist, G.A.; Kohl, J.A.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/9401-kI2uXF/
• description - Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a state-of-the-art parallel application development system called CUMULVS, which allows scientists to easily incorporate interactive visualization, computational steering and fault tolerance into distributed software applications. The system is a valuable tool for many large scientific applications because it enables the scientist to visually monitor large data fields and remotely control parameters inside a running application. Collaborative monitoring is provided by allowing multiple researchers to simultaneously attach to a simulation, each controlling their own view of the same or different data fields within the simulation. By supporting steering of a simulation while it is running, CUMULVS provides the opportunity to accelerate the process of scientific discovery. CUMULVS also provides a simple mechanism to incorporate automatic checkpointing and heterogeneous task migration into large applications so that simulations can continue to run for weeks unattended. This paper will give an overview of the CUMULVS system and its capabilities, including several case histories. The status of the project is described with instructions on how to obtain the software.
449. Durability of polymer matrix composites for automotive structural applications: A state-of-the-art review
• date - 2001-05-03
• creator - Corum, J.M.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.; Sun, C.T.; Talreja, R.; Weitsman, Y.J.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/95282-SCk8QW/webviewable/
• description - A key unanswered question that must be addressed before polymeric composites will be widely used in automotive structural components is their known durability. Major durability issues are the effects that cyclic loadings, creep, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts have on dimensional stability, strength, and stiffness throughout the required life of a composite component. This report reviews the current state of understanding in each of these areas. It also discusses the limited information that exists on one of the prime candidate materials for automotive structural applications--an isocyanurate reinforced with a continuous strand, swirl mat. Because of the key role that nondestructive evaluations must play in understanding damage development and progression, a chapter is included on ultrasonic techniques. A final chapter then gives conclusions and recommendations for research needed to resolve the various durability issues. These recommendations will help provide a sound basis for program planning for the Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Automotive Composites Consortium of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors.
450. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System
• date - 2006-05-22
• creator - Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]; Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology]; Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Urology]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10176682-R61sAb/
• description - A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.
451. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components
• date - 2006-05-22
• creator - Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10176907-qxUF7x/
• description - Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.
452. Chemical vapor infiltration of non-oxide ceramic matrix composites
• date - 2005-06-26
• creator - Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10177660-XuWM6T/native/
• description - Continuous fiber ceramic composites are enabling new, high temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor infiltration methods for producing these composites are being investigated, with the complexity of filament weaves and deposition chemistry merged with standard heat and mass transport relationships. Silicon carbide- based materials are, by far, the most mature, and are already being used in aerospace applications. This paper addresses the state-of-the-art of the technology and outlines current issues.
453. Simulation and performance analysis of a quadruple-effect lithium bromide-water absorption
• date - 2005-06-26
• creator - Grossman, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering]; Zaltash, A.; DeVault, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10178215-JFiriF/native/
• description - In order to investigate the possibility of improving utilization of high temperature heat sources, such as natural gas, for absorption chillers, performance simulation has been conducted for a quadruple-effect lithium bromide-water cycle, capable of substantial performance improvement over state-of-the-art double-effect cycles. The system investigated includes four condensers and four desorbers coupled together, forming an extension of the conventional double-effect cycle; based on prior experience, a parallel flow system was perferred over series flow, and double-condenser coupling (DCC) was employed, extending from triple-effect cycles, to further improve performance. A modular computer code for simulation of absorption systems (ABSIM) was used to investigate the performances of the cycle. The simulation was carried out over a range of operating conditions, including investigation of the influence of some major design parameters. A coefficient of performance in the neighborhood of 2.0 (cooling) was calculated at the design point, with a heat supply temperature of 600{degrees}F at the solution outlet from the high temperature desorber. With some optimization of the weak (pumped) solution flowrate and of the solution split among the four desorbers, this COP may be raised above 2.2, without any increase in the heat transfer surface of the systems components.
454. Modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds
• date - 2005-06-26
• creator - Zacharia, T.; Vitek, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]; Goldak, J.A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]; DebRoy, T.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]; Rappaz, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)]; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10178263-OJdcGD/native/
• description - Recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds are summarized. State-of-the-art mathematical models, advances in computational techniques, emerging high-performance computers, and experimental validation techniques have provided significant insight into the fundamental factors that control the development of the weldment. The current status and scientific issues in the areas of heat and fluid flow in welds, heat source metal interaction, solidification microstructure, and phase transformations are assessed. Future research areas of major importance for understanding the fundamental phenomena in weld behavior are identified.
455. Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop
• date - 2006-05-22
• creator - McDonald, R.J.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10178294-LWCJby/
• description - This Conference, which was the sixth held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: Identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend; new initiatives to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; Foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of national security via energy conservation. The 1991 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) two plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector representatives from the United States, Europe, and Canada; and, (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
456. Mesoscale meteorological measurements characterizing complex flows
• date - 2005-06-26
• creator - Hubbe, J.M.; Allwine, K.J.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10192625-oYfgdO/native/
• description - Meteorological measurements are an integral and essential component of any emergency response system for addressing accidental releases from nuclear facilities. An important element of the US Department of Energys (DOEs) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program is the refinement and use of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation. ASCOT is currently making use of ground-based remote wind sensing instruments such as doppler acoustic sounders (sodars). These instruments are capable of continuously and reliably measuring winds up to several hundred meters above the ground, unattended. Two sodars are currently measuring the winds, as part of ASCOTs Front Range Study, in the vicinity of DOEs Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) near Boulder, Colorado. A brief description of ASCOTs ongoing Front Range Study is given followed by a case study analysis that demonstrates the utility of the meteorological measurement equipment and the complexity of flow phenomena that are experienced near RFP. These complex flow phenomena can significantly influence the transport of the released material and consequently need to be identified for accurate assessments of the consequences of a release.
457. A future vision for the investment casting industry
• date - 2005-06-26
• creator - Zanner, F.J.; Maguire, M.C.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10192491-oen30E/native/
• description - All of American industry is being subjected to increased competitive pressures due to customer needs for shorter cycle times and better quality. The investment casting industry could be in a unique position to satisfy these needs by incorporating several emerging technologies into production processes. The inherent versatility and flexibility of casting make it a truly agile manufacturing process. Because of its compatibility with new rapid prototyping technologies, investment casting could be one of the key vehicles in the new art to part paradigm. Recently, dramatic advances have been made in the quality of wax and plastic patterns, parts, and tooling by investment casting on time scales unheard of today. Because design and acquisition of tooling contributes heavily to the lead time for any market, these advances will strengthen the position of investment casting manufacturers and customers, and create opportunities in traditional and non-tradition markets. Key to achieving this goal is to use the technology to remove uncertainties from investment casting process. To do this, we must collectively build the infrastructure to enable investment casting companies to make parts right the first time, every time. Integration of mature and on-the-horizon technologies will make this revolution possible and create large growth in markets for investment castings.
458. Soft modes of collective domain-wall vibrations in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films
• date - 2000-12-28
• creator - Pertsev, N. A.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0012494
• description - Mechanical restoring forces acting on ferroelastic domain walls displaced from the equilibrium positions in epitaxial films are calculated for various modes of their cooperative translational oscillations. For vibrations of the domain-wall superlattice with the wave vectors corresponding to the center and boundaries of the first Brillouin zone, the soft modes are singled out that are distinguished by a minimum magnitude of the restoring force. It is shown that, in polydomain ferroelectric thin films, the soft modes of wall vibrations may create enormously large contribution to the film permittivity.
459. Thermodynamic theory of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films with dense domain structures
• date - 2001-02-26
• creator - Koukhar, V. G.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0102460
• description - A Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire-type nonlinear phenomenological theory is presented, which enables the thermodynamic description of dense laminar polydomain states in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films. The theory explicitly takes into account the mechanical substrate effect on the polarizations and lattice strains in dissimilar elastic domains (twins). Numerical calculations are performed for PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 films grown on (001)-oriented cubic substrates. The "misfit strain-temperature" phase diagrams are developed for these films, showing stability ranges of various possible polydomain and single-domain states. Three types of polarization instabilities are revealed for polydomain epitaxial ferroelectric films, which may lead to the formation of new polydomain states forbidden in bulk crystals. The total dielectric and piezoelectric small-signal responses of polydomain films are calculated, resulting from both the volume and domain-wall contributions. For BaTiO3 films, strong dielectric anomalies are predicted at room temperature near special values of the misfit strain.
460. Interface properties of the NiMnSb/InP and NiMnSb/GaAs contacts
461. Theoretical current-voltage characteristics of ferroelectric tunnel junctions
462. Search for half-metallic ferrimagnetism in V-based Heusler alloys Mn$_2$VZ (Z$=$Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn)
463. Effect of doping and disorder on the half-metallicity of full Heusler alloy
• date - 2006-03-30
• creator - Galanakis, I.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0603811
• description - Heusler alloys containing Co and Mn are amongst the most heavily studied half-metallic ferromagnets for future applications in spintronics. Using state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations, we investigate the effect of doping and disorder on their electronic and magnetic properties. Small degrees of doping by substituting Fe or Cr for Mn scarcely affect the half-metallicity. A similar effect is also achieved by mixing the sublattices occupied by the Mn and sp atoms. Thus the half-metallicity is a robust property of these alloys.
464. Molecular-Spintronics: the art of driving spin through molecules
• date - 2006-05-09
• creator - Sanvito, Stefano
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0605239
• description - Comment: additional material higher quality pictures can be downloaded from http://www.smeagol.tcd.ie . Review article to be published in Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience
465. Quantum field theory of the van der Waals friction
• date - 2006-05-19
• creator - Volokitin, A. I.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0605476
• description - The van der Waals friction between two semi-infinite solids, and between a small neutral particle and semi-infinite solid is reconsidered on the basis of thermal quantum field theory in the Matsubara formulation. The calculation of the friction to linear order in the sliding velocity is reduced to the finding of the equilibrium Green functions. Thus this approach cab be extended for bodsies with complex geometry. The friction calculated in this approach agrees with the friction calculated using a dynamical modification of the Lifshitz theory, which is based on the fluctuation-dissipation therem. We show that the van der Waals fricxtion can be measured in non-contact friction experiment using state-of-the art equipment.
466. Guard Placement For Wireless Localization
• date - 2006-03-14
• creator - Eppstein, David
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0603057
• description - Motivated by secure wireless networking, we consider the problem of placing fixed localizers that enable mobile communication devices to prove they belong to a secure region that is defined by the interior of a polygon. Each localizer views an infinite wedge of the plane, and a device can prove membership in the secure region if it is inside the wedges for a set of localizers whose common intersection contains no points outside the polygon. This model leads to a broad class of new art gallery type problems, for which we provide upper and lower bounds.
467. On Reduced Complexity Soft-Output MIMO ML detection
• date - 2006-03-24
• creator - Siti, Massimiliano
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0603096
• description - In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) fading channels maximum likelihood (ML) detection is desirable to achieve high performance, but its complexity grows exponentially with the spectral efficiency. The current state of the art in MIMO detection is list decoding and lattice decoding. This paper proposes a new class of lattice detectors that combines some of the principles of both list and lattice decoding, thus resulting in an efficient parallelizable implementation and near optimal soft-ouput ML performance. The novel detector is called layered orthogonal lattice detector (LORD), because it adopts a new lattice formulation and relies on a channel orthogonalization process. It should be noted that the algorithm achieves optimal hard-output ML performance in case of two transmit antennas. For two transmit antennas max-log bit soft-output information can be generated and for greater than two antennas approximate max-log detection is achieved. Simulation results show that LORD, in MIMO system employing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM) is able to achieve very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains compared to practical soft-output detectors such as minimum-mean square error (MMSE), in either linear or nonlinear iterative scheme. Besides, the performance comparison with hard-output decoded algebraic space time codes shows the fundamental importance of soft-output generation capability for practical wireless applications.
468. Efficient Compression of Prolog Programs
• date - 2006-03-26
• creator - Suciu, Alin
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0603100
• description - We propose a special-purpose class of compression algorithms for efficient compression of Prolog programs. It is a dictionary-based compression method, specially designed for the compression of Prolog code, and therefore we name it PCA (Prolog Compression Algorithm). According to the experimental results this method provides better compression than state-of-the-art general-purpose compression algorithms. Since the algorithm works with Prolog syntactic entities (e.g. atoms, terms, etc.) the implementation of a Prolog prototype is straightforward and very easy to use in any Prolog application that needs compression. Although the algorithm is designed for Prolog programs, the idea can be easily applied for the compression of programs written in other (logic) languages.
469. AS Relationships: Inference and Validation
• date - 2006-04-05
• creator - Dimitropoulos, Xenofontas
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0604017
• description - Research of performance, robustness, and evolution of the global Internet can hardly progress without accurate and complete knowledge of the nature and structure of the contractual relationships between Autonomous Systems (ASs). In this work, we first examine the state-of-the-art in inferring AS relationships. We carefully analyze existing techniques and pinpoint limitations and inadequacies associated with them. We then introduce new, improved heuristics addressing the problems we have identified. Seeking to increase the value and reliability of our inference results, we then proceed to direct validation. We perform a survey with ASs' network administrators to collect information on the actual connectivity and policies of the surveyed ASs. Based on the survey results, we find that our new AS relationship inference techniques achieve very high levels of accuracy: we correctly infer 96.5% customer to provider (c2p), 82.8% peer to peer (p2p), and 90.3% sibling to sibling (s2s) relationships. We then cross-compare the reported AS connectivity with the AS connectivity data contained in BGP tables. We regret to report that BGP tables miss up to 86.2% of the true adjacencies of the surveyed ASs. The majority of the missing links are of the p2p type, meaning that, in reality, peering links are likely to be more dominant than have been previously reported or conjectured. Finally, to make our results easily accessible and practically useful for the community, we open an AS relationship repository where we archive, on a weekly basis, and make publicly available the complete Internet AS-level topologies enriched with AS relationship information for every pair of AS neighbors.
• date - 2006-04-11
• creator - Mohan, R. N.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0604050
• description - In this note, while giving an overview of the state of art of the well known Hadamard conjecture, which is more than a century old and now it has been established by using the methods given in the two papers by Mohan et al [6,7].
471. State-of-the-Art developments in accelerator controls at the APS.
• date - 2001-09-09
• creator - Lenkszus, F.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/11108-knL8QM/webviewable/
• description - The performance requirements of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) challenge the control system in a number of areas. This paper will review a few applications of advanced technology in the control and monitoring of the APS. The application of digital signal processors (DSPs) and techniques will be discussed, both from the perspective of a large distributed multiprocessor system and from that of embedded systems. In particular, two embedded applications will be highlighted, a beam position monitor processor and a DSP-based power supply controller. Fast data distribution is often a requirement. The application of a high-speed network based on reflective memory will also be discussed in the context of the APS global orbit feedback system. Timing systems provide opportunities to apply technologies such as high-speed logic and fiber optics. Examples of the use of these technologies will also be included. Finally, every modern accelerator control system of any size requires networking. Features of the APS accelerator controls network will be discussed.
472. SEAMIST{trademark} in-situ instrumentation and vapor sampling system applications in the Sandia Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration program: Final report
• date - 2001-05-03
• creator - Williams, C.[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies]; Lowry, W.; Cremer, D.; Dunn, S.D.[Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/119962-SdftM4/webviewable/
• description - The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration was tasked with demonstrating innovative technologies for the cleanup of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representive of sites occurring throughout the DOE complex and the nation. The SEAMIST{trademark} inverting membrane deployment system has been used successfully at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) for multipoint vapor sampling, pressure measurement, permeability measurement, sensor integration demonstrations, and borehole lining. Several instruments were deployed inside the SEAMIST{trademark}-lined boreholes to detect metals, radionuclides, moisture, and geologic variations. The liner protected the instruments from contamination, maintained support of the uncased borehole wall, and sealed the total borehole from air circulation. Recent activities included the installation of three multipoint vapor sampling systems and sensor integration systems in 100-foot-deep vertical boreholes. A long term pressure monitoring program has recorded barometric pressure effects at depth with relatively high spatial resolution. The SEAMIST{trademark} system has been integrated with a variety of hydrologic and chemical sensors for in-situ measurements, demonstrating its versatility as an instrument deployment system that allows easy emplacement and removal. Standard SEAMIST{trademark} vapor sampling systems were also integrated with state-of-the-art volatile organic compound analysis technologies. The results and status of these demonstration tests are presented.
473. Use and characterization of linear nozzles for spray forming
• date - 2001-05-03
• creator - Leon, D.D.; Kozarek, R.L.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/120903-atIkdC/webviewable/
• description - Commercial production of aluminum sheet and plate by spray atomization and deposition is a potentially attractive manufacturing alternative to conventional ingot metallurgy/hot-milling, and to continuous casting processes because of reduced energy requirements and reduced cost. To realize the full potential of this technology the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa), under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, has investigated currently available state-of-the-art atomization devices to develop nozzle design concepts whose spray characteristics are tailored for continuous sheet production. This paper will discuss Alcoas research and development work on three linear nozzle designs. The effect of geometry and process parameters on spray pattern and particle size distribution will be presented. The discussion will focus on the final spray formed deposit produced by these deposition systems.
474. Poor mans parallelism in environmental management
• date - 2001-05-03
• creator - Johnson, V.M.; Rogers, L.L.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/123223-w2AwQx/webviewable/
• description - Poor mans parallelism is a term to describe the harnessing of commonly available computational approaches containing a high degree of implicit or explicit parallelism with distributed computer resources to produce a large gain in processing time. The distinguishing features of poor mans techniques are their accessibility and relatively low cost. In some circumstances, the clever exploitation of existing hardware and software may achieve as much improvement in the timely completion of tasks as do high-end, state-of-the-art parallel technologies. The ANN-GA approach to the optimization of environmental remediation strategies is an example of poor mans parallelism: it integrates two well-known computational technologies, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the genetic algorithm (GA), with a simple scheme for exploiting a network of Unix workstations to solve a nonlinear combinatorial optimization problem. Although this work has been motivated by the need to tame a computational tiger rather than to experiment with different flavors of parallelism, the approach has reached a level of maturity where it is instructive to examine how parallelism is embodied in its various components. It also stands as a demonstration of how even resource-lean organizations can take advantage of parallelism to solve problems.
475. ASTM Standards for Reactor Dosimetry and Pressure Vessel Surveillance
• date - 2001-06-19
• creator - GRIFFIN, PATRICK J.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/12715-DToZgX/webviewable/
• description - The ASTM standards provide guidance and instruction on how to field and interpret reactor dosimetry. They provide a roadmap towards understanding the current ''state-of-the-art'' in reactor dosimetry, as reflected by the technical community. The consensus basis to the ASTM standards assures the user of an unbiased presentation of technical procedures and interpretations of the measurements. Some insight into the types of standards and the way in which they are organized can assist one in using them in an expeditious manner. Two example are presented to help orient new users to the breadth and interrelationship between the ASTM nuclear metrology standards. One example involves the testing of a new ''widget'' to verify the radiation hardness. The second example involves quantifying the radiation damage at a pressure vessel critical weld location through surveillance dosimetry and calculation.
476. On-line slurry viscosity and concentration measurement as a real-time waste stream characterization tool. 1997 annual progress report
• date - 2006-03-30
• creator - Powell, R.L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (US). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science]; Shekarriz, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US)]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/13491-1g064N/webviewable/
• description - 'The main scope of this work is to: (1) develop a novel tomographic ultrasonic technique to obtain the real-time distribution of acoustic velocity and flow velocity; (2) use nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) to measure velocity profiles and rheological properties of complex fluids and suspensions; (3) establish a facility for making laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements that can be The overall goal is to obtain real-time rheology and solids concentration within a solid-liquid suspension flowing in a pipeline. To nondestructively obtain the rheology of the fluid flowing in a pipe, accurate measurement of local shear rate distribution is required. This objective was met by using two real-time tomographic techniques: an ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry system and an NMRI system. The first method combines the existing state-of-the-art ultrasonic velocimetry technology base with a novel tomographic concept to non-intrusively obtain high resolution acoustic and flow velocity profile at a section of the flow field. The acoustic velocity profile provides a means of improving the flow velocity measurement accuracy. These data are also, used to yield the profile of solids concentration. In addition, the volumetric flow rate was determined from integration of the velocity profile. From the knowledge of the concentration profile the mass flow rate can also be determined, Similar work was undertaken for the NMNRI system. In this case, single phase Newtonian fluids have been used to model complex rheological behavior. Finally, a LDV system has been purchased and set - up in the laboratory at UC Davis.'
477. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 12, NO. 3, MAY 2001 559 Efficient Source Adaptivity in Independent
• date - 2004-02-10
• creator - Nikos Vlassis,Yoichi Motomura
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/644859.html
• description - A basic element in most ICA algorithms is the choice of a model for the score functions of the unknown sources. While this is usually based on approximations, for large data sets it is possible to achieve source adaptivity' by directly estimating from the data the true' score functions of the sources. In this paper we describe an efficient scheme for achieving this by extending the fast density estimation method of Silverman (1982). We show with a real and a synthetic experiment that our method can provide more accurate solutions than state-of-the-art methods when optimization is carried out in the vicinity of the global minimum of the contrast function.
478. A point-based POMDP algorithm for robot planning
• date - 2004-03-04
• creator - Matthijs T. J. Spaan,Nikos Vlassis
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/646640.html
• description - We present an approximate POMDP solution method for robot planning in partially observable environments. Our algorithm belongs to the family of point-based value iteration solution techniques for POMDPs, in which planning is performed only on a sampled set of reachable belief points. We describe a simple, randomized procedure that performs value update steps that strictly improve the value of all belief points in each step. We demonstrate our algorithm on a robotic delivery task in an office environment and on several benchmark problems, for which we compute solutions that are very competitive to those of state-ofthe -art methods in terms of speed and solution quality.
479. Web Services as the Foundation for Learning Complex Software System Development
• date - 2004-03-05
• creator - Marty Humphrey
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/649926.html
• description - A significant challenge for Computer Science departments is how best to get new graduate students involved with their chosen research projects. Ideally, the incoming graduate students will as a whole have both a solid understanding of computing principles behind large-scale software development and a broad "skill set", e.g., for conducting systems-oriented research. This rarely occurs, due to the diversity of backgrounds of incoming students--even the most qualified applicant can have deficiencies. To address this problem, we have developed a first-year graduate course that balances and integrates practical considerations with basic principles of complex software system development. To make the discussions of designing, implementing, and evaluating complex software systems more concrete, we situate the core of the class in the context of Web Services. We are currently teaching this class for the second time, and, while there will always be open issues given the nature and scope of this class, we have received positive feedback from the students and the other members of the department. Students recognize the practicality of Web Services. Students also appreciate the research possibilities that arise while evaluating the state of the art with regard to Web Services.
480. Christian W. Omlin
• date - 2003-07-07
• creator - Christian W. Omlin
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/651240.html
• description - with tenure) and Head of Intelligent Systems Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Stellenbosch (9/98 - 12/00). Consultant, Adaptive Computing Technologies, Troy, NY 12180 (9/96 - 7/98). Senior Research Scientist, Creative Optics Inc., Bedford, NH 03110 (6/96 - 9/96). NEC Research Institute, Inc., Princeton, N.J. 08540 { Visiting Scientist (postdoc), research on dynamics, computation, knowledge representation in recurrent neural networks, and fuzzy neural networks (1/95-6/96) { Visiting Intern, research on recurrent neural networks (2/92 - 12/94) { Consultant, research on recurrent neural networks (9/91 - 1/92) { Intern, exploration of recurrent neural networks (5/91 - 9/91) Hasler AG (Telecommunications), CH-3000 Berne, Switzerland { Software engineer, software tools and infrastructure (3/87 - 8/87): Provided support for project teams working on state-of-the-art telecommunication and other real-time embedded systems systems. Frequently, support co
• date - 2005-06-23
• creator - Carter, M.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10115017-342pkb/native/
• description - In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.
482. Standard testing procedures for optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair at Sandia National Laboratories
• date - 2005-06-23
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10115336-PkwvJE/native/
• description - This document will establish a working standard for testing optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair cables included in the Lab-wide telecommunications cabling system. The purpose of these standard testing procedures is to deliver to all Sandians a reliable, low-maintenance, state-of-the-art, ubiquitous telecommunications cabling infrastructure capable of satisfying all current and future telecommunication needs.
483. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium
• date - 2005-06-23
• creator - Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]; VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10115441-AajokQ/native/
• description - A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.
484. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report
• date - 2005-06-23
• creator - Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10115504-C6caHA/native/
• description - This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.
485. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report
• date - 2005-06-24
• creator - Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. [eds.]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10122085-R0HJaj/webviewable/
• description - The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.
486. Intra-building telecommunications cabling standards for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico
• date - 2005-06-24
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10122112-AID4hl/native/
• description - This document establishes a working standard for all telecommunications cable installations at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. It is based on recent national commercial cabling standards. The topics addressed are Secure and Open/Restricted Access telecommunications environments and both twisted-pair and optical-fiber components of communications media. Some of the state-of-the-art technologies that will be supported by the intrabuilding cable infrastructure are Circuit and Packet Switched Networks (PBX/5ESS Voice and Low-Speed Data), Local Area Networks (Ethernet, Token Ring, Fiber and Copper Distributed Data Interface), and Wide Area Networks (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). These technologies can be delivered to every desk and can transport data at rates sufficient to support all existing applications (such as Voice, Text and graphics, Still Images, Full-motion Video), as well as applications to be defined in the future.
487. Error analysis of the quartic nodal expansion method for slab geometry
• date - 2005-06-24
• creator - Penland, R.C.; Turinsky, P.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]; Azmy, Y.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10122628-EeKpyF/webviewable/
• description - This paper presents an analysis of the quartic polynomial Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) for one-dimensional neutron diffusion calculations. As part of an ongoing effort to develop an adaptive mesh refinement strategy for use in state-of-the-art nodal kinetics codes, we derive a priori error bounds on the computed solution for uniform meshes and validate them using a simple test problem. Predicted error bounds are found to be greater than computed maximum absolute errors by no more than a factor of six allowing mesh size selection to reflect desired accuracy. We also quantify the rapid convergence in the NEM computed solution as a function of mesh size.
488. Feature discovery in gray level imagery for one-class object recognition
• date - 2005-06-24
• creator - Koch, M.W.; Moya, M.M.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10122680-Xd4gCH/native/
• description - Feature extraction transforms an objects image representation to an alternate reduced representation. In one-class object recognition, we would like this alternate representation to give improved discrimination between the object and all possible non-objects and improved generation between different object poses. Feature selection can be time-consuming and difficult to optimize so we have investigated unsupervised neural networks for feature discovery. We first discuss an inherent limitation in competitive type neural networks for discovering features in gray level images. We then show how Sangers Generalized Hebbian Algorithm (GHA) removes this limitation and describe a novel GHA application for learning object features that discriminate the object from clutter. Using a specific example, we show how these features are better at distinguishing the target object from other nontarget object with Carpenters ART 2-A as the pattern classifier.
489. Published in Neural Computation, 5(2):469-485, Feb2003
• date - 2004-02-10
• creator - J. J. Verbeek,N. Vlassis,B. Krose
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/653153.html
• description - This paper concerns the greedy learning of Gaussian mixtures. In the greedy approach, mixture components are inserted into the mixture one after the other. We propose a heuristic for searching for the optimal component to insert. In a randomized manner a set of candidate new components is generated. For each of these candidates we find the locally optimal new component. The best local optimum is then inserted into the existing mixture. The resulting algorithm resolves the sensitivity to initialization of state-of-the-art methods, like EM, and has running time linear in the number of data points and quadratic in the (final) number of mixture components. Due to its greedy nature the algorithm can be particularly useful when the optimal number of mixture components is unknown. Experimental results comparing the proposed algorithm to other methods on density estimation and texture segmentation are provided.
490. Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough
• date - 2002-02-26
• creator - Miguel E. Ruiz,Donald H. Kraft,Jianhua Chen,Padmini Srinivasan
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/655048.html
• description - Vocabulary mining in information retrieval refers to the utilization of the domain vocabulary towards improving the user's query. Most often queries posed to information retrieval systems are not optimal for retrieval purposes. Vocabulary mining allows one to generalize, specialize or perform other kinds of vocabulary based transformations on the query in order to improve retrieval performance. This paper investigates a new framework for vocabulary mining that derives from the combination of rough sets and fuzzy sets. The framework allows one to use rough set based approximations even when the documents and queries are described using weighted, i.e. fuzzy representations. The paper also explores the application of generalized rough sets and the variable precision models. The problem of coordination between multiple vocabulary views is also examined. Finally, a preliminary analysis of issues that arise when applying the proposed vocabulary mining framework to the Uni ed Medical Language System (a state of the art vocabulary system), is presented. The proposed framework supports the systematic study and application of dierent vocabulary views in information retrieval.
491. Enriching the Output of a Parser Using Memory-Based Learning
• date - 2004-06-01
• creator - Valentin Jijkoun,Maarten De Rijke
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/658010.html
• description - We describe a method for enriching the output of a parser with information available in a corpus. The method is based on graph rewriting using memorybased learning, applied to dependency structures. This general framework allows us to accurately recover both grammatical and semantic information as well as non-local dependencies. It also facilitates dependency-based evaluation of phrase structure parsers. Our method is largely independent of the choice of parser and corpus, and shows state of the art performance.
492. From the Editor Herding Cats in the Midst of the Swinging Pendulum
• date - 2000-01-04
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/663497.html
• description - her way. It was accelerated by the poor performance of United States students on internationally standardized tests in mathematics and science. This led to, among other things, an emphasis on standards of learning and achievement test performance. The pendulum has probably not yet reached the full extent of its swing toward a highly structured, accountability-driven curriculum. Elective courses in art and music are still struggling for enrollment, for example. But if we believe in the tenets of historians, in due time the pendulum will reverse its direction and begin, once again, its inevitable travel in the opposite direction. The swinging of the pendulum from one philosophical extreme to the other provides balance of thought and well being to our social and political systems, just as the swinging pendulum provides a balance of forces and allows a clock to operate properly. One of the differences, though, in today's swinging pendulum is the computer. It will no doubt uniquely and dram
493. Instrumented Sensor System Architecture
• date - 1998-01-12
• creator - Mohamed Dekhil,Thomas C. Henderson
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/667279.html
• description - Sensor systems are becoming ubiquitous throughout society, yet their design, construction and operation are still more of an art than a science. In this paper, we define, develop, and apply a formal semantics for sensor systems that provides a theoretical framework for an integrated software architecture for modeling sensor-based control systems. Our goal is to develop a design framework which allows the user to model, analyze and experiment with different versions of a sensor system. This includes the ability to build and modify multisensor systems and to monitor and debug both the output of the system and the affect of any modification in terms of robustness, efficiency, and error measures. The notion of Instrumented Logical Sensor Systems (ILSS) that are derived from this modeling and design methodology is introduced. The instrumented sensor approach is based on a sensori-computational model which defines the components of the sensor system in terms of their functionality, accuracy, robustness and efficiency. This approach provides a uniform specification language to define sensor systems as a composition of smaller, predefined components. From a software engineering standpoint, this addresses the issues of modularity, reusability, and reliability for building complex systems. An example is given which compares vision and sonar techniques for the recovery of wall pose.
494. Collaborative Tools in the Semantic Grid
• date - 2004-05-04
• creator - Michelle Bachler,Simon Buckingham Shum,Marc Eisenstadt,Jiri Komzak,Jessica Chen-burger,Jeff Dalton,Stephen Potter,Austin Tate,David De Roure,Danius Michaelides,Nigel Shadbolt
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/667626.html
• description - The CoAKTinG project aims to advance the state of the art in collaborative mediated spaces for distributed e-Science. The project is integrating several knowledge based and hypertext tools into existing collaborative environments, and through use of a shared ontology to exchange structure, promotes enhanced process tracking and navigation of resources before, after, and while a meeting occurs. This paper provides an overview of the CoAKTinG tools, the ontology that connects them, and current research activities.
495. Environmental Scan of Pricing Models for Online Content
• date - 2001-11-01
• creator - Darimont, Albert W.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/204/
496. Learning On Location Curriculum and International Contexts
• date - 2005-01-01
• creator - Giannini, Tula
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/676/
• description - This is a presentation (of 10 slides) on Tuesday January 11, 2005 in the session sponsored by the Curriculum SIG titled "Preparing Students for the International Information Society: Studying the Global Context in LIS" at the 2005 ALISE Conference, Boston, MA. The experiences of the students and the instructor in the first Summer Institute in Florence-2004 "Florentine Art and Culture, Resources and Documentationâ€� offered by Pratt-SILS are candidly discussed. As part of this course students had access four libraries in Florence: Uffizi, the Biblioteca Nazionale, the Medici and Harvard's Berenson Library. Cultural Informatics is explored.
497. A Modeling Approach for Evaluating Network Impacts of Operational-Level Transportation Projects
• date - 2000-05-26
• creator - Diekmann, Joshua James
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05232000-14570051/
• description - This thesis presents the use of microscopic traffic simulation models to evaluate the effects of operational-level transportation projects such as ITS. A detailed framework outlining the construction and calibration of microscopic simulation models is provided, as well as the considerations that must be made when analyzing the outputs from these models. Two case studies are used to reinforce the concepts presented. In addition, these case studies give valuable insight for using the outlined approach under real-world conditions. The study indicates a promising future for the use of microsimulation models for the purpose of evaluating operational-level projects, as the theoretical framework of the models is sound, and the computational strategies used are feasible. There are, however, instances where simulation models do not presently model certain phenomena, or where simulation models are too computationally intensive. Comprehensive models that integrate microscopic simulation with land use planning and realistic predictions of human behavior, for instance, cannot practically be modeled in contemporary simulation packages. Other than these instances, the largest obstacles to using simulation packages were found to be the manpower required and the complexity of constructing a model. Continuing research efforts and increasing computer speeds are expected to resolve the former issues. Both of the latter concerns are alleviated by the approach presented herein. Within the approach framework detailed in this thesis, particular emphasis is given to the calibration aspects of constructing a microscopic simulation model. Like the simulation process as a whole, calibration is both an art and a science, and relies on sound engineering judgement rather than indiscriminate, formulaic processes.
498. SCENARIO-BASED GENERATION OF DIGITAL LIBRARY SERVICES
• date - 2003-07-21
• creator - Kelapure, Rohit Dilip
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-06182003-055012/
• description - With the enormous amount of information being created digitally or converted to digital formats and made available through Digital Libraries (DLs), there is a strong demand for building tailored DL services to attend the preferences and needs of diverse targeted communities. However,construction and adaptation of such services takes significant effort when not assisted by methodologies, tools, and environments that support the complete life cycle of DL development,including requirements gathering, conceptual modeling, rapid prototyping, and code generation/reuse. With current systems, these activities are only partially supported, generally in an uncorrelated way that may lead to inconsistencies and incompleteness. Moreover, such existing approaches are not buttressed by comprehensive and formal foundations and theories. To address these issues we describe the development, implementation, and deployment of a new generic digital library generator yielding implementations of digital library services from models of DL societies and scenarios. The distinct aspects of our solution are: 1) an approach based on a formal, theoretical framework; 2) use of state-of-the-art database and software engineering techniques such as domain-specific declarative languages, scenario-synthesis, and componentized and model-driven architectures; 3) analysis centered on scenario-based design and DL societal relationships; 4) automatic transformations and mappings from scenarios to workflow designs and from these to Java implementations; and 5) special attention paid to issues of simplicity of implementation, modularity, reusability, and extensibility. We demonstrate the feasibility of the approach through a number of examples.
499. A Hybrid Dynamically Adaptive, Super-Spatio Temporal Resolution Digital Particle Image Velocimetry for Multi-Phase Flows
• date - 2002-09-16
• creator - Abiven, Claude
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-07152002-202802/
• description - A unique, super spatio-temporal resolution Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) system with capability of resolving velocities in a multi-phase flow field, using a very sophisticated novel Dynamically Adaptive Hybrid velocity evaluation algorithm has been developed The unique methodology of this powerful system is presented, its specific distinctions are enlightened, confirming its flexibility, and its superior performance is established by comparing it to the most established best DPIV software implementations currently available. Taking advantage of the most recent advances in imaging technology coupled with state of the art image processing tools, high-performing validation schemes including neural networks, as well as a hybrid digital particle tracking velocimeter (DPTV), the foundation for a unique system was developed. The presented software enables one to effectively resolve tremendously demanding flow-fields. The resolution of challenging test cases including high speed cavitating underwater projectiles as well as high pressure spray demonstrate the power of the developed device.
500. User-Centered Critical Parameters for Design Specification, Evaluation, and Reuse: Modeling Goals and Effects of Notification Systems
• date - 2005-08-25
• creator - Chewar, Christa M
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-07182005-162358/
501. Space: Working and Living
• date - 2000-07-20
• creator - Mahajan, Pankaj
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-07202000-10560057/
• description - <P>what is architecture?<p> <p>what defines space?</p> <p>how do you define separation and integration of spaces?</p> <p>what is the relationship of human scale to space elements?</p> <p>how can architecture be studied?</p> <p>Architecture is an combination of science and art to make spaces for human needs and activities. What can an architect do to make a project, a building, not only serve its purpose but to go beyond that? A space supports human desire and imagination. Architecture provides the means and methods to make the spaces. The elements of the structure, column, wall, beam, and floor, play a very important role in defining and/or dividing a space. A room can be defined by four walls, columns or even beams. The material of the floor also outlines space. Walls, a series of columns, or ceiling beams can define an edge or enclose space and differentiate its meaning and function. The understanding of these elements and their relationship with each other and with people is the purpose of this study.</p> <p>In an urban situation often there is a need to design buildings with spaces for multiple activities. Separation of spaces and functions, as well as integration of different parts, is vital in such a design. Columns and walls enclose the space and characterize privacy. Their material and its characteristics make the edges of space opaque, transparent or semitransparent. The dimensions of columns and beams show the scale of the space, constraining the relationship of the people to the structural elements.</p>
502. Stuff of Life
• date - Available: 2005-06-23;
• creator - Exploratorium Staff
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://nsdl.exploratorium.edu/nsdl/showRecord.do?id=10883
• description - This resource focuses on cells as the essence of life itself. This Web page provides links to four pages that allow exploration of cells. You can explore the inner working so a cell with "The Cell Explorer," a set of interactive exhibits. You can download a pdf of a poster showing how your muscles contract. An interview with scientist/artist David Goodsell points out connections between art and science. An article discusses stem cells and their unique characteristics.
503. Mechanical Models : A Series of Working Models on the Art and Science of Mechanics
504. ÃŸ's in Strongly Coupled Supersymmetry
• date - 1998-05-24
• creator - Andrew G. Cohen,David B. Kaplan,Ann E. Nelson
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/154253.html
• description - We extend the "naive dimensional analysis" arguments used in QCD for estimating the strengths of operators in chiral Lagrangians to strongly coupled supersymmetric theories. In particular, we show how to count factors of 4ÃŸ---an inexact science, but nevertheless a useful art when such theories are used to model real particle physics. 1 Introduction Recently there has been a surge of interest in constructing models of new physics in terms of strongly coupled supersymmetry (SUSY). These strong interactions typically produce dynamical SUSY breaking, composite quarks and leptons, or both [1, 2]. The low energy descriptions of such models inevitably involve an effective field theory, an expansion in local operators with unknown coefficients. Discussions of the phenomenology of such models require estimates of the sizes of the operator coefficients which control parameters of direct experimental interest, such as squark and gaugino masses, CKM mixing angles, etc. Usually we are thwarted i...
505. The KR System dlv: Progress Report, Comparisons and Benchmarks
• date - 1998-08-13
• creator - Thomas Eiter,Nicola Leone,Cristinel Mateis,Gerald Pfeifer,Tu Wien,Francesco Scarcello
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/28470.html
• description - dlv is a knowledge representation system, based on disjunctive logic programming, which offers frontends to several advanced KR formalisms. The system has been developed since one year at the Technical University of Vienna in an ongoing project funded by the Austrian Science Funds. After a report on the current state of the art in the implementation of dlv and of its application front-ends, the paper compares dlv with other knowledge representation systems. Both a qualitative and a quantitative comparison are carried out. The first compares the representational power of the systems (intended as the ability to represent problems in a natural and simple fashion). The latter compares the performances of the systems. The dlv system turns out to be very powerful from the knowledge representation side and, on the other hand, quite good also in computational power. Keywords: Implemented KR&R Systems: Reports, Comparisons, Evaluations. 1 INTRODUCTION The extension of logic programming by d...
506. Toward A Synthetic Cognitive Paradigm: Probabilistic Inference
• date - 1991-10-08
• creator - Pierre Bessire
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/285747.html
• description - : Cognitive science is a very active field of scientific interest. It turns out to be a "melting pot" of ideas coming from very different areas. One of the principal hopes is that some synthetic cognitive paradigms will emerge from this interdisciplinary "brain storming". The goal of this paper is to answer the question: "Given the state of the art, is there any hints indicating the emergence of such synthetic paradigms?" The main thesis of the paper is that there is a good candidate, namely, the probabilistic inference paradigm. In support of the above thesis the structure of the paper is as follows: - in a first part, we identify five criteria to qualify as a synthetic cognitive paradigm (validity, self consistency, competence, feasibility and mimetic power); - in the second paragraph, the principles of probabilistic inference are reviewed and justifications of validity and self consistency of this paradigm are given (Marr's computational level); - then, the competence criterion...
507. Linear Congruential Generators for Parallel Monte-Carlo: the Leap-Frog Case.
• date - 1999-03-01
• creator - K. Entacher,A. Uhl,S. Wegenkittl
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/28923.html
• description - In this paper we consider parallel streams of pseudorandom numbers (PRNs) which are obtained by splitting linear congruential generators (LCGs) using the leap-frog technique. We employ the spectral test to compute an a priori figure of merit which rates the amount of correlation that is present in such sequences for given step size and dimension. It is shown that for some widely used LCGs there exist practically relevant splitting parameters such that the according parallel streams have poor quality. As can be seen from a sample MonteCarlo integration study, these theoretical findings have high practical importance. 1 Introduction Parallel computations in the field of stochastic simulation (e.g. [14, 9]) require a source of pseudorandom numbers (PRNs) which can be distributed among the single processing units. This is most efficiently achieved by assigning a generator to each such processing unit [15]. In order to be able to Research supported by the Austrian Science Foundation (FW...
508. Progress in the Numerical Solution of the Nonsymmetric Eigenvalue Problem
• date - 1997-09-02
• creator - Dedicated To W. Kahan,Zhaojun Bai
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/30347.html
• description - With the growing demands from disciplinary and interdisciplinary fields of science and engineering for the numerical solution of the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem, competitive new techniques have been developed for solving the problem. In this paper, we examine the start-of-the-art of the algorithmic techniques and the software scene for the problem. Some current developments are also outlined. 1 Introduction Over several years working on the LAPACK project [2], and on algorithm and software development of the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem and communication with a variety of users who work in diverse fields involving scientific computing, the author have seen a growing demand for the numerical solution of the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problems. Meanwhile, in numerical analysis community, since Parlett's exploratory review paper entitled "The Software Scene in the Extraction of Eigenvalues from Sparse Matrices" [34] nearly one decade ago, and with the successful development of the sy...
509. Estimating Density Functions: A Constrained Maximum Likelihood Approach
• date - 1999-06-13
• creator - Michael X. Dong,Roger J-b Wets
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/382938.html
• description - . We propose estimating density functions by means of a constrained optimization problem whose criterion function is the maximum likelihood function, and whose constraints model any (prior) information that might be available. The asymptotic justification for such an approach relies on the theory of epiconvergence. A simple numerical example is used to signal the potential of such an approach. Key Words: constrained maximum likelihood estimation, consistency, epi-convergence, Mosco-epi-convergence, ae-epi-distance. Date: June 21, 1996 y Research supported in part by a grant of the National Science Foundation 1 The problem is to find an estimate h of a density h 0 : Xi ! IR + associated with a random variable , given iid observations 1 ; 2 ; : : : ; , and any prior information that might be available about the random phenomena modeled by . Quite a number of procedures have been suggested to deal with this primary statistical question. They come in two basic flavors:...
510. Robot navigation in the real world: Experiments with Manchester's FortyTwo in unmodified, large environments
• date - 2000-11-17
• creator - Ulrich Nehmzow,Carl Owen
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/383749.html
• description - Mobile robot navigation under controlled laboratory conditions is, by now, state of the art and reliably achievable. To transfer navigation mechanisms used in such small-scale environments to applications in untreated, large environments, however, is not trivial, and typically requires modifications to the original navigation mechanism: scaling up is hard. In this paper, we discuss the difficulties of mobile robot navigation in general, the various options to achieve navigation in large environments, and experiments with Manchester's FortyTwo, which investigate how scaling up of navigational competencies can be achieved. We were particularly interested in autonomous mobile robot navigation in unmodified, large and varied environments, without the aid of pre-installed maps or supplied CAD models of the environment. This paper presents a general approach to achieve this. FortyTwo regularly travels the corridors of the Department of Computer Science at Manchester University, using topol...
511. Convergence Of Probability Measures Revisited *
• date - 1999-04-13
• creator - Gabriella Salinetti,Roger J-b Wets
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/384717.html
• description - . The hypo-convergence of upper semicontinuous functions provides a natural framework for the study of the convergence of probability measures. This approach also yields some further characterizations of weak convergence and equi-tightness. Keywords: Narrow (weak, weak*) convergence, epi-convergence Date: April 2, 1987 Printed: April 13, 1999 * This research was supported in part by MPI, Projects: "Calcolo Stocastico e Sistemi Dinamici Statistici" and "Modelli Probabilistic" 1984, and by the National Science Foundation. 1 1. ABOUT CONTINUITY AND MEASURABILITY A probabilistic structure ---a space of possible events, a sigma-field of (observable) subcollections of events, and a probability measure defined on this sigma-field--- does not have a built-in topological structure. This is the source of many technical difficulties in the development of Probability Theory, in particular in the theory of stochastic processes. Much progress was made, in reconciling the measure-theoretic a...
512. Why Recognition in a Statistics-based Face Recognition System Should be based on the Pure Face Portion: a Probabilistic Decision-based Proof
• date - 2000-07-17
• creator - Li-fen Chenx,Hong-yuan Mark Liaoz
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/384818.html
• description - It is evident that the process of face recognition, by definition, should be based on the content of a face. The problem is: what is a "face"? Recently, a state-of-the-art statistics-based face recognition system, the PCA plus LDA approach, has been proposed [1]. However, the authors used "face" images that included hair, shoulders, face and background. Our intuition tells us that only a recognition process based on a "pure" face portion can be called face recognition. The mixture of irrelevant data may result in an incorrect set of decision boundaries. In this paper, we propose a statistics-based technique to quantitatively prove our assertion. For the purpose of evaluating how the This work was supported by the National Science Council under grant no. NSC87-2213-E-001-025. y To whom correspondence should be sent. 1 different portions of a face image will influence the recognition results, a hypothesis testing model is proposed. We then implement the above mentioned face ...
513. Statistical Estimation From An Optimization Viewpoint
• date - 1998-08-17
• creator - Roger J-b Wets
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/385939.html
• description - . Statistics and Optimization have been closely linked from the very outset. The search for a best' estimator (least squares, maximum likelihood, etc.) certainly relies on optimization tools. On the other hand, Statistics has often provided the motivation for the development of algorithmic procedures for certain classes of optimization problems. However, it's only relatively recently, more specifically in connection with the development of an approximation and sampling theory for stochastic programming problems, that the full connection has come to light. This in turn suggests a more comprehensive approach to the formulation of statistical estimation questions. This expository paper reviews some of the features of this approach. Key Words: constrained maximum likelihood estimation, consistency, epi-convergence Date: June 30, 1998 y Research supported in part by a grant of the National Science Foundation 1 1. Introduction From their inception Statistics and Optimization have been t...
514. One-Stage Models
• date - 1999-03-18
• creator - Pravin Varaiya,Roger J-b Wets
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/386215.html
• description - (z) 0; i = 1; : : : ; s; h i (z) = 0; i = s + 1; : : : ; mg; and minimizes Efh 0 (Delta; )g on S. Of course, this is just a special instance of a nonlinear programming problem. Indeed, after integration, the objective can be rewritten as minimize Eh 0 (z); 1 Supported in part by grants of the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research 1 where for each z, Eh 0 (z) := Z Xi h 0 (z; ) dP (): Such a function is called an expectation functional; the study of its properties is a major t
515. Picking Knots from Trees - The Syntactic Structure of Celtic Knotwork
• date - 2000-07-19
• creator - Frank Drewes
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/389290.html
• description - . Interlacing knotwork forms a signicant part of celtic art. From the perspective of computer science, it is a visual language following mathematically precise rules of construction. In this paper, we study the syntactic generation of celtic knots using collage grammars. Several syntactic regulation mechanisms are employed in order to ensure that only consistent designs are generated. 1 Introduction A typical characteristic of visual languages is that the diagrams in such a language are related by a common structure and layout. In other words, the language is dened by a set of syntactic visual rules yielding the acceptable pictures. Formal picture-generating methods help to understand the structure of the languages in question, to classify them, and to generate them automatically by means of computer programs. Fig. 1. A celtic knot Artists from many cultures have been using visual rules since ancient times in order to design diagrams of various sorts. Celtic diagrams, and in ...
516. Symmetry - A Review
• date - 1998-11-16
• creator - Hagit Zabrodsky
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/390973.html
• description - Symmetry has been dealt with in a wide variety of fields in both art and science. Symmetry and asymmetry as aesthetic features have been used in architecture, sculptures and paintings. Symmetry and symmetric groups have been defined in mathematics [31]. Symmetry and it's compliment feature Chirality are basic properties of molecular structure that mediate chemical properties [29]. Though symmetry can be discussed in different aspects, in this paper psychophysical aspects of spatial visual symmetry are reviewed. 1 1 Preattentive Symmetry Symmetry is a basic precategorical (preattentive) feature as are size, brightness, color, movement etc. That is, it is a fast processed feature (requiring less than 1 sec for detecting [10, 33]) and precedes processing of form shape and structure which are required for registration in short term memory and recall [2, 35, 14, 16]. HOWE [14] requested subjects to declare symmetry, if existed, in simple dot patterns which were visually displayed t...
517. Non Linear Behaviour in Learning Processes
• date - 2003-01-01
• creator - Manfredi, Vicenzo Rosario
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00000128/
• description - This article is mainly based on R. E. Kahn's contribution to the book Non Linear Dynamics in Human Behavior. As stressed by Bronowski, both in art and in science, a person becomes creative by finding "a new unity" that is a link between things which were not thought alike before. Indeed the creative mind is a mind that looks for unexpected likeness finding a more profound unity, a pattern behind chaotic phenomena. In the context of scientific discovery, it can also be argued that creativity is linked to a search in a space of hypotheses and a space of experiments. This "Dual Search" involves the formation of new hypotheses and new experiments which are then linked by a comparison of the prediciton derived from a hypothesis with the results obtained from the experiment. Enclosed: Appendix 1 Chaotic Phenomena, Appendix 2 The Logistic Map Appendix 3 Lorenz Model
518. Challenges of Electronic Resources: State of the Art and Unresolved Issues [English version presented at the International Conference] = Le sfide delle risorse elettroniche: stato dellâ€™arte e problemi irrisolti [Versione italiana presentata alla Conferenza internazionale]
• date - 2001-01-01
• creator - Byrum, John D. Jr.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00000341/
• description - [English abstract] As the first year of the new millennium comes to an end, we are well into an era that has revolutionized the theory and practice of library and information science. Anyone who entered the profession before the early 1990s could not have been prepared for what has followed the birth and proliferation of what we currently call "electronic resources". The overwhelming and every expanding mass of material technologically available on the Internet has been especially daunting to the profession. According to studies conducted by staff at OCLC, by June 30, 2001, the public Web includes more than 3.1 million sites, a six percent increase over last yearâ€™s total. The Web as a whole grew by 18 percent, reaching a total of nearly 9 million sites. Even though the OCLC study reveals that the rate of expansion has begun to slow down, the sheer magnitude of material already on the Web and being posted there each and every day presents an unprecedented challenge to the profession in terms of traditional responsibility to organize, provide access to, and preserve information. As another measure, the Internet Archive now has more than 10 billion entries, dating from 1996 and growing at a rate of 10 terabytes per month, thereby eclipsing the amount of data contained in every library in the world, including the Library of Congress. [Italian abstract] Mentre i primi anni del nuovo millennio volgono alla fine noi ci ritroviamo parte di unâ€™era che ha rivoluzionato teoria e pratica della biblioteconomia. Chiunque abbia iniziato la professione prima degli anni â€™90 non avrebbe certo potuto essere preparato a cioâ€™ che ha originato la nascita e la proliferazione di quelle che noi chiamiamo "risorse elettroniche". La massa di materiale disponibile in Internet, travolgente e in espansione, eâ€™ stata motivo di timori per la nostra professione. Secondo studi condotti dallo staff di OCLC, al 30 Giugno 2001, il "public Web" includeva piuâ€™ di 3.1 milioni di siti, dimostrando un incremento del 6% rispetto allâ€™anno precedente. Il Web nel suo insieme eâ€™ cresciuto del 18%, raggiungendo un totale di circa 9 milioni di siti. Sebbene lo studio di OCLC dimostri che crescita in percentuale cominci a diminuire, lâ€™enormitaâ€™ del materiale giaâ€™ presente sul Web e accumulabile giorno per giorno costituisce una sfida senza precedenti per la professione chiamata alla tradizionale responsabilitaâ€™ di organizzare, fornire accesso e preservare lâ€™informazione. Altro dato significativo: lâ€™archiv
519. METALIS, an OAI Service Provider
• date - 2005-01-01
• creator - Tajoli, Zeno
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00003612/
• description - METALIS is an OAI Service Provider for the Library and Information Science field. This paper describes the metadata harvesting process and the crosswalks designed to homogenize metadata, the web interface of the Service Provider METALIS and the OpenUrl usage. To homogenize metadata it is necessary to analyse the OAI-PMH output of Data Providers and write ad hoc crosswalks. In particular METALIS homogenizes the fields with subjects, source archives, languages, types of material. As for the web interface, this paper shows how it is structured. As far as the OpenUrl usage is concerned, METALIS offers an innovative service, reversing the standard use of finding full-text versions (that are already available at the connected repositories) and providing a tool to find online resources that have a relation with the results found during the search.
520. Die Open Access â€“ Bewegung und ihre Rezeption an wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken in Ã–sterreich
• date - 2004-01-01
• creator - Turnovsky, Petra
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00003737/
• description - [English abstract] As a reaction to the serials crisis a movement has formed, which aims at open and charge free access to scientific literature in the internet. Open Access can be achieved by selfarchiving or by open access journals, which are financed by author payments. This master thesis provides a survey about the current state of the art of the movement, about the different conditions in the scientific disciplines and the networked initiatives. The situation is considered from the librariesâ€™ point of view, focusing on science libraries in Austria. The instruments for retrieval were identified as a week point. An additional obstacle for Open Access is the importance of the citation rate when scientific publications are evaluated. Due to the installation of e-print-servers a new assignment for libraries has developed. [German abstract] Als Reaktion auf die Zeitschriftenkrise hat sich eine Bewegung formiert, deren Ziel der offene und kostenfreie Zugang zu wissenschaftlicher Literatur im Internet ist. Open Access kann mittels Selbstarchivierung oder durch Open Access Zeitschriften, die sich durch AutorenbeitrÃ¤ge finanzieren, geschaffen werden. Diese Masterthese bietet einen Ãœberblick Ã¼ber den aktuellen Stand der Bewegung, die unterschiedlichen Voraussetzungen in den wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen und die vernetzten Initiativen. Die Betrachtung erfolgt aus der Sicht der Bibliotheken. Die Instrumente zum Retrieval werden als Schwachpunkt identifiziert. Ein weiteres Hindernis fÃ¼r Open Access ist die Bedeutung der Zitationsrate bei der Bewertung wissenschaftlicher Arbeiten. Durch die Einrichtung von Publikationsservern entsteht ein neues Aufgabengebiet fÃ¼r Bibliotheken. Eine Untersuchung der Websites wissenschaftlicher Bibliotheken in Ã–sterreich zeigt, dass die Open Access Bewegung in Ã–sterreich bisher wenig Beachtung gefunden hat. Zum Vergleich wurden die Websites einiger Bibliotheken aus Deutschland, der Schweiz und dem englischsprachigen Raum herangezogen. Daraus werden VorschlÃ¤ge zum bibliothekarischen Umgang mit Open Access abgeleitet.
521. Biblioterapia : atividades de leitura desenvolvidas por acadÃªmicos do Curso de Biblioteconomia da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
• date - 2005-01-01
• creator - Fortkamp Caldin, Clarice
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00004710/
522. Modern Kurumlarda Bir Denetim AracÄ± Olarak Belge YÃ¶netimi ve Ãœlkemizdeki Durum
• date - 2000-01-01
• creator - KÃ¼lcÃ¼, Ã–zgÃ¼r
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00005775/
• description - [Turkish Abstract]20. yÃ¼zyÄ±lÄ±n ikinci yarÄ±sÄ±ndan itibaren kurumlarÄ±n Ã¼rettikleri ya da saÄŸladÄ±klarÄ± belgelere yÃ¶nelik program geliÅŸtirme Ã§alÄ±ÅŸmalarÄ± da hÄ±zlanmÄ±ÅŸtÄ±r. Belgelerin Ã¼retiminden son ayÄ±klanmasÄ±na kadar her aÅŸamada denetim altÄ±na alÄ±nmasÄ±yla kurumsal etkinliÄŸin artÄ±ÅŸÄ±nÄ±n saÄŸlanmasÄ± doÄŸru orantÄ±lÄ±dÄ±r. Belgeleri her evrede programlÄ± bir ÅŸekilde ele alan belge yÃ¶netimi iÃ§erisinde denetimin Ã¶nemli bir yeri vardÄ±r. Kurumsal belgeler iÃ§in bir denetim aracÄ± olarak belge yÃ¶netimi, belgelerin yaÅŸam dÃ¶ngÃ¼sÃ¼ iÃ§erisinde her evrede dogru tanÄ±mlanmasÄ± ve etkin kullanÄ±mÄ±nÄ± amaÃ§lar. Bu amaÃ§, belgelerin gerekli anda dogru yerde Ã¼retimi, dÃ¼zenlenmesi ve imhasÄ± iÃ§in geliÅŸtirilen programlar ile belgelerin uygun ortamda, gereksinimlere gÃ¶re dÃ¼zenlenipdenetim altÄ±na alÄ±nmasÄ±nÄ± saÄŸlamaktÄ±r. [English Abstract]Since the second half of the twentieth century, efforts to control records produced or provided by organizations have accelerated. The control of the records each cycle from production to the final sorting out is a direct relationwith the increase in organizational activities.Control has an important role for records which treats records in a plan-ned manner at every phase. As a control instrument for instituational re-cords, records management aimed to gain accurate definition and efficientuse of records all through their life cycle. This aim will be gain, developed with a programme, view to creating, arranging and destroying records ensure that the records are arranged and controlled at the right time, in the suitable environment and as is necessary.
523. Open and Free Access to biomedical validated scientific knowledge at Inserm
• date - 2003-01-01
• creator - Oudet, Pierre
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00000787/
• description - Many in the French scientific arena cannot afford the journals they feel are required. INSERM is therefore examining whether they can circumnavigate the problem for the science they support by pioneering a service that will make all of the results of their funded research available for free. This published and unpublished research will be further linked to other data to offer a web of material that can be better used. Presentation at the Conference "Open Access to Scientific and Technical Information: State of the Art and Future Trends" (Paris, 23-24 January 2003).
524. Libre accÃ¨s
• date - 2003-01-01
• creator - Velterop, Johannes (Jan) JM
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00000867/
• description - In order to do justice to the collective and universal nature of science, the free exchange of research results is nothing less than imperative. This can only mean free and open access to these results. Before the Internet, the physical limitations of print made universal open access a practical impossibility. But now that the internet is proving to be such a useful instrument of disseminating information, these physical constraints have disappeared. Left are only the economic constructs of subscriptions and licences, which are relics of the past, when they were the appropriate models for print publications. Publishing is, of course, not without costs. BioMed Central is pioneering a so-called 'input-paid' publishing model that recoups the costs from article processing charges rather than subscriptions or licences. The resulting 'open access' to scientific literature delivers maximum visibility and impact in addition to increased speed of publication and dramatically lower costs to the community. The textual version of this presentation at the Conference "Open Access to Scientific and Technical Information: State of the Art and Future Trends" (Paris, 23-24 January 2003) was published with the title 'Open Access Publishing' in "Information Services and Use", vol. 23 (2003), issue 2-3, p. 113-115.
525. On the open access strategy of the Max Planck Society
• date - 2004-01-01
• creator - Velden, Theresa
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00000996/
• description - Heinz Nixdorf Center for Information Management in the Max Planck Society was founded in 2001, situated in Garching/Munich. Its mission is to innovate the management of scientific information in MPS, to enable institutes and society to shape future of scholarly communication. Its firs t projects were: Max Planck Virtual Library http://vlib.mpg.de, Institutional Repository http://edoc.mpg.de, Pilot projects: Primary Source Collections (History of Science, History of Art) Living Reviews Journal Family http://www.livingreviews.org and ePublishing Tools http://www.zim.mpg.de/projects/
526. A Guide To Tax Policy Analysis: Problems With Distributional Tax Tables
• date - 2000-06-12
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/409539.html
• description - The analysis of tax policy and tax legislation can be "highly conjectural" and consequently more art than science. Tables and figures detailing revenue effects and distribution of burdens associated with projected outcomes of proposed tax legislation are often presented in ways that distort or fail to disclose information regarding the economic outcomes. Additionally, some of these tables are based on data sources that are statistically compromised and for which statistical measures of accuracy are impossible to calculate. Furthermore, the public is often not informed as to the limitations inherent in the information. Members of Congress, students of tax analysis, the media and ordinary citizens seeking to understand the economic effects of proposed tax legislation are inundated with revenue estimates and distributional tables that often obscure the economic issues and hinder the policy process. i A GUIDE TO TAX POLICY ANALYSIS: PROBLEMS WITH DISTRIBUTIONAL TAX TABLES EXE...
527. BPR in Norway - The Passing of a Management Fad?
• date - 2000-08-01
• creator - L. Svensson,U. Snis,C. Srensen,H. Fgerlind,T. Lindroth,M. Magnusson,C. Stlund (eds,Jarle Brosveet
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/412624.html
• description - The adaptation of BPR in Norway can be documented mainly through the works of writers such as Willoch and Iden. To various degrees they offer an eclectic approach to BPR compared with the original writings of Hammer and Davenport. In particular, they gave BPR a bias towards computer science methods by adopting features from traditional systems engineering as well as from a socio-technical approach stressing human factors. However, as the 1990s drew to a close, a new textbook on ICT business strategies contributed to the reassessment of BPR as a state-of-the-art management technique. Keywords: BPR, Business Process Re-engineering, systems engineering, organization, management strategies 1. Introduction Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) as defined by Michael Hammer is "the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of an entire business system---business processes, job definition, organizational structures, management and measurement systems, values and beliefs---to achieve dramat...
528. Genetic and Evolutionary Algorithms in the Real World
• date - 1999-03-31
• creator - David E. Goldberg
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/395298.html
• description - Introduction Since 1992, I have made regular trips to Japan to give talks about genetic algorithms (GAs)---search procedures based on the mechanics of natural selection and genetics. Back during my first visit, the use of genetic and evolutionary algorithms (GEAs) was restricted to a relatively small cadre of devoted specialists. Today, Japanese researchers and practitioners are ably advancing the state of GEA art and application across a broad front. Around the globe, from traditional and cutting-edge optimization in engineering and operations research to such non-traditional areas as drug design, financial prediction, data mining, and the composition of poetry and music, GEAs are grabbing attention and solving problems across a broad spectrum of human endeavor. Of course, science and technology go through fads and fashions much like those of apparel, food, and toys, and many practitioners---in Japan and elsewhere---are wondering whether GEAs, like so many methods that have c
529. An Intelligent, Context-Sensitive AUV Mission Controller for Standalone and AOSN Missions
• date - 2000-07-25
• creator - Roy M. Turner
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/396353.html
• description - Although the current state of the art in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) control software is sucient for many missions of interest today, it is not adequate for future missions. For many future applications, AUVs will have to be capable of acting truly autonomously, for long periods of time, undertaking ill-specied, complex missions for a variety of users, in challenging, unpredictable environments. They will need to participate in and help control multi-AUV systems, such as autonomous oceanographic sampling networks (AOSNs). Such a level of capability requires intelligent AUV mission control software. This proposal is for funding to conduct research on intelligent mission control for AUVs. The research will build on past work by the PI, funded by the National Science Foundation, in the Orca Project. The Orca program is an adaptive, context-sensitive mission controller for AUVs. The current version of the program is used to control simulated AUVs on simple missions, and to contro...
530. M. R. Pelling
• date - 1970-01-01
• creator - R. E. Rothschild
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/48267.html
• description - . The High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) is one of three science instruments of NASA's X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) mission, which was launched into low earth orbit in late 1995. Its energy range of 15--250 keV overlaps with the OSSE and BATSE detectors of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). The HEXTE consists of eight NaI scintillation detectors grouped into two independent clusters, each with its own data processing electronics. State-of-the art detector resolution is achieved with the help of an automatic gain control system. Like OSSE, the HEXTE permits on-the-fly correction of internal background by beamswitching to blank fields adjacent to the source on the sky. We present here a description of the HEXTE, and demonstrate some aspects of its performance by a spectral simulation of a bright Galactic source with cyclotron absorption. While the HEXTE's large collecting area yields the high event rates essential for temporal studies, the sensitivity to faint sources (suc...
531. Support for Pointer Semantics in a Generative Communication Framework
• date - 2005-03-23
• creator - Neil, Richard L
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-02222005-153132/
• description - The Generative Communication (GC) paradigm was introduced in the early 1980s in the form of the Linda coordination and communication language (Gelernter & Bernstein, 1982). The goal of the language was to provide an elegant, intuitive alternative to the state-of-the-art in parallel and distributed processing languages at that time, namely remote procedure calls; message passing systems; and shared memory systems (Gelernter, 1985). Despite the longevity of the Linda coordination language and the GC paradigm, in general, the literature is devoid of meaningful research into the construction and manipulation of dynamic, pointer-based data structures within the context of the GC paradigm. This document motivates the need for such data structures in GC. In addition, this document explores the reasons for the lack literature regarding dynamic pointer-based data structures in GC. Finally, we develop solutions to address the lack of support, within the GC paradigm, for such data structures.
532. Learning-Inhibiting Problems Experienced by Middle School Teachers: Implications for Staff Development
• date - 2000-03-18
• creator - Dillard, Patricia Hutcherson
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-03052000-10300043/
• description - Learning-Inhibiting Problems Experienced by Middle School Teachers: Implications for Staff Development <p> Patricia H. Dillard <p> (ABSTRACT) <p> This study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences between years of teaching experience and education relative to learning-inhibiting problems in the classroom. These differences were measured by responses on surveys, classroom observations, review of summative teacher appraisal instruments and focus group interviews. <p> A population of 271 middle school teachers of language art, social studies, mathematics and science were selected from one urban school district. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was the statistical analysis procedure utilized to analyze the data. <p> Thirteen null hypotheses were tested at the .05 alpha level. The research failed to reject 12 null hypotheses of no statistically significant difference between years of teaching experience (0-5, 6-12, 13-20, 21+) and education (middle school trained, middle school untrained) and learning-inhibiting problems (chronic talking, refusing request, tardiness, inattentiveness, talking back to teachers) experienced by middle school teachers in the classroom. The only null hypothesis rejected was that no statistically significant difference existed between 0-5 years of teaching experience and the non-instructional strategy (consultation with an administrator) used to prevent learning-inhibiting problems in the classroom. The results of the data analysis revealed that teachers in the 0-5 range of teaching experience preferred consultation with administrators as the strategy for preventing disruptive behavior in the classroom. <p> Upon classroom observation, there was no statistically significant difference between years of teaching experience and the ability to manage a classroom. It was observed that teachers who circulated throughout the classroom while directing instruction and using questioning techniques were better able to manage the classroom and have fewer disruptions than teachers who stood in front of the class or who were seated and directed instruction. <p> Focus group members indicated that many disruptive behaviors can be addressed through appropriate instructional planning and delivery. Therefore, staff development should address a variety of instructional strategies that would prevent and eliminate specific learning-inhibiting problems as chronic talking, tardiness, inattentiveness, refusing request of teachers, a
533. Processing and Reliability Assessment of Solder Joint Interconnection for Power Chips
• date - 2001-04-18
• creator - Liu, Xingsheng
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-04082001-204805/
• description - Circuit assembly and packaging technologies for power electronics have not kept pace with those for digital electronics. Inside those packaged power devices as well as the state-of-the-art power modules, interconnection of power chips is accomplished with wirebonds. Wirebonds in power devices and modules are prone to resistance, noise, parasitic oscillations, fatigue and eventual failure. Furthermore, there has been an increase demand for higher power density and better efficiency for power converters. Power semiconductor suppliers have been concentrating on improving device structure, density, and process technology to lower the on-resistance of MOSFETs and voltage drop of IGBTs. Recent advances made in power semiconductor technology are pushing packaging technology to the limits for performance of these power systems since the resistance and parasitics contribution by the package and the wirebonds are roughly the same as that on the silicon. In recent years, an integrated systems approach to standardizing power electronics components and packaging techniques in the form of power electronics building blocks has emerged as a new concept in the area of power electronics. As a result, it has been envisioned that the packaging of three-dimensional high-density multichip modules (MCMs) can meet the requirement for future power electronics systems. However, the conventional wirebond interconnected power devices are excluded from three-dimensional MCMs because of their large size, limited thermal management, and incompatible processing techniques. On the other hand, advanced solder joint area-array technologies, such as flip-chip technology, has emerged in microelectronics industry due to increased speed, higher packaging density, and performance, improved reliability and low cost these technologies offer. With all these benefits to offer, solder joint area-array technology has yet to be implemented for power electronics packaging. Therefore, the first objective of this study is to design and develop a solder joint area-array interconnection technique for power chips. Solder joint reliability is a major concern for area array technologies and power chip interconnection, thus the second objective of this study is to evaluate solder joint reliability, investigate the fatigue failure behavior of solder joint and improve solder joint reliability by developing a new solder bumping process for improved solder joint geometry, underfilling solder joint with encapsulant
• date - 2004
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• description - This World Wide Web (WWW) site is the homepage of KIDLINK, is a nonprofit grass roots organization aimed at getting as many youth through age fifteen (grade 10) as possible involved in a global dialog. The purpose of the dialog is to provide kids with an opportunity to make friends from other countries who are also experiencing childhood, but often in very different circumstances. By hearing a range of opinions and developing familiarity with different ideas, KIDLINK hopes to overcome some communication barriers and solve some problems in a more cooperative manner. The work is supported by 44 public mailing lists for conferencing, a private network for real time interactions, an online art exhibition site, and volunteers living throughout the world. Most of the volunteers are teachers and parents that direct online, cooperative projects. KIDLINK is available in English, French, German, Hebrew, Icelandic, Japanese, Nordic languages (Scandinavian), Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Turkish. Links to online projects are included. Abstracted 04/98 (Author/LCT). Copyright 2004 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse (ENC).
535. A QuÃ­mica Ambiental no Brasil
• date - 2002
• creator - Mozeto Antonio A .
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-40422002000800002
• description - Defining environmental chemistry is a not an easy task because it encompasses many different topics. According to Stanley E. Manahan, author of a classical textbook of Environmental Chemistry, this branch could be defined as the one centered in the study of the sources, transport, effects and fates of chemical species in the water, soil, and air environments, as well as the influence of human activity upon these processes. More recently, new knowledge emerged from the Environmental Toxicology allowed to go even deeper in the meaning of 'effects' and 'fates' of a continuous growing number of organic and inorganic species disposed in water bodies, soils and atmosphere. Toxicity tests became an important tool to evaluate the environmental impact of such species to a great number of organisms, thus allowing to set quality criteria for drinking water, sediments and biota. The state of art shows that environmental chemistry is a multi-inter disciplinary science by nature; therefore, it needs more than a limited, unique-approach and non-oriented set of data to understand the nature of natural processes. Taking all these aspects into consideration, one can say that Environmental Chemistry in Brazil is now a well established area of research within the classical areas of the Chemistry, with a large number of emerging groups as well research groups with worldwide recognition.
536. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha receptors p55 and p75 and ovarian cancer â€“ state-of-the-art research and clinical implications
• date - 2005
• creator - PaweÅ‚ Rzymski
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.termedia.pl/showpdf.php?article_id=3224&filename=Tumor.pdf&priority=1
• description - Tumor Necrosis Factor a acts via its two cell-surface receptors p55 and p75 and the effect depends on their activation. Receptors are proteins that dissociate from cell surface and become soluble molecules in serum blocking the natural activity of TNFÎ±. It has been proved that this cytokine and both receptors could be overexpressed and constitutively produced by many malignant tumors, including ovarian cancer. However, little is known about the ovarian-specific role in cancer biology. Molecular and immunological research was not followed by many clinical evaluations of potential power of TNFÎ±, p55 and p75. Some research supports previous laboratory results. It has been also suggested that especially receptors p55 and p75 could be useful in ovarian cancer detection, differentiation, staging or predicting prognosis, relapse and surgical debulking. Results are inspiring and promising, but should be followed by more well-designed research.
537. Windmill Whirligigs
538. Results of design calculations. Specification of a prototype zone plate for focusing hard x-rays
• date - 2001-05-03
• creator - Yun, W.B.; Chrzas, J.; Viccaro, P.J.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/100020-l6gTtV/webviewable/
• description - A zone plate capable of focusing hard x-rays to less than 1{mu}m spot size is designed and specified. This design is based on the state-of-art fabrication technology available today. This zone plate consists of Cu/Al layers sputtered alternatively on a round stainless steel core. Parameters of this zone plate are given. The focal length f is given for 8Kev x-rays and the thickness is optimized for focusing efficiency of the same x-ray energy.
539. Micromachined silicon seismic transducers
• date - 2001-05-03
• creator - Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Armour, D.L.; Fleming, R.P.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/100036-Q8BQcy/webviewable/
• description - Batch-fabricated silicon seismic transducers could revolutionize the discipline of CTBT monitoring by providing inexpensive, easily depolyable sensor arrays. Although our goal is to fabricate seismic sensors that provide the same performance level as the current state-of-the-artmacro systems, if necessary one could deploy a larger number of these small sensors at closer proximity to the location being monitored in order to compensate for lower performance. We have chosen a modified pendulum design and are manufacturing prototypes in two different silicon micromachining fabrication technologies. The first set of prototypes, fabricated in our advanced surface- micromachining technology, are currently being packaged for testing in servo circuits -- we anticipate that these devices, which have masses in the 1--10{mu}g range, will resolve sub-mG signals. Concurrently, we are developing a novelmold` micromachining technology that promises to make proof masses in the 1--10 mg range possible -- our calculations indicate that devices made in this new technology will resolve down to at least sub-{mu}G signals, and may even approach to 10{sup{minus}10} G/{radical}Hz acceleration levels found in the low-earth-noise model.
540. Spacecraft Impacts with Advanced Power and Electric Propulsion
• date - 2000-03-01
• creator - Lee S. Mason
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.dlnet.vt.edu/repository/previewRepository/AE000000/AE004000/AE004001/DISK1/DLNET-12-07-2002-0122/DLNLO.htm
• description - Study was performed to assess the benefits of advanced power and electric propulsion systems for various space missions. Advanced power technologies that were considered included multiband gap and thin-film solar arrays, lithium batteries, and flywheels. Electric propulsion options included Hall effect thrusters and Ion thrusters. Several mission case studies were selected as representative of future applications for advanced power and propulsion systems. These included a low altitude Earth science satellite, a LEO communications constellation, a GEO military surveillance satellite, and a Mercury planetary mission. The study process entailed identification of overall mission performance using state-of-the-art power and propulsion technology, enhancements made possible with either power or electric propulsion advances individually, and the collective benefits realized when advanced power and electric propulsion are combined. Impacts to the overall spacecraft included increased payload, longer operational life, expanded operations and launch vehicle class step-downs.
541. Center for Magnetic Recording Research (CMRR)
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://cmrr.ucsd.edu/homeset.htm
• description - The Center for Magnetic Recording Research (CMRR) was established to advance the state-of-the-art in magnetic storage, and to produce highly trained graduate students and postdoctoral professionals. CMRR also serves as a catalyst for joint investigations amongst its industrial sponsors, government agencies, and the university. The Center is on the campus of the University of California, San Diego and includes an onsite library.
542. Negotiating the MAze: Case based collaborative distance learning in dentistry
• date - 2001
• creator - S K Lechner
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.med-ed-online.org/t0000019.htm
• description - The module was developed as an elective to give motivated senior dental students an opportunity to expand their horizons in planning oral rehabilitation. It comprised one tutor and 12 students, from five universities world-wide, communicating on the World Wide Web (WWW), to develop oral rehabilitation plans for simulated patients. Trigger material came from one of two Case Profiles and consisted of diagnostic casts and details of the clinical and radiographic examination in WWW/CD-ROM form. No background material was supplied as to the "patientÂ’s" age, sex, history or main concern(s). Students worked in groups of three, each student from a different location. Individual students were given a role within the group: "Patient", who developed a "personal background" belonging to the trigger examination material, "Academic" who identified state-of-the-art treatment options available for the dental treatment needs identified by the group and "General Practitioner" who tailored these options to the "patientÂ’s" needs and wants. Student feedback focused on their perception of their experience with the program in response to a questionnaire comprising 11 structured and four "open" questions. All students felt that the program increased their confidence in planning oral rehabilitation. Ten students felt that the "best thing about the program" was the interaction with students from other universities and the exposure to different philosophies from the different schools. Eight students mentioned their increased awareness of the importance of patient input into holistic planning. Under the heading "What was the worst thing", students cited some technical hitches and the snowball effect of two sluggish students who were not identified early enough and thus impacted negatively on the working of their groups. Student feedback showed that the module succeeded in its aims but needed modification to improve the logistics of working with an extended campus.
543. Franz Schrader face Ã  Gavarnie, ou le gÃ©ographe peintre de paysage
• date - 1999
• creator - Vincent Berdoulay
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.mgm.fr/PUB/Mappemonde/M399/Berdoulay.pdf
• description - La sÃ©rie de peintures que le gÃ©ographe Franz Schrader a faites de Gavarnie permet d'Ã©tudier certaines relations qui existent entre art et science Ã  propos du paysage. L'Ã©volution de son approche montre une recherche constante de complÃ©mentaritÃ©s.
544. Visual Interactive Environment for Weapons Simulation
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.llnl.gov/asci/projects/dem/dem.html
• description - Visualization for ASCI-sized problems is no small task. A comprehensive solution based on state-of-the-art visualization hardware, leading-edge visualization research, and a synthesis of commercial tools with in-house software is required to handle the demands of ASCI.
545. Aerossolterapia nas doenÃ§as respiratÃ³rias em eqÃ¼inos
• date - 2001
• creator - SILVA Miriam Bastos da
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-95962001000200009
• description - AffecÃ§Ãµes respiratÃ³rias na espÃ©cie eqÃ¼ina sÃ£o freqÃ¼entemente implicadas como uma das causas de fraco desempenho esportivo. A maior freqÃ¼Ãªncia ocorre nas doenÃ§as do sistema respiratÃ³rio inferior, como a doenÃ§a pulmonar crÃ´nica obstrutiva (COPD), doenÃ§as inflamatÃ³rias das vias aÃ©reas e hemorragia pulmonar induzida pelo exercÃ­cio (HPIE). Classicamente, os tratamentos dessas enfermidades incluem as drogas de administraÃ§Ã£o sistÃªmica, porÃ©m, a aerossolterapia Ã© hoje conhecida por ser especificamente um dos melhores tratamentos dessas doenÃ§as. A finalidade deste trabalho Ã© de descrever o equipamento e as drogas normalmente utilizadas na aerossolterapia em eqÃ¼inos.
546. MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR FY08 CMAQ RELEASE
• date - 2005-12-02T19:03:13Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=113784
• description - This task provides credible state of the art air quality models and guidance for use in implementation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and PM. This research effort is to develop and improve air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, a multiscale and multi-pollutant chemistry-transport model (CTM). Specific research components include: meteorological modeling, land-surface and PBL modeling, gas phase mechanisms and solvers, cloud dynamics and aqueous chemistry, photolysis rates and radiative transfer model improvements, aerosol modeling, transport and diffusion, plume-in-grid approach, CMAQ code integration and efficiencies, and on-line integration of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry. Annual CMAQ modeling system releases are anticipated from this Task, incorporating new modeling science developments and modeling efficiencies each year, leading to a major CMAQ model system release in 2008. This task utilizes high performance computing and scientific visualization resources provided by EPA's National Environmental Scientific Computing Center (NESC2).
547. IMPROVED O3, SO2 AND HNO3 VEGETATION-ATMOSPHERE EXCHANGE MODELING FOR NETWORK APPLICATIONS
• date - 2005-09-14T14:13:49Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=114549
• description - A long term goal of multimedia environmental management is to achieve sustainable ecological resources. Progress towards this goal rests on a foundation of science-based methods and data integrated into predictive multimedia, multi-stressor open architecture modeling systems. The strategic pathway aims at progressing from addressing one stressor at a time to a comprehensive multimedia assessment capability for current and projected ecosystem health. The multimedia tasks in the Atmospheric Modeling Division (AMD) address a number of issues that arise in multimedia modeling with an emphasis on interactions among the atmosphere and multiple other environmental media. While the watershed is a fundamental unit of ecosystem analysis, due primarily to its containment of the hydrologic cycle and related stresses, the relevant atmospheric scale of modeling and analysis for linking to watersheds is regional/continental in scope, encompassing multiple States and/or watersheds. The interaction between the atmosphere and the underlying surface is increasingly being recognized as an important factor in multimedia issues. Targeted development, evaluation and application of state-of-the-art, multi-pollutant atmospheric models of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen and mercury to multimedia issues help determine how to further improve the one-atmosphere models and support ongoing ecological assessments. Software tools are needed to support linkage of models across media and specialized multimedia data analysis applications. This multimedia work helps to bring the results of air pollution control, that primarily stem from addressing human health effects, into the management purview for addressing multimedia or ecosystem problems. The multimedia tasks support Goal 4 (Healthy Communities and Ecosystems) and its Long-Term Goals ECO-6, Forecasting - Assess vulnerability and manage for sustainability, and HG-3, Transport and fate - understand the transport and fate of mercury from release to the receptor.<br><br>One of the ways the EPA assesses the results of air pollution control is through the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). In this task, we will continue development of better models for predicting deposition velocity for network operations. The model-predicted deposition velocity is then paired with the measured concentration to calculate the pollutant flux. Providing better estimates of deposition flux will improve our ability to forecast ecosystem sustainability.
548. OZONE SUB-CANOPY EXPOSURE MODEL
• date - 2005-11-02T22:14:48Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=114548
• description - A long term goal of multimedia environmental management is to achieve sustainable ecological resources. Progress towards this goal rests on a foundation of science-based methods and data integrated into predictive multimedia, multi-stressor open architecture modeling systems. The strategic pathway aims at progressing from addressing one stressor at a time to a comprehensive multimedia assessment capability for current and projected ecosystem health. The multimedia program in AMD addresses a number of issues that arise in multimedia modeling with an emphasis on interactions among the atmosphere and multiple other environmental media. Tasks under the AMD multimedia program include Tasks 20470. 20471, 20472, 20473, 20475, 20476, and 20477. While the watershed is a fundamental unit of ecosystem analysis, due primarily to its containment of the hydrologic cycle and related stresses, the relevant atmospheric scale of modeling and analysis for linking to watersheds is regional/continental in scope, encompassing multiple States and/or watersheds. The interaction between the atmosphere and the underlying surface is increasingly being recognized as an important factor in multimedia issues. Targeted development, evaluation and application of state-of-the-art, multi-pollutant atmospheric models of nitrogen and mercury to multimedia issues help determine how to further improve the one-atmosphere models and support ongoing ecological assessments. Software tools are needed to support linkage of models across media and specialized multimedia data analysis applications. This multimedia work helps to bring the results of air pollution control, that primarily stem from addressing human health effects, into the management purview for addressing multimedia or ecosystem problems. The multimedia tasks support GPRA Goal 4 (Healthy Communities and Ecosystems) and its Long-Term Goals ECO-6, Forecasting - Assess vulnerability and manage for sustainability, and HG-3, Transport and fate - understand the transport and fate of mercury from release to the receptor.<br><br>In this Task 20470, a study of sub-canopy vegetation exposure to ozone is investigated. The interaction between the atmosphere and the underlying surface vegetation is increasingly recognized as important. Ozone is an important multimedia pollutant affecting vegetation health and productivity. A key pathway of ozone exposure and associated damage is dry deposition to the vegetation. The details of how and where ozone dr
549. MULTIMEDIA MODELING FOR HG: INTEGRATION OF REGIONAL-SCALE MULTIMEDIA FLUX ESITMATION IN CMAQ-HG
• date - 2005-09-14T14:20:10Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=114551
• description - A long term goal of multimedia environmental management is to achieve sustainable ecological resources. Progress towards this goal rests on a foundation of science-based methods and data integrated into predictive multimedia, multi-stressor open architecture modeling systems. The strategic pathway aims at progressing from addressing one stressor at a time to a comprehensive multimedia assessment capability for current and projected ecosystem health. The multimedia tasks in the Atmospheric Modeling Division (AMD) address a number of issues that arise in multimedia modeling with an emphasis on interactions among the atmosphere and multiple other environmental media. While the watershed is a fundamental unit of ecosystem analysis, due primarily to its containment of the hydrologic cycle and related stresses, the relevant atmospheric scale of modeling and analysis for linking to watersheds is regional/continental in scope, encompassing multiple States and/or watersheds. The interaction between the atmosphere and the underlying surface is increasingly being recognized as an important factor in multimedia issues. Targeted development, evaluation and application of state-of-the-art, multi-pollutant atmospheric models of nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), mercury and other atmospheric pollutants to multimedia issues help determine how to further improve the one-atmosphere models and support ongoing ecological assessments. Software tools are needed to support linkage of models across media and specialized multimedia data analysis applications. This multimedia work helps to bring the results of air pollution control, that primarily stem from addressing human health effects, into the management purview for addressing multimedia or ecosystem problems.<br><br>Task 20473 focuses on the multimedia behavior of mercury. The dynamic process of deposition, chemical conversion and re-emission of the different forms of Hg creates a "bi-directional dynamic" that is central to the multimedia behavior of Hg, with the key source of Hg to surface ecosystems being atmospheric deposition (wet and dry). This key process (i.e., secondary transformation and bi-directional flux) is missing in most atmospheric models, including the current version of CMAQ-Hg. This task addresses targeted multimedia model development for 1) coupled surface exchange of Hg between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface (primarily water) and 2) the estimation of regional to long-range Hg transport and deposition sen
550. SOFTWARE TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTIMEDIA
• date - 2005-11-02T22:15:21Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=114554
• description - A long term goal of multimedia environmental management is to achieve sustainable ecological resources. Progress towards this goal rests on a foundation of science-based methods and data integrated into predictive multimedia, multi-stressor open architecture modeling systems. The strategic pathway aim is to progress from addressing one stressor at a time to a comprehensive multimedia assessment capability for current and projected ecosystem health. The multimedia tasks in AMD address a number of issues that arise in multimedia modeling with an emphasis on interactions among the atmosphere and multiple other environmental media. While the watershed is a fundamental unit of ecosystem analysis, due primarily to its containment of the hydrologic cycle and related stresses, the relevant atmospheric scale of modeling and analysis for linking to watersheds is regional/continental in scope, encompassing multiple States and/or watersheds. The interaction between the atmosphere and the underlying surface is increasingly being recognized as an important factor in multimedia issues. Targeted development, evaluation and application of state-of-the-art, multi-pollutant atmospheric models of nitrogen and mercury to multimedia issues help determine how to further improve the one-atmosphere models and support ongoing ecological assessments. Software tools are needed to support linkage of models across media and specialized multimedia data analysis applications. This multimedia work helps to bring the results of air pollution control, that primarily stem from addressing human health effects, into the management purview for addressing multimedia or ecosystem problems. The multimedia tasks support Goal 4 (Healthy Communities and Ecosystems) and its Long-Term Goals ECO-3, Restoration - develop scientifically defensible methods to protect ecosystem conditions, and HG-3, Transport and fate - understand the transport and fate of mercury from release to the receptor.<br><br>Significant effort is often required to analyze observations and model results and provide them in a form required to support management decisions. Most off-the-shelf tools do not address the specialized needs or applications encountered in analyzing data from a multimedia perspective, making it more difficult than is necessary to and link elements of the multimedia components together. The need for specialized tools is especially pertinent to bringing atmospheric components together with watershed components f
551. COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM (ONE ATMOSPHERE)
• date - 2005-03-09T14:43:12Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=15865
• description - This task supports ORD's strategy by providing responsive technical support of EPA's mission and provides credible state of the art air quality models and guidance. This research effort is to develop and improve the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, a multiscale and multi-pollutant chemistry-transport model (CTM). Specific research components include: evolvement of science in the CMAQ modeling system, generalized coordinate system: matching met/CTM multi-scaling capabilities, plume-in-grid approach, atmospheric modeling of PM at neighborhood scales, chemical mechanism reader and solvers, fluid modeling simulations of subgrid scale phenomena, "one-atmosphere" modeling framework (Models-3), and EBM/OBM modeling framework.<br><br>This task utilizes high performance computing and scientific visualization resources provided by EPA's National Environmental Scientific Computing Center (NESC2).
552. THE EFFECTS OF DISINFECTION ON PHARMACEUTICALS IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES
• date - 2005-02-25T14:26:52Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=18335
• description - Pharmaceuticals are intended to be applied to or ingested by humans and animals, metabolized by their bodies, and excreted through urine or feces. However, it has been estimated that somewhere between 30 and 90% of administered active ingredients pass through the human and animals unchanged. Sewage treatment plants have been found to remove between 7 and 96% of fourteen pharmaceuticals (mean 65 1 25), but not all pharmaceutical containing waters pass through sewage treatment plants before drinking water treatment (e.g., terrestrial and aquatic applications of veterinary pharmaceuticals), so the potential exists for pharmaceuticals to be in the source water of drinking water treatment plants. Occurrence studies have been performed on surface and ground water samples from urban areas in Germany and Brazil; the concentrations of certain drugs were found to be in excess of 1 5g/L. There are very few studies in the literature concerning the effect of drinking water treatment on the fate of pharmaceutical compounds, and those that are present were conducted in urban areas where sewage and drinking water treatment are presumably state-of-the-art (or very close to it). Since the sewage and water treatment in most areas studied in the literature are generally more thorough than many areas of the United States, and since different pharmaceuticals, in different doses, are prescribed, it is not sound science to simply assume that the literature concentrations are what we will encounter in the waters of the US.<br><br>While the literature reports that pharmaceuticals have not been found in natural or drinking waters at high enough concentrations to cause acute human health effects, the potential for subtle effects from continual exposures to these low doses (such as endocrine disruption) is still a hotly debated topic, which demands further research. In addition, certain pharmaceuticals are only used by humans, therefore their presence in the environment can only be attributed to anthropogenic waste streams, so they may be useful as indicators of human fecal contamination. <br><br>The purpose of this task is to determine what happens to pharmaceuticals when they are chlorinated, and to determine, as best as possible, what disinfection/ deterioration by-products are formed. The simple experimental approach of this task could then be used as a screening test to determine which of the thousands of pharmaceuticals that are used in this country would have the greatest proba
553. THE SONOPHYSICS AND SONOCHEMISTRY OF LIQUID WASTE QUANTIFICATION AND REMEDIATION
• date - 2002-12-10T18:31:01Z
• creator - Thomas Matula
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=19154
• description - When an ultrasonic field of moderate to large intensity is applied to a liquid, the liquid often fails under the action of the dynamic tensile stress applied by the ultrasound. Consequently, the vapor cavity that is formed during the rarefaction portion of the sound field can thus grow rapidly so long as the applied negative acoustic pressure exceeds the vapor pressure of the liquid; subsequently, however, this cavity is driven into an implosive collapse as the sound field turns positive and applies a compressive force to the cavity. Because of surface tension, the cavity remains spherical for much of its life cycle and, accordingly, an enormous energy concentration--as much as 12 orders of magnitude--can result from this growth and collapse sequence--a phenomenon called acoustic cavitation. The temperatures and pressures experienced by the material contained within the imploding cavities can achieve values in excess of tens of thousands of degrees and tens of kilobars, respectively. These high temperatures and pressures can act as an intense microreactor and induce a variety of chemical reactions; the ability of these reactions to induce a particular effect is called sonochemistry, and holds high promise as a specific chemical approach to waste contaminant remediation. A variety of investigators have demonstrated the utility of the sonochemical reactor; for example, the natural half-life of parathion, a pesticide of widespread use, is 108 days. Under ultrasonic irradiation at 20 kHz in deionized water, all of the initial parathion is degraded in less than two hours; ultrasonic irradiation in an aqueous solution containing the highly toxic pentachlorophenate (PCP) results in the almost complete degradation of PCP in about 100 minutes; researchers have also found that acoustic irradiation of chlorinated C1 and C2 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) resulted in a VOC destruction of up to 99.9% in less than an hour. Although sonochemistry holds such high promise for use in waste contaminant remediation, the principal mechanism that leads to chemical degradation, acoustic cavitation, is a complex and difficult to understand phenomenon. Chemists who are performing experiments in sonochemistry know little of acoustic cavitation and how to use it in an optimal way; physicists who know something about cavitation bubble dynamics don't understand the chemistry. Indeed, the President of the European Society of Sonochemistry has deemed this field a "black art", whose pr
554. SURFACE AND BOREHOLE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING OF CONDUCTING CONTAMINANT PLUMES
• date - 2002-12-10T18:31:01Z
• creator - James Berryman
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=19166
• description - Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The EM source field is produced by induction coil (magnetic dipole) transmitters deployed at the surface or in boreholes. Vertical and horizontal component magnetic field detectors are deployed in other boreholes or on the surface. Sources and receivers are typically deployed in a configuration surrounding the region of interest. The goal of this procedure is to image electrical conductivity variations in the earth, much as x-ray tomography is used to image density variations through cross-sections of the body. Although field techniques are being developed rapidly at the present time, the algorithms for inverting the magnetic data to produce the desired images of electrical conductivity have not kept pace. The current state of the art in electromagnetic data inversion uses the Born/Rytov approximation (based on a low contrast assumption), even though it is known that conductivity variations range over several orders of magnitude and therefore require nonlinear analysis. In addition, previous field experiments were conducted at controlled test sites that typically do not have extensive external noise or surface clutter problems often associated with environmental sites. Use of the same field techniques in more typical environments is expected to require a new set of data processing tools to remove the effects of both noise and clutter. This project will join theory and experiment to produce enhanced images of electrically conducting fluids underground, allowing better localization of contaminants and improved planning strategies for the subsequent remediation efforts.
555. ENHANCEMENTS TO & CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VERY EARLY TIME ELECTROMAGNETIC (VETEM) PROTOTYPE INSTRUMENT & APPLICATIONS TO SHALLOW SUBSURFACE IMAGING AT SITES IN THE DOE COMPLEX
• date - 2002-12-10T18:31:02Z
• creator - wENG Chew
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=19293
• description - The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Illinois propose to improve the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic imaging of the shallow (0 to 5 m) subsurface in conductive media with potential applications to subsurface characterization, landfill stabilization, decontamination/decommissioning, and waste characterization at sites in the DOE complex. We plan to accomplish the research objectives by a combination of hardware and software enhancements to the existing Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype instrument, physical modeling experiments, numerical forward and inverse modeling, and field demonstrations. We will enhance the existing system with additional antennas, additional transmitter options, probably one or more gradiometer configurations, and a modified receiver. The instrument enhancements will be guided by numerical forward, inverse, and antenna modeling. We propose to develop fast forward and inverse modeling codes appropriate to the VETEM instrument in 1D and, if possible, 2D that will run on a PC for in-the-field interpretation, as well as more detailed post-processing models.
556. ULTRAHIGH SENSITIVITY HEAVY NOBLE GAS DETECTORS FOR LONG-TERM MONITORING AND MONITORING AIR
• date - 2002-12-10T18:31:02Z
• creator - John Valentine
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=19330
• description - A Georgia Institute of Technology/Argonne National Laboratory team will develop and demonstrate novel ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for long-term monitoring of spent fuel and TRU waste, as well as for distinguishing background radon alpha particles from other alpha emissions in air monitors. A new technique for concentrating the heavy noble gases from air will be integrated with state-of-the-art radiation detector technology to provide sensitivities on the order of two orders of magnitude better than current technology. In addition, these detectors can be configured such that heavy noble gas concentration in air is monitored continuously and recorded in real-time and in situ. This real-time data acquisition coupled with the ability to measure the beta particles and gamma rays emitted by krypton and xenon in coincidence mode will result in an enhanced ability both to use spectral information to detect and identify the different noble gas isotopes and to discriminate against all other signals. Finally, such an integrated concentration and detection system has the potential to provide low-cost and low-complexity detectors which would be ideally suited for long-term monitoring and fieldable air monitors. It is proposed that a broad range of potential detectors and measurement techniques be identified and evaluated for use in DOE Environmental Management applications. Furthermore, at least two of the most promising techniques for detecting the heavy noble gas emissions will be developed experimentally. First, the concentrated radioactive gases can be mixed directly with standard proportional detector filled gases such that a 100% detection efficiency is realized when the mixture is passed through a proportional detector. Second, the concentrated gases can be used in scintillator flow-cell geometry to achieve a similar detection efficiency. While both of these techniques provide the ability to distinguish alpha and beta particle interactions within the detector, a gamma-ray spectroscopy detector can be used in coincidence mode with both techniques to further enhance background discrimination and species identification. Consequently, coincidence mode operation will also be demonstrated experimentally using both the proportional and the flow-cell detectors. If additional detectors and techniques are identified as promising, similar experimental development will be pursued for those systems. Finally, the developed detec
557. NUMERICAL MODELING OF MIXING OF CHEMICALLY REACTING, NON-NEWTONIAN SLURRY FOR TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL
• date - 2002-12-10T18:31:02Z
• creator - David Yuen
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=19428
• description - There are 100 million gallons of radioactive wastes stored in 281 tanks, resulting from the production of nuclear weapons. Retrieval and subsequent solidification of these tank waste require processes costing tens of billions of dollars and demand a strong scientific basis to successfully operate. During the waste retrieval operation, there will be complex interactions among chemical reactions, associated slurry rheological changes, and non-Newtonian mixing in a storage tank. To determine safe and cost-effective operational parameters for waste retrieval, decision-making support tools must account for these interactions. Unwanted chemical reactions and associated rheology changes can make these operations impossible, as formations of boehmite and sodium phosphate hydrate plugged Hanford cross-site waste transfer pipelines during their initial waste retrieval and pipeline transfer operations. This three-year proposal is submitted by a multidisciplinary team consisting of the University of Minnesota, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, IBM, and CRAY-SGI Research to investigate these interactions and mixing processes and to provide a scientific basis for waste retrieval decision making. The proposed work is entirely based on numerical modeling and will specifically address the complex retrieval issues of nuclear tank waste entailing both chemistry and fluid dynamics. Interactive visualization techniques will be developed and deployed to allow this collaborative study to be performed by researchers separated by long distances. This team will investigate these problems with coupled numerical modeling of chemical reactions, the transport of chemical species and the resultant rheology, and detailed local and global slurry mixing processes of non-Newtonian slurries occurring over different spatial scales. A production mode will be emphasized for this multipronged investigation. We will not only perform intercomparisons of these results but will also compare them with actual tank and laboratory experimental measurements obtained for Hanford waste tanks. We will evaluate these results to make assessments of tank waste retrieval. New ideas concerning decision-making support tools will be generated for future retrieval operations and incisive and reasonable assessments of these complex problems. Our ultimate goal is to develop efficient, state-of-the-art, numerical methods for calculating transport and reaction of chemical species and the resultant rheology under i
558. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION
• date - 2005-12-22T16:27:03Z
• creator - D Pennington
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=20801
• description - On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to present a critical reivew of associated factors, including the current limitations of available impact assessment methodologies and a comparison of the alternatives in the context of uncertainty. Each set of presentations, organized into three sessions, was followed by a discussion session to encourage international discourse with a view to improving the understanding of these crucial issues. The discussions were focused around small working groups of LCA practitioners and researchers, selected to include a balance of representatives from industry, government and academia. This workshop provided the first opportunity for International experts to address the issues related to LCIA Sophistication in an open format. Among the topics addressed were:1) the inclusion or exclusion of backgrounds and thresholds in LCIA, 2) the necessity and practicality regarding the sophistication of the uncertainty analysis, 3) the implications of allowing impact categories to be assessed at "mid-point" vs. at "endpoint" level, 4) the difficulty of assessing and capturing the comrehensiveness of the environmental health impact category, 5) the implicaitons of cultural/philosophical views, 6) the meaning of terms like science-based and environmental relevance in th coming ISO-LCIA standard, 7) the dichotomy of striving for consistency while allowing the incorporation of state-of-the-art research, 8) the role of various types of uncertainty analysis, and 9) the role of supporting environmental analyses (e.g., risk assessments). Many of these topics addressed the need for increased sophistication in LCIA, but recognized the conflict this might have in terms of the comprehensiveness and holistic character of LCA & LC
559. FINAL REPORT. ENHANCEMENTS TO AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VERY EARLY TIME ELECTROMAGNETIC (VETEM) PROTOTYPE INSTRUMENT AND APPLICATIONS TO SHALLOW SUBSURFACE IMAGING AT SITES IN THE DOE COMPLEX
• date - 2002-12-10T18:31:06Z
• creator - David Wright
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=20957
• description - The central aim of the Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) EMSP project was to improve the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic imaging of the shallow (0 to about 5 m)subsurface through electrically conductive soils. In addition, we aimed to demonstrate the utility of the new technology by applications to sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. We have approached needed improvements by developing new equipment and new numerical modeling to more fully exploit and interpret field data. We also were fortunate not only to have been given the opportunity to do test demonstrations of VETEM at a simulated waste pit, but to deploy VETEM at actual waste pits at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL).
560. PROGRESS REPORT. MATERIAL PROPERTY ESTIMATION FOR DIRECT DETECTION OF DNAPL USING INTEGRATED GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR VELOCITY, IMAGING AND ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS
• date - 2002-12-10T18:31:07Z
• creator - W Holbrook
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=20982
• description - The focus of our work is direct detection of DNAPLs, specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine sophisticated GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects. Implementation and verification of these methodologies will be a significant advance in GPR research and in meeting DOE's need for reliable in-situ characterization of DNAPL contamination.
561. REVIEW OF THE REFERENCE DOSE AND REFERENCE CONCENTRATION PROCESSES
• date - 2004-06-15T20:39:36Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=22384
• description - This project culminated in the development of a report entitled <a href=http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/raf/recordisplay.cfm?deid=55365 target="_top">A Review of the Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Processes</a>. The report summarizes the review and deliberations of a Technical Panel of EPA's <a href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/raf/index.cfm" "target=_top">Risk Assessment Forum</a> and its recommendations for improvements in the process of deriving reference values, including setting less than lifetime as well as chronic reference values. It discusses revisions to the overall framework for the derivation of reference values that broaden and expand the information considered in setting reference values. The document is a review, not guidance, and it evaluates the current state-of-the-art for hazard characterization with a focus on protection of potentially sensitive subpopulations. The report makes a number of recommendations that should be considered in the implementation of changes in the current process and/or development of needed guidance. The Technical Panel views the RfD/RfC process as one that should be continually evolving as new information becomes available and new scientific and risk assessment approaches are developed. This does not mean that current RfDs or RfCs are invalid, but these new scientific issues should be included in the process of re-evaluating current reference values. As a follow-up to the recommendation for deriving less than lifetime reference values, the report includes a review of current testing guideline protocols to determine what data are collected that can be used in setting these reference values. The Technical Panel has provided specific recommendations for deriving reference values and the development of guidance in some cases and more general conclusions and recommendations in others. Case studies are included to illustrate the recommendations of the Technical Panel. The Review document reflects input received during two Agency and interagency colloquia, a public comment period, an external peer review, and a Science Policy Council review. As part of this effort, two background documents were developed, one on perinatal pharmacokinetics, and one on aging.<br>
562. OXYGEN/NITROGEN RADICALS: CELL INJURY AND DISEASE - THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE.
• date - 2003-06-05T21:41:10Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=22412
• description - Oxidants and by-products of oxidant injury may play critical roles in several disease processes. Oxidative damage is involved in the initiation and progression of human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, ischemia, reproductive abnormalities, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Dramatic research progress have been made in elucidating the role of oxidative stress in signal transduction activation of several transcription factors, gene promotion, and the resultant production of cellular mediators. However, the roles cytokines, influence of the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis and radicals as molecular effectors of apoptosis are not well defined. The current basic understanding of molecular basis of diseases such as cancer induced by certain environmental agents such as silica, asbestos, tobacco smoke, ozone, etc., will be discussed. The knowledge and use of molecular mechanisms information could increase our ability to identify toxicant-induced responses, thus, reducing uncertainties in evaluation of their risk. The 3rd International Conference will be organized by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and several other federal agencies, including NCEA/ORD, by reviewing and discussing the current state-of-the-art of science of molecular mechanisms of disease processes induced by environmental and occupational agents of public health concern. Topic of discussion will also include the latest therapeutic and prevention strategies, including role of diet, and antioxidants found to be effective in clinical and experimental research.
563. BASINS
• date - 2002-12-10T18:31:12Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=23859
• description - <B>Resource Purpose:</B>The U.S EPA's water programs and their counterparts in states and pollution control agencies are increasingly emphasizing watershed- and water quality-based assessment and integrated analysis of point and nonpoint sources. Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) is a system developed to meet the needs of such agencies. It integrates a geographic information system (GIS), national watershed data, and state-of-the-art environmental assessment and modeling tools into one convenient package. Originally released in September 1996, BASINS addresses three objectives: (1) to facilitate examination of environmental information, (2) to provide an integrated watershed and modeling framework, and (3) to support analysis of point and nonpoint source management alternatives. It supports the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), which require a watershed-based approach that integrates both point and nonpoint sources. BASINS can support the analysis of a number of pollutants at a variety of scales, using tools that range from simple to sophisticated.<BR><B>Legislation/Enabling Authority:</B>CWA<BR><B>Data Type:</B><BR>Primary Data Type:<BR>Monitoring<BR>Facility<BR>Compliance<BR>Permit<BR><B>Geographical Data Stored By:</B><BR>Latitude - Longitude<BR><B>Data Represented By:</B><BR>Points<BR>Lines<BR>Polygons<BR><B>Measurement Methods:</B><BR>varies, check the metadata<BR><B>System Access Privileges:</B><BR>Access Methods:<BR>Resource Website<BR>OW Intranet<BR>FTP<BR>Other<BR>Other Methods:<BR>CD-ROMS<BR><B>Resources Accessible By:</B><BR>Public<BR>States<BR>Regions<BR>All EPA<BR>EPA Branch<BR>EPA Division<BR>EPA Authorized<BR><B>CBI Security:</B><BR>Above, the Content Standard for digital Geospatial Metadata also applies and was implemented Fall 1998. No<BR><B>Data Collection:</B>BASINS is distributed with data on CD-ROMS after each new version. Timeframe is N/A<BR>Range of Data Start:<BR>19700101<BR>Range of Data End:<BR>19971231<BR><BR>
564. #20. Exploring the Rain Forest Through Print, Graphics, and Sound
• date -
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://teachers.net/lessons/posts/20.html
• description - Teachers.Net Lesson Exchange, a fourth grade level lesson plan using art, writing, reading, math, music,geography and some science to teach about rain forests.
565. Magnetism in Exact Exchange Density Functional Theory
566. Direct Experimental Evidence of Exciton-Phonon Bound States in Carbon Nanotubes
• date - 2005-07-05
• creator - Strano, Michael S.
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0507104
• description - We present direct experimental observation of exciton-phonon bound states in the photoluminescence excitation spectra of isolated single walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous suspension. The photoluminescence excitation spectra from several distinct single-walled carbon nanotubes show the presence of at least one sideband related to the tangential modes, lying {200 meV} above the main absorption/emission peak. Both the energy position and line shapes of the sidebands are in excellent agreement with recent calculations [PRL {\bf 94},027402 (2005)] that predict the existence of exciton-phonon bound states, a sizable spectral weight transfer to these exciton-phonon complexes and that the amount of this transfer depends on the specific nanotube structure and diameter. The observation of these novel exciton-phonon complexes is a strong indication that the optical properties of carbon nanotubes have an excitonic nature and also of the central role played by phonons in describing the excitation and recombination mechanisms in carbon nanotubes.
567. Design and Properties of a scanning EMR probe Microscope
568. Re-examining the Verwey transition in Fe3O4
569. Layered Orthogonal Lattice Detector for Two Transmit Antenna Communications
• date - 2005-10-21
• creator - Siti, Massimiliano
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0508064
• description - A novel detector for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications is presented. The algorithm belongs to the class of the lattice detectors, i.e. it finds a reduced complexity solution to the problem of finding the closest vector to the received observations. The algorithm achieves optimal maximum-likelihood (ML) performance in case of two transmit antennas, at the same time keeping a complexity much lower than the exhaustive search-based ML detection technique. Also, differently from the state-of-art lattice detector (namely sphere decoder), the proposed algorithm is suitable for a highly parallel hardware architecture and for a reliable bit soft-output information generation, thus making it a promising option for real-time high-data rate transmission.
570. The Tuscan Artist - Images of Galileo in Miltonâ€™s works
• date - 2004
• creator - Toscano Fabio
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://jcom.sissa.it/article/art030302.pdf
• description - In The Areopagitica, his most important work of prose, John Milton mentions Galileo as the illustrious martyr who fought for the freedom of thought. The name of the great scientist is repeated several times in the English poetâ€™s epic masterpiece: Paradise Lost. In three different passages of the poem, Milton in fact celebrates the â€œTuscan Artistâ€� and his crucial achievements in astronomy. Nevertheless, in a subsequent passage, the poet addresses the Copernican issue without openly defending the heliocentric theory confirmed by Galileoâ€™s discoveries. In fact, he neither embraces the Copernican system nor the Ptolemaic one, but instead compares them, following a dialectic method where one cannot fail to notice an echo of Galileoâ€™s Dialogue Concerning the two Chief World Systems. Miltonâ€™s literary work presents images of astronomy at that time, thus offering a valuable historical example of scientific communication through art.
571. What's So Special About Policy Networks? Â– An Exploration of the Concept and Its Usefulness in Studying European Governance
• date - 1997
• creator - Tanja A. BÃ¶rzel
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/1997-016.htm
• description - A 'Babylonian' variety of policy network concepts and applications can be found in the literature. Neither is there a common understanding of what a policy networks actually is, nor has it been agreed upon whether policy networks constitute a mere metaphor, a method, an analytical tool or a proper theory. The aim of this paper is to review the state of the art in the field of policy networks and to explore their usefulness in studying European policy-making and European governance. It is argued that policy networks are more than an analytical tool box for studying these phenomena. What is so special then about policy networks? They constitute arenas for non-strategic, communicative action providing solutions for collective action problems and accounting for more efficient and legitimate policy-making. Yet, a theoretically ambitious policy network approach has to, first, show that policy networks do not only exist but are relevant for policy process and policy outcome, and second, tackle the problem of the ambiguity of policy networks, which can do both enhance and reduce the efficiency and legitimacy of policy-making.
572. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK
• date - 2004-04-16T20:26:47Z
• creator - T.A. Pedersen
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=35439
• description - Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in increasing numbers due to many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. VE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport are quite complex. n view of this complexity, an expert workshop was held to discuss the state-of-the-art of the technology, the best approach to optimize systems application, and process efficiency and limitations. s a result of the workshop,an SVE Technology Assessment report was produced. his report discusses the basic science of the subsurface environment and subsurface monitoring, emission control, and costs. he report also serves as the proceedings of the expert workshop. dditional research activities being conducted include a field demonstration of a structured SVE system design approach; a laboratory column study to determine and characterize residuals following vapor extraction; an assessment of secondary emissions and regulations governing releases from SVE systems; cost of SVE implementation and operation; and a survey of techniques to enhance vapor removal.
573. PROCEEDINGS: NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RECENT ADVANCES IN POLLUTANT MONITORING OF AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCES, HELD AT RADISON PLAZA RALEIGH HOTEL, ON MAY 8-10, 1984
• date - 2002-12-10T18:33:40Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=43060
• description - The fourth annual national symposium sponsored by EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory was held May 8-10, 1984 in Raleigh, North Carolina. In seven sessions over three days, papers and discussions focused on state-of-the-art systems for monitoring source emissions, ambient air, acid deposition, hazardous emissions and personal monitoring. This symposium is part of a continuing effort to explore recent advances in pollutant monitoring of ambient air and stationary sources. It serves as a forum for exchange of ideas and scientific information. In response to the Agency regulatory needs, this symposium focused on acid deposition, personal exposure and toxic substances. This publication is intended to assist those researchers interested in furthering the science of air monitoring. The papers in this proceedings are abbreviated versions of those presented by the speakers. Several papers are omitted because the speakers did not submit them in time for the agency's peer review.
574. PROCEEDINGS: NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RECENT ADVANCES IN POLLUTANT MONITORING OF AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCES (5TH ANNUAL) HELD AT RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA ON MAY 14-16, 1985
• date - 2002-12-10T18:34:42Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=47341
• description - The fifth annual national symposium sponsored by EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory was held May 14-16, 1985 in Raleigh, North Carolina. In seven sessions over three days, papers and discussions focused on state-of-the-art systems for monitoring source emissions, ambient air, acid deposition, method 25 and personal monitoring. The symposium is part of a continuing effort to explore recent advances in pollutant monitoring of ambient air and stationary sources. The publication is intended to assist those researchers concerned with furthering the science of air monitoring.
575. DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS--A WORKSHOP SUMMARY
• date - 2002-12-10T18:35:49Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=51547
• description - Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface are long-term sources of ground- water contamination, and may persist for centuries before dissolving completely in adjacent ground water. n response to increasing recognition among scientists and engineers that DNAPL contamination is widespread, a two-day workshop concerning DNAPL site characterization and remediation was held.in Dallas, Texas on April 15-18, 1991. he workshop was sponsored and organized by EPA's Ground Water Forum, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, and Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, and the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. rofessionals from government, academia, and private industry with experience in DNAPL contamination presented papers and participated in discussions concerning the options for characterization and remediation of DNAPL sites. This document was prepared to summarize the main observations and conclusions of the meeting, and draws freely from transcripts, papers, and comments prepared by the participants. econd meeting of the participants was held in Dallas on September 5-6, 1991 to review the draft summary. he summary is intended to be a nontechnical document of general interest to environmental scientists and engineers from Federal, State, and local agencies, universities, and private industry. eaders interested in more specific technical information should consult the extensive list of references compiled in Appendix C. he material presented here represents "state-of-the-art" information, and, as such, can be expected to change as the science progresses.
576. TECHNETIUM CHEMISTRY IN HLW: ROLE OF ORGANIC COMPLEXANTS
• date - 2002-12-10T18:35:54Z
• creator - D Rai
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=51823
• description - Technetium complexation with organic compounds in tank waste plays a significant role in the redox chemistry of Tc and the partitioning of Tc between the supernatant and sludge components in waste tanks. These processes need to be understood so that strategies to effectively remove Tc from high-level nuclear waste prior to waste immobilization can be developed and so that longterm consequences of Tc remaining in residual waste after sludge removal can be evaluated. Only limited data on the stability of Tc-organic complexes exists, and even less thermodynamic data on which to develop predictive models of Tc chemical behavior is available. To meet these challenges, we present a research program to study Tc-speciation in actual tank waste using state-of-the-art analytical organic chemistry, separations, and speciation techniques. On the basis of such studies, we will acquire thermodynamic data for the identified Tc-organic complexes over a wide range of chemical conditions in order to develop credible models to predict Tc speciation in tank waste and Tc behavior during waste pretreatment processing and in waste tank residuals.
577. ANNUAL REPORT. MATERIAL PROPERTY ESTIMATION FOR DIRECT DETECTION OF DNAPL USING INTEGRATED GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR VELOCITY, IMAGING, AND ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS
• date - 2002-12-10T18:35:54Z
• creator - S Smithson
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=51878
• description - The focus of our work is direct detection of DNAPLs, specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine sophisticated GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects. Implementation and verification of these methodologies will be a significant advance in GPR research and in meeting DOEs need for reliable in-situ characterization of DNAPL contamination.
578. A REVIEW OF THE REFERENCE DOSE AND REFERENCE CONCENTRATION PROCESSES
• date - 2005-02-14T18:06:03Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=55365
• description - This report, entitled, "<em>A Review of the Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Processes</em>," summarizes the review and deliberations of the Risk Assessment Forum's RfD/RfC Technical Panel and its recommendations for improvements in the process of deriving reference values, including setting less than lifetime as well as chronic reference values. It discusses revisions to the overall framework for the derivation of reference values that broaden and expand the information considered in setting reference values. The document is a review, not guidance, and it evaluates the current state-of-the-art for hazard characterization with a focus on protection of potentially sensitive subpopulations. The report make a number of recommendations that should be considered in the implementation of changes in the current process and/or development of needed guidance. The Technical Panel views the RfD/RfC process as one that should be continually evolving as new information becomes available and new scientific and risk assessment approaches are developed. This does not mean that current RfDs or RfCs are invalid, but these new scientific issues should be included in the process of re-evaluating current reference values. As a follow-up to the recommendation for deriving less than lifetime reference values, the report includes a review of current testing guideline protocols to determine what data are collected that can be used in setting these reference values. The Technical Panel has provided specific recommendations for deriving reference values and the development of guidance in some cases and more general conclusions and recommendations in others. Case studies are included to illustrate the recommendations of the Technical Panel.</p><p>The Review document reflects input received during two Agency and interagency colloquia, a public comment period, an external peer review, and a Science Policy Council review.</p>
579. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION
• date - 2003-01-24T15:50:35Z
• creator - ERIC JORGENSEN
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=55327
• description - Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore riparian ecosystems, their functionality and species composition, are essentially unknown. In light of the foregoing, two broad areas of research are indicated. First, data are needed to document the relative effectiveness of riparian buffers that differ according to width, length, and plant species composition. These questions, of managing buffer dimension and species composition for functionality, are of central importance even when attenuation of nutrient and sediment loads alone are considered. Second, where ecosystem restoration is the goal, effects to in-stream and terrestrial riparian biota need to be considered. Relatedly, the effects of the restoration on the landscape need to be considered. Particularly, at what rate do the effects of the riparian buffer on in-stream water quality, biota, and habitat diminish downstream from restored sites? Answers to these important questions are needed to further the advance of riparian restoration from art form to science and to maximize the societal value of future restorations.
580. ALWAYS A RIVER - SUPPLEMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM ON THE OHIO RIVER AND WATER GRADES K - 12
• date - 2003-02-19T14:49:30Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=55541
• description - This curriculum was developed as a significant component of the project, Always a River: The Ohio River and the American Experience, a six-state collaboration devoted to exploring the historical and cultural development of the Ohio River. The Always a River project is being jointly sponsored by the Humanities Councils of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. Its primary purpose is to provide people living in the states through which the Ohio River flows with an opportunity to explore their local cultural and natural history. One feature of the Always a River project is a specially outfitted barge carrying an interactive exhibit that, during the summer of 1991, stopped at various locations along the entire length of the Ohio River, from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois. The exhibits from this "floating museum" became a permanent part of the Clarksville, Indiana, Interpretive Center upon completion of the barge's journey. Other features of the project in-clude book readings and discussion programs in local libraries, a public history conference, a series of educational programs, and the preparation of this curriculum for students in grades kindergarten through twelve.<br><br>As its contribution to the Always a River project, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of the Senior Official for Research and Development, Center for Environmental Learning, developed this curriculum through a collaborative effort, with the assistance of many individuals and organizations. The result, Always a River: Sup-plemental Environmental Education Curriculum, Grades K-12, focuses on the environmental aspects of water and the Ohio River. The curriculum was developed as an interdisciplinary document, offering a wide variety of activities that can be integrated into existing curricula in science, social studies, mathematics, English, art, music, and other subject areas. A series of workshops have been conducted to introduce instructors to the cur-riculum and to provide guidance on its use.<br> <br>We at EPA believe that environmental education is critical to young people's under-standing of the complex issues facing us in the world today. It is our hope that curricula such as this will provide a valuable supplement to existing educational programs.<br>
581. MERCURY IN MINING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS DOCUMENT
• date - 2003-05-21T13:21:09Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=56513
• description - Mercury deposits in mines have shown to pose a significant hazard to residents and wildlife where drainage from these deposits enters the ecosystem through streams and rivers. For this reason, the extent of mercury contamination in the United States is of significant environmental concern. The EPA is investigating the many different sources of mercury contamination. As a result of these uncertainties numerous USEPA Program Offices including: the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS), Office of Air and Radiation (OAR), Office of Water (OW), Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) and Office of Research and Development (ORD) have made commitments to enhancing government, industry and public awareness of the potential hazards associated with the persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) effects of mercury in the environment. In fact, mercury has been selected as one of many PBT chemicals that continues to be an environmental concern long after its intended use in the form of generated hazardous waste or incidental release to the environment. It is the Agency's intent to reduce the generation of PBTs, including mercury, in hazardous waste by 50% by the year 2005 through various pollution prevention practices and state-of-the-art disposal practices (USEPA, 1998).<br> Key scientific questions have compelled the ORD in support of the Agency's mission to develop a Mercury Research Strategy (1999) and to take a more proactive stance in identifying and implementing research programs designed to meet out-year goals in promoting the prevention and risk management of mercury. In addition this program will be designed to meet the objectives outlined under the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA).<br><br>APPROACH:<br><br> In order for ORD to address uncertainties resulting from past or historical mining practices a technology transfer workshop was conducted in November, 2000 in San Francisco, CA. Two primary objectives for this workshop were to: (1) identify state-of-the-science practices and techniques for reducing the use and release of mercury at its source, understanding fate and transport mechanisms and assessing impacts to human health and the ecology and (2) determine what role ORD can play in better understanding the research activities needed to be conducted to fulfill the goal of the Mercury Research Strategy. Proceedings from this meeting are to be synthesized into a comprehensive technology transfer document to
582. THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PHYTOREMEDIATION
• date - 2005-06-06T16:15:24Z
• creator - S McCutcheon
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=59973
• description - This presentation will briefly review terminology, and define the types, benefits, and limitations of phytoremediation. A review of where phytoremediation fits in the scheme of hazardous waste management serves as a lead into an overview of the scientific advances on which the practice of phytoremediation is based. This presentation defines broadly the application of phytoremediation as a niche or polishing technology and when the approach can be used as a primary treatment. Secondary benefits for nonpoint source treatment in air and water, effluent treatment, erosion control and site management, and ecosystem restoration will be put into context with the general scientific and ecological engineering knowledge of the art. The fundamental understanding of plant and rhizosphere biochemistry and contaminant fate and transport will be contrasted with the field and pilot studies that represent the current proof of concepts and proof of principles that justify use of phytoremediation. The practice is summarized as those approaches that are ready for application (given the appropriate pilot and feasibility investigations for specific sites), promising treatments expected to be tested soon, and conceivable phytoremediation approaches that require intensive development. Finally, the intrinsic strengths of phytoremediation and future potential for the technology will be reviewed for applications in hazardous waste management.<br><br>
583. INTRODUCTION TO PHYTOTECHNOLOGIES
• date - 2005-06-06T16:25:42Z
• creator - S Rock*
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=61230
• description - A tree is a tree is a tree; or is it? To a child a tree is to climb, to a landscape architect a tree shapes the view, while to an environmental engineer a tree may be a self-assembling, solar- powered pump and treat system. Phytoremediation is the art and science of using plants to transform, extract, or contain environmental contaminants. <br><br>This presentation explores the role of plants in remediation and containment, introduces the concepts, mechanisms, and applications for site restoration, and sets the stage for the technology specific talks which follow. General cost comparisons are difficult, but some guidelines will be presented to help figure site-specific costs. Website and other resources will be presented for those who wish to delve deeper.
584. REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE MONITORING
• date - 2005-06-06T16:40:34Z
• creator - D Garofalo
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=61764
• description - I. Remote Sensing Basics <br>A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors. <br>B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often. <br>1. Spatial resolution addresses the smallest feature size which can be seen or differentiated from an adjacent feature based on the sensor being used. <br>2. Spectral resolution refers to the spectral bands which a sensor is capable of detecting as well as band width. <br>3. Temporal resolution refers to the frequency with which remote sensing data are collected and the archival record available for a given sensor. <br>4. Photogrammetryis the art and science of making accurate measurements on remote sensing images; the technology is also used for making accurate maps from remote sensing data. <br>C. Sensor types are varied. Selected sensor types are either active or passive. Radar is an active sensor because it generates and transmits its own source of electromagnetic energy which interacts with an object and is reflected back to the sensor for recording and analysis. Cameras, multi spectral and hyperspectral scanners, are passive devices which receive and record solar energy which has been reflected or transmitted from objects. Thermal scanners passively receive and detect temperature information being transmitted from hot or cold surfaces. <br><br>Aerial Camera/Film is sensitive to the visible and near infrared (reflective, not thermal) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, depending upon the type of film which is used in the camera. <br>Radar is an active sensor which can be mounted on aircraft or spacecraft. Radar generates and records its own electromagnetic energy .It "shouts out" its signal and records the part of the signal which bounces off objects and is returned to the sensor .
585. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION
• date - 2005-06-06T17:02:00Z
• creator - H Udo de Haes
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=63338
• description - On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to present a critical reivew of associated factors, including the current limitations of available impact assessment methodologies and a comparison of the alternatives in the context of uncertainty. Each set of presentations, organized into three sessions, was followed by a discussion session to encourage international discourse with a view to improving the understanding of these crucial issues. The discussions were focused around small working groups of LCA practitioners and researchers, selected to include a balance of representatives from industry, government and academia.<br>This workshop provided the first opportunity for International experts to address the issues related to LCIA Sophistication in an open format. Among the topics addressed were:1) the inclusion or exclusion of backgrounds and thresholds in LCIA, 2) the necessity and practicality regarding the sophistication of the uncertainty analysis, 3) the implications of allowing impact categories to be assessed at "mid-point" vs. at "endpoint" level, 4) the difficulty of assessing and capturing the comrehensiveness of the environmental health impact category, 5) the implicaitons of cultural/philosophical views, 6) the meaning of terms like science-based and environmental relevance in th coming ISO-LCIA standard, 7) the dichotomy of striving for consistency while allowing the incorporation of state-of-the-art research, 8) the role of various types of uncertainty analysis, and 9) the role of supporting environmental analyses (e.g., risk assessments). Many of these topics addressed the need for increased sophistication in LCIA, but recognized the conflict this might have in terms of the comprehensiveness and holistic character of LCA &LC
586. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION
• date - 2005-06-06T17:16:09Z
• creator - D Pennington*
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=65174
• description - An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparisons of alternatives were presented. Discussions followed each presentation to encourage internation discourse with a view to improving the understanding of these crucial issues. This workshop provided the first opportunity for international experts to address the issues related to LCIA Sophistication. Among the topics addressed were: 1) inclusion or exclusion of backgrounds and thresholds in LCIA, 2) the necessity and practicality regarding the sophistication of the uncertainty analysis, 3) implications of allowing impact categories to be assessed at "midpoint" vs. "endpoint" level, 4) difficulty of assessing and capturing the comprehensiveness of environmental health impact categories, 5) implications of cultural/philosophical views, 6) meaning of terms like science-based and environmental relevance in the coming ISO LCIA standard, 7) the dichotomy of striving for consistency while allowing the incorporation of state-of-the-art research 8) the role of various types of uncertainty analysis, and 9) the role of supporting environmental analyses. The participants concluded that the exchange of ideas was extremely valuable and would like to plan successive International workshops on related themes.
587. IN EXPECTATION OF RELATIONSHIPS: CENTERING THEORIES AROUND ECOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING
• date - 2005-06-06T17:20:00Z
• creator - J Karr
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=65902
• description - Over the last several decades, many educators and professionals in the design and planning fields have made a "turn to ecology," where "turn" means a shift in emphasis and priorities. From the publication of Design with Nature (McHarg 1969) to the publication of contemporary approaches in Ecological Design and Planning (Thompson and Steiner, 1997) and Landscape Journal's "Eco-Revelatory Design" issue (1998), designers and planners have grappled with bringing ecological knowledge into education and practice. But have these shifts brought a fundamental change in the way we think and represent our knowledge in design and physical planning? Have they reorganized our approach to design and planning theory, or the design process itself? Or are they just part of a broad theoretical pluralism, one that encourages students and practitioners to decide individually whether or not ecological concerns should be raised with regard to a given project? In discussions at the Shire Conference, we concluded that we're currently missing an intellectual model that would allow us to organize issues of function, social equity, aesthetics, and ecological relationships, all under one "umbrella" idea. We'd like to see the design fields move beyond the dichotomies of "nature vs. culture," "art vs. science," and "ecological design" vs. ? "the rest of design"?? Our hope is that a new paradigm could help us do that by starting from a different point of view altogether. Our intention in this chapter is to stimulate our readers to bring a paradigm we're calling "ecological understanding" into design and physical planning. We think that the diverse intellectual models and approaches to professional practice that are introduced in a design or planning curriculum can (and should) be centered around this concept. Ecological understanding, as we see it, is an organizing idea that challenges us to structure and use knowledge from diverse fields, including our own, in a different way.
588. ASPEN / EMS-HAP AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENTS
• date - 2005-05-24T17:18:25Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=73653
• description - In response to a Congressional mandate and reviews by the Science Advisory Board, a program has been initiated to assess uncertainties of the ASPEN national scale assessment for 1996. Through a panel of national experts and use of state-of-the-art techniques both qualitative and quantitative estimates of uncertainties in that assessment are being developed, and will be publicly released when completed. The uncertainty assessment may also lead to improvements in modeling treatments for deposition, chemical transformation, dispersion, estimation of background concentrations, and treatments of emissions allocation techniques. These uncertainty estimation techniques will be used in future ASPEN/EMS-HAP applications that involve new base year inventories, projections to future years, and alternative emission reduction strategies for toxic pollutants.
589. RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT (RCRA) MULTI-YEAR PLAN
• date - 2003-11-11T19:47:02Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=74328
• description - EPA will continue to improve and demonstrate its capability to assess environmental conditions and determine the relative risks that contaminated land poses to health and the environment. The Agency will ensure that the environmental data it collects is of known, documented, and acceptable quality by implementing necessary field and lab procedures, practices, and controls. We will continue integrating technological advances to enhance our site maintenance of existing remedies. In addition, EPA will continue to coordinate with other agencies to identify and communicate program research priorities. EPA will focus its RCRA-related research primarily on treatment processes for hard-to-treat chemicals; innovative containment technologies; resource conservation; and site-specific technical support and state-of-the-art methods, tools, and models for addressing priority RCRA management issues. More specifically, the Agency's goals for RCRA research will: 1. Improve waste management for industrial and municipal wastes to enhance sustainability by providing at least 15 reports including technical support. 2. Support scientifically defensible and consistent decision-making for RCRA waste management and corrective action by providing a tested multimedia modeling system with at least 10 supporting technical reports, and technical support.
590. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: BOOK CHAPTER
• date - 2003-11-11T19:47:10Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=74423
• description - NRMRL-CIN-1316 Varma*, R.S. "Microwaves in Organic Synthesis." Published in: McGraw-Hill 2002 Yearbook of Science and Technology, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001, 223-225. 02/21/2001 The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) either in presence of a catalyst or catalyzed by the surfaces of inexpensive and recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or "doped" surfaces. A variety of cleavage, condensation, cyclization, oxidation and reduction reactions are exemplified including the efficient one-pot assembly of heterocyclic molecules from in situ generated intermediates such as enamines and ~-tosyloxyketones. The application of this emerging microwave technology and future outlook is summarized. The bibliography encompassing web sites information provides links to the stae of the-art equipment available.
591. CLIMATE CHANGE: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE
• date - 2002-12-10T18:30:46Z
• creator -
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=9177
• description - This State of Knowledge document presents an introduction to human effects that during the past 100 years have led to increased atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in global temperatures. The world's leading climate scientists have concluded that Earth has already warmed about 1 F over the last century. There is mounting evidence that this will lead to global changes and potentially major climatic disruptions. The document introduces the Greenhouse Effect and explains historical emissions of greenhouse gases. A wide variety of human activities contribute to greenhouse emissions, and the overall emissions of greenhouse gases are growing at about 1 percent per year. Subsequent sections of the document discuss climate change over the last 100 years, based on measurements of global surface temperature using ground-, ocean- and satellite-based sites, and predictions about climate change over the next 100 years, based on state-of-the-art climate models. The document concludes with a discussion of vulnerabilities and potential consequences of climate change based on scenarios of doubling current levels of carbon dioxide by 2100. Areas of probable concern are worsening health effects, rising sea level, disruption of the water cycle, changing forests and natural areas, and challenges to agriculture and the food supply. Slowing the rate of change is recommended as a prudent course of action to allow more time for ecological and socioeconomic systems to adapt.
592. Cosmological particle-based simulations of galaxy formation; numerical loss of angular momentum and disk heating
• date - 2004-11-16
• creator - Mayer, Lucio
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0411476
• description - Comment: 5 pages, to appear in the Proceedings of Science (published by SISSA),Conference "Baryons in Dark Matter Haloes", Novigrad, Croatia, 5-9 October 2004
593. Treating fibromyalgia: science vs. art.
594. From art to engineering? The rise of in vivo mammalian electrophysiology via genetically targeted labeling and nonlinear imaging.
595. Negative Staining and Image Classification &ndash; Powerful Tools in Modern Electron Microscopy
• date - 2004
• creator - Ohi Melanie
• provider - NSDL OAI Repository
• location - http://www.biologicalprocedures.com/bpo/arts/1/70/m70.htm
• description - <p>Vitrification is the state-of-the-art specimen preparation technique for molecular electron microscopy (EM) and therefore negative staining may appear to be an outdated approach. In this paper we illustrate the specific advantages of negative staining, ensuring that this technique will remain an important tool for the study of biological macromolecules. Due to the higher image contrast, much smaller molecules can be visualized by negative staining. Also, while molecules prepared by vitrification usually adopt random orientations in the amorphous ice layer, negative staining tends to induce preferred orientations of the molecules on the carbon support film. Combining negative staining with image classification techniques makes it possible to work with very heterogeneous molecule populations, which are difficult or even impossible to analyze using vitrified specimens.
596. From sequence to structure and back again: approaches for predicting protein-DNA binding